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Midterm studyguide

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by: Sonia Brosnan

Midterm studyguide J 201

Sonia Brosnan
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Media and Society >2
Workneh T
Study Guide
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sonia Brosnan on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to J 201 at University of Oregon taught by Workneh T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 515 views. For similar materials see Media and Society >2 in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 11/07/15
J201: Exam One Topics At their worst, the media are criticized for what four things? 1. failing to serve as a watchdog for democracy 2. dwelling o trivial, celebrity-driven content rather than important events 3. misrepresenting/ exploiting events and people 4. drawing us away from verbal interaction What did the shift from oral to written communication create? - a wide gap between classes in terms of education and wealth Who invented the printing press? - Gutenberg Once the printing press led to the mass distribution of books, what significant changes resulted? 1. increased resistance to authorities 2. increased individualism 3. emergence of the middle class 4. spread of literacy What does the term "media convergence" describe? 1. the technological merging of content in different mass media (ex: magazine articles and radio programs are also accessible on the Internet; songs, TV shows, and movies are now available on computers, iPods, and cellphones) 2. describes a particular business model by which a company combines various media holdings (goal is not necessarily to offer consumers more choices but to better manage resources, lower costs, and maximize profits) (ex: a company that owns TV stations, radio outlets, and newspapers in multiple markets can deploy one reporter to create 3 or 4 versions of the same story for various media outlets) What are the drawbacks of media convergence? 1. limits the range of perspectives from which messages are delivered 2. media owners' personal biases and interests gain more influence in society The printing press ultimately helped to usher in the modern era. What values came into sharp focus across the American cultural landscape at this time? 1. working efficiently 2. celebrating the individual 3. believing in a rational order 4. rejecting tradition and embracing progress What dominant values have been identified in today's postmodern period? - 1. reviving older cultural styles 2. embracing technology 3. celebrating populism 4. embracing the supernatural What is populism? - an appeal to ordinary people by setting up conflict between "the people" and "the elite" (ex: Hunger Games) Describe Marshall McLuhan's beliefs about the media - Discuss the Modern Times film clip we watched - What was the first mass-produced book? - The Bible Why is the media needed today? - 1. capitalist economy depends on product sales 2. democracy needs political discourse 3. connection and info needed to compensate for a weakened family and community 4. entertainment Identify and describe three characteristics of postmodern media. You will need to see the Oct. 5 slides (part two of the lesson) for this information. - 1. hyper-reality - distinction b/w fantasy and reality is blurred (ex: Dance Moms is scripted) 2. pastiche - a respectful tribute to various aspects of 1+ genres from the past (ex: Great Gatsby - 1920s, Indiana Jones is a pastiche of the 1930s adventure series) 3. intertextuality - meanings interpreted are influenced by outside factors (real life identities of actors, real life events, an actor's past media work) ex: "Look at Dickson's office. It looks like a giant cube of ice." True or false: The research presented in "The Shallows" suggests that heavy Internet use changes how our brains work. - true Two brain benefits of using the Internet include exercising the regions of the brain associated with... - decision making and problem solving A drawback of using the Internet is the redirection of our mental resources, which inhibits our... - comprehension and retention Does consuming online information inhibit our ability to store that information in our long-term memory? - Yes True or false: people who read a text peppered with links learn more than people who read a traditional text without links. - false In a study at Cornell University, which students performed better on a test following the class lecture - the students who kept their laptops shut or the students who surfed information related to the lecture? - the students who kept their laptops shut did better In a study at Kansas State University, which group of students remembered more facts from the four news stories - the group who watched the newscast without the graphics and news crawl or the group who watched the newscast with the graphics and news crawl? - the group who watched the newscast without the graphics and news crawl According to an expert from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, the frequent shifting of our attention that occurs when we're online helps our ability to multitask while inhibiting our ability to... - Why is neutrality an unreachable ideal? - journalists cannot help but present a point of view on a story's topic, simply by deciding which info and experiences to include True or false: most newsrooms frown upon the practice of concealing one's identity to get a quote or story from an interview - true True or false: Gifts, favors, free travel, special treatment and privileges can compromise the integrity of journalists and their employers, so nothing of value should be accepted, according to journalism's code of ethics. - true What is the golden mean and which philosopher introduced it? - Aristotle the desirable middle ground b/w extreme (ex: ambition - golden mean b/w sloth and greed) What is the categorical imperative and which philosopher introduced it? - Kant - a society must adhere to moral codes that are universal and unconditional, applicable in all situations at all times What is Jayson Blair known for? - NY Times - Blair made up facts, invented sources, stole quotes from other newspapers, and plagiarized dozens of articles What is a sound bite? - part of a broadcast news report in which an expert, celebrity, a victim, or a person on the street responds to some aspect of an event/issue with a short and memorable comment What is happy talk? - the spontaneous/ scripted banter that goes on among local news anchors and reporters before and after news reports What is virtue ethics and who proposed it? - Aristotle - virtue is achieved by doing good things, so they become habitual How does Jayson Blair's story relate to virtue ethics? - Explain how the golden mean relates to journalism. - Rolling Stone and UVS - report was based on one anonymous source Describe the two broad categories of ethical frameworks - 1. deontological theories - identify the moral course of action based on how ethical means are for achieving the goal (ex: it is never ethical to deceive, even if there are good outcomes) 2. identify the moral course of action based on the expected good that the decision will bring (ex: the ends justify the means) Explain Kantian theory - an act is only moral if it has nothing to do with the outcome Explain utilitarianism and identify its original founder - Jeremy Bentham - the act is moral if it brings good consequences Explain how Mill further shaped the philosophy of his teacher - sometimes a decision that favors the majority s not the moral one to make (individuals matter) What is the ethic of care, how does it compare to justice approaches to ethical decision making, and who proposed it? - Carol Gilligan - emphasis on relationships when making moral decisions (J: no influence from relationships) - based on the situation (J: rules like the categorical imperative/utilitarianism) - appeal to compromise and accommodation (J: moral correctness) - emphasis on caring responsiveness (J: integrity) - "it depends" (J: stealing is wrong) What is the circuit of culture and how is it useful to media research? - a framework that can be used to examine the various ways in which meaning is created, contested, and negotiated Identify and describe the components of the circuit of culture. - 1. representation - the meanings produced by the way something is represented (ex: only time we hear about mental illness is after a mass shooting or on a TV show like "Are You Normal or Are You Nuts?" --> always portraying it in a negative way --> gives a negative impression of mental illness) 2. production - the meanings created by producers 3. consumption - the meanings audiences derive (ex: some won't take Adam Sandler's Ridiculous 6 movie seriously, others might find it offensive) 4. identity - perceptions of message sources, recipients, identities produced within the message itself 5. regulation - attempts to control culture through formal and informal controls What aspects can influence the interpretation of media content? - language (ex: nuts, cray cray) How does the identity of a message producer influence the meaning that results from a message? - From the circuit of culture, identify a formal control and informal controls from the area of regulation. - formal control - the law informal control - activism, code of ethics Describe the history of regulation in the context of U.S. movies. - - Maine adopts the first censorship law of films in response to a boxing match ($500 penalty for showing the match; law is ignored) - Chicago empowers chief of police to approve/deny permits for showing movies - NY mayor shuts down all theaters based on fire safety and moral ground What was the Motion Picture Production Code? - a set of industry censorship guidelines that influenced most movies made in the US by major studios Why did studios agree to go through the PCA? - - avoid federal regulations - maintain good relationships with religious groups - made plot lines formulaic and easy to write How does today's rating system exert influence as an informal control in the circuit of culture? - How can ethical frameworks be applied to the topic of portraying vulnerable populations in the news and media entertainment? - What is the process that an advocacy organization wants to guide a targeted cultural producer through based on the cultural byproducts advocacy model? - 1. pollution - the cultural producers of a text experience pressure because they have violated the rules of social order 2. guilt - the cultural producer is uncomfortable with the violation or accusation and feels the need to do something about it 3. purification - the cultural producer processes the guilt through a path 4. redemption - the cultural producer achieves restoration with the social order, can be favorable or unfavorable (ex: ridiculous is in the title of Ridiculous 6 for a reason, it's fine --> handled) A targeted cultural producer can engage in purification through which two paths? - - mortification: accepts responsibility for the violation of social order - victimage: blames others/discounts the allegation What is the postmodern view of audiences' interpretation of texts? - What did the two Girl Scouts do that finally convinced the Girl Scouts organization to take them seriously? - built coalitions with extended activist groups How did the Girl Scouts organization disempower the two Girl Scouts in its organizational discourse? - by using only the Scout's first names in news releases, referring to them as "girls" and taking credit for their interest in the palm oil issue How did the Girl Scouts organization minimize the palm oil issue and keep the discussion focused on the product rather than the organization's policy for interacting with bakers? - by having the Girl Scouts spokesperson and product manager speak for the organization rather than the CEO Is media coverage success proportional to an organization's financial resources? - no What is a synecdoche? - concrete images are more powerful than abstract references Why are synecdoches commonly used in media activism? - - saving the environment is more abstract than saving the orangutans (much more persuasive) - lend themselves to visual communication ex: sharing a cute picture of an orangutan on Facebook What are the ways in which a person consuming news about the two Girl Scouts' efforts could have a distorted understanding of the palm oil issue? - - the issue of palm plantations as a resource to alleviate poverty in countries like Malaysia and Indonesia was ignored - other species are more endangered by palm oil use than orangutans - Girl Scout cookies account for less then one 100th of 1% of global palm oil issue - issue of slave/child labor issues wasn't prominent in media coverage Greenpeace's Kit Kat Killer campaign against Nestle (i.e., what the campaign was about, Nestle's initial reaction, whether the campaign was successful). - What should public relations professionals learn from the Streisand effect? - What does the marketing function of an organization focus on? - How is public relations similar and different from marketing and advertising? - - ad and mktg are focused on customers (PR is focused on customers but also any group who can affect an organization's success - ad is focused on sales (PR contributes to sales but is also focused on guiding an organizations decisions) - ad involves promotion through paid media (PR involves promotion through earned media) Name the concept: Favorable publicity gained entirely through promotional efforts rather than paid advertising. - owned media What is PR? - the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relations between an organization and the publics who can influence its success identify examples of paid, owned, and earned media. - - paid media (print, TV, radio, direct media) - owned media (co. web site, company created fan page, campaign site) -earned media (word of mouth, review sites, Fb coverage) Identify and define the four types of publics and recognize which two are the most important. - 1. enabling - people who have authority over the organization (gov't legislators, board of directors) 2. functional - people who are part of an organization's input and output (employees, volunteer, suppliers, customers, donors, and members) 3. diffused - media and individuals (activists) 4. normative - groups with a common interest (trade associations and competitors) What is boundary spanning? - representing a public's values to an organization and representing the values of the organization to that public (go between, intermediary) Has the Internet affected newspapers' classified ad revenues? - the Internet has dried them up Can public TV stations (such as PBS) and public radio (such as NPR) accept advertising under any circumstance? - they can accept advertising on the Internet Why is it difficult for small companies (rather than media powerhouses) to succeed with media products? - they have limited capital and a hard time absorbing losses Every time we read a newspaper article, book, or magazine or watch a movie or TV show, we absorb messages suggesting... - what is important and how the world works If we consume enough consistent narratives through the media and lack personal experience about an aspect of life, we might conclude what? - How did magazine, radio and cable industries counter television's mass appeal? Be prepared to identify an example for the exam. - What is cultural imperialism? - when a culture from one country dominates the global market and shapes the culture of other nations ex: America is very influential onAsia Do 80 percent of American movies earn back their costs in U.S. theaters? - no In this age of media consolidation, is there at least significant diversity in the U.S. media industry? - majority of media professionals are white males; little diversity According to the documentary titled "Miss Representation," how do we see the lack of adequate representation among media professionals showing up in media content? - argues a women's value and power lies in their youth, beauty, and sexuality Is there relatively equal gender representation in family films? - What is media convergence? - merging of media content - a company like Comcast lowers its costs and maximizes its profits by offering various media services (cable, phone, Internet) - a reporter can write several versions of a news story for various media (radio, TV, Internet) ex: you can read a newspaper on your phone and watch a TV show on your computer Globalism has coincided with... - specialized media markets and cultural imperialism True or false: According to the Huffington Post article, advocacy journalists are focused on advancing a political agenda. - true What does the author of the Huffington Post article recommend in terms of how we should consume the news? - we consume a wide range of news sources to go beyond our own echo chambers From the Nieman Lab article, what are "knowledge journalists"? - use their expert knowledge to analyze problems and political logic to help point to policy solutions What are the benefits of U.S. cultural imperialism? - A universal popular culture creates a global village and can foster communication across national borders (brings us closer together) ex: bonding over American TV shows among people from all over the globe Explain the story of Dallas and Romania. - Media can have a great impact: - Showing of Dallas backfired as it inspired Europeans to live the way ''Americans" do in Dallas (having cars the size of swimming pools) --> led to a revolution - The Romanian government aired Southfork Ranch as an example of the excessiveness of capitalism and the corruption that accompanies an American lifestyle. What are the drawbacks of U.S. cultural imperialism? - - American cultural imperialism hampers the development of native cultures an can negatively influence teenagers, who abandon their own rituals to adopt American tastes (ex: Seeing American TV shows and listening to American music while in Venice, Italy) - American cultural imperialism discourages the development of original local products Based on media economics, why are American TV shows, both reality shows and sitcoms, dominant in other countries? - How do films maximize their profits? - - broad international appeal (movies that are set in different countries, involve travel) - movie rentals, movie sales, and merchandise Explain why the Seventh Heaven example was notable. - transparent product placement, writes were asked to write scripts around Oreo cookies - twist off an Oreo to reveal a wedding ring Why are reality shows so attractive from a media economics perspective? - cheap to produce, a lot of interaction with products What does Chomsky's propaganda filters illustrate? - what gets reported and how it gets reported Explain the filters in Chomsky's propaganda model. - - Profit Orientation - Advertising is the primary source of income - Reliance on news from government and business sources (ex: reporters rely on PR people to fill news gaps) - Flak: negative responses that punish unfavorable media content (want to reach out to reporters who you trust and who cover your story in favorable ways) What is an information subsidy? - the supply of news from a PR source; "news gap" What is an unbranded campaign, why is it used by PR people, and when is it used? - a campaign that promotes a product category rather than a specific product ex: Promoting orange juice rather than Tropicana (would be considered advertising) Are PR practitioners supposed to reveal the sponsor for represented causes and interests, according to the code of ethics from the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)? - yes What is a VNR? - - given as an information subsidy to television stations - PR promotional video that is packaged as a news segment Are PR practitioners supposed to clearly label VNRs and encourage television stations and other venues to identify the VNR source, according to the code of ethics from the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA)? - yes Identify characteristics (news values) that make a story newsworthy - - timeliness - impact (# of people affected) - emotion - prominence (Obama and Zuckerberg speaking out about Ahmed's clock) - proximity - novelty (surprising stories) - controversy - currency (stories in the public spotlight of concern, ex: police brutality) - usefulness - educational values Some reporters compared Ahmed's case to other stories involving schools with zero tolerance policies. Did these cases have anything in common? - Were there aspects of the other cases that were very different than Ahmed's case? - How are media frames established? - - The headline - The pictures - The first paragraph - Who is interviewed in the story - Where people with opinions that counter the dominant narrative are placed in the story (if they even make it into the story) What is advocacy journalism? How can it be valuable, and how can it be dangerous? - - fact-based journalism that argues for a particular perspective on an issue - Setting out to favor a political agenda in the reporting of the news - Is intentional (very different than striving for objectivity) (Ex: Ahmed Muhammad case: Journalists focusing on social profiling in this case Agenda: social justice) - Can be dangerous when the agenda comes before the investigation of the story - Can be valuable in the sense of "knowledge journalists" who can weigh through the arguments on various sides and provide and insightful of analysis through the careful selection of info when the PR is compelling on conflicting sides Distinguish media framing from advocacy journalism - - Happens no matter how objective you're trying to be - It comes through in the headline, image, opening paragraph and the prominence given to the perspective that are represented (and where in the story they are represented What are the roles the media play, according to the book titled "The Press Effect"? Which model costs the most time and resources? - What was the Citizens for a Free Kuwait case study about? - Explain the characteristics of alternative media. - - Focused on ideas over profit - Intended audience is broad, not elite Ex: Nonprofit, advocacy, ethnic to some degree underground What seems to happen when ethnic media get so popular that they are taken over by large holding companies - do they still act like alternative media? -


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