INTRO TO ARCHAOLOGY- EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
INTRO TO ARCHAOLOGY- EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE ANT 112
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by emilyecclestone on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 112 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Verity Whalen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Intro to Archaeology- Exam 2 Ethnoarchaeology, Ethnographic Analogy & Experimental Archaeology The Process of Archaeological Inquiry • Low level theory= facts and data about objects o "This object is made of obsidian and is 5in. Long" o Basic observations • High level theory= big questions o "why did culture develop?" Principle of Analogy • Two things share similarities and thus share other similarities Ethnographic Analogy • Study of ethnographic records to develop analogies linking behavior with material remains Types of Analogy Formal Analogy Relational Analogy o Analogies justified by o Analogies justified on the similarities in the formal basis of close cultural attributes of archaeological and continuity between the ethnographic objects and archaeological and features ethnographical cases or • Rely on similarities in similarity in general cultural form between the form archaeological and • Entail formal similarities, ethnographic cases, but archaeological and regardless of whether the ethnographical cases analogies come from the must be related in some same culture fashion o They are strengthen if.. • They both come from • Many ethnologic cases societies with similar demonstrate the same settlements systems, pattern economies, or • The archaeological and environments ethnographical cases have many attributes in common Analogy: The Pitfalls 1. Assumption that past was same as present 2. Different analogies produce different interpretations 3. Ethnographic record today is only tiny fragment of what came before Productively Using Analogy • The "expiration" date o Temporal, spatial, cultural continuity • Middle level theory o Tries to strengthen an analogy by explaining why a necessary relationship exists between an object's or feature's attributes and an inference made from those attributes o Attempts to explain why an inference must be true o Particularly rigorous analogy o The bridging arguments Ethnoarchaeology • Study of the linkages between the behaviors and material remains of contemporary people to identify analogies for the archaeological record Experimental Archaeology • The use of carefully controlled modern experiments to provide data to aid in interpretation of the archaeological record What is the difference between analogy and middle-level theory? • Analogy and middle-level theory both seek to make inferences about human behavior from archaeological remains • Analogy is one way to reconstruct the past but is limited to societies that have a very close geographic and cultural counterparts or to fairly low-level inferences. The greater number of similarities, the greater the probability that the analogy is correct • Middle-level theory uses modern data from taphonomy, experimental archaeology, and ethnoarchaeology to explain why particular natural processes or human behaviors can be inferred from particular material remains. Middle-level theory relies on the principle of uniformitarianism. The principle of uniformitarianism • The "facts" of archaeology are incapable of speaking for themselves o therefore, archaeology follows geology's principle of uniformitarianism • studying ongoing processes and their material consequences to develop ways of making inferences from archaeological data. • Does not assume that the past and present are the same • It does assume that the processes of the past and the present are the same o This is why we can use modern observations to help us interpret the archaeological record. Clovis & the Peopling of the Americas Folsom Site • New Mexico- 1927 • Projectile point between buffalo ribs--> folsom point • Extinct Pleistocene species • Significance--> product of human activity (was it a human made product), that buffalo species is extinct Blackwater Draw Site • Near Clovis, New Mexico 1933 • Large projectile point--> Clovis point • Extinct Pleistocene mammoths • Very large/mega fauna • Hypothesized as a butcher site • Gave an understanding of the time period The Clovis First Hypothesis 1. Producers of Clovis Point = 1st settlers of America a. Found clovis points in several sites around the Southwest near mega fauna (mammoths) b. [First thoughts were that clovis people hunted mammoths] 2. Mammoth hunters 3. Sudden appearance of Clovis= migration 4. Migrated- 11,500 years BP via Bering Land Bridge a. Lover ocean levels (Beringia) Issues wit Clovis First Hypothesis • Mega fauna overkill? o Hunting them is risky--> they are huge animals o Diffucult to hunt them on foot with a spear o People were not at the top of the food chain • Alternate roots? o Other ways into the Americas Reconstructing Diet • Zooarchaeology o Specialists in study of animal remains • Placing those animals in a social system--> what role did they play? o Ch'arki--> very similar to [beef] jerky • Easy way to preserve meat § Similar technique as freeze-dry • Paleoethnobotany o Specialists in study of plant remains o Symbolic life of plants and animals • Sometimes choices/actions are affected by more than economics § Symbolic reasons § Ideological reasons § Religious reasons The Origins of Agriculture • After the Ice Age o Vast global changes after 10,000 BC • More intensive use of smaller game, wild plants • Fishing, gathering of marine resources • Started exploiting different types of resources o Trend is know as Broad Spectrum Adaptation • Shift from Upper Paleolithic focus on "big game" hunter to Archaic & Mesolithic increased diet breadth § Eventually lead to food production and agriculture • Creating & producing it themselves • More of a transformation than evolution • Agriculture (in archaeology) o Usually implies an economy that is reliant on the intentional production of food (rather than relying on wild food) • Domestication (in archaeology) o Process through artificial selection in which new species of plants and animals are produced, which owe their existence to human interaction *usually along time between domestication and agriculture* • How archaeologists "read" this data o Determining domestication in plants- • Through paleobotany § Trends: • Stronger attachment • Clustering of seeds • Larger seeds • Thinner seed coat o Determining domestication in animals- • Through faunal analysis (zooarchaeologists) § Trends: • Smaller animals • Age/sex profiles- • More females (expanding herds) • More young individuals • Hunters don’t hunt the young ones • If a young dead one is founds, it is usually in a corral (domesticated animal) o 90% of human existence was hunter/gatherer based • Profound implications for our evolution • Agriculture developed independently in different regions • Early explanations linked origins to progress o Inevitable process of moving toward more "advanced" ways of life • Lewis Morgan Henry (Cultural evolutionist) (1877) § Savagery--> barbarianism--> civilization • Domestication and invention of pottery • V.Gordan Childe § Neolithic Revolution involved active control over food production • Increase in food supply • Increasing populations • Settled life • Social complexity • Morgan & Childe § Both rely on idea that people are removing themselves from and mastering nature o Question of progress… • Morgan and Childe suggested hunter/gatherers were savages? § Value judgement • Contemporary anthropological work suggests hunters/gatherers "affluent" when compared to agriculturalists § Healthier (nutrition & disease) § Worked less § Agriculture was NOT advantageous Consequences of Agriculture 1. Population Growth a. Sedentism b. Increased fertility c. Economic incentives to have larger families i. Larger families--> more "free" labor available 2. Health costs a. Malnutrition b. Issue with agriculture--> monocropping i. Growing and eating only 1 type of food c. Disease i. Living in close-quarters--> diseases spread quickly 3. Roots of social inequality a. Ability to store More Origins of Agriculture • Why did it develop then? o External trigger? • Population pressure • Climate change o Multiple causes? • Complex, varied process worldwide o Gradual--> it isn't a quick thing o Domestication did not always result in agriculture o Sedentism & agriculture didn’t always go hand in hand o Permanent structures did not always= sedentism Cuisine, Identity, and Status Cuisine • All aspects of food production, acquisition, consumption, serving and discard o Think of how food is intermixed with roles, status, lifestyle Luxury Foods • Unusual, unique, rare, exotic, can also be the way it is created • Ceremonies and feasts • Special instances of food consumption o i.e. thanksgiving in the US • Economic value and ideological importance o Archaeologists try to explore this area • Hardstof--> how luxury foods value historically Reconstructing Social Systems Reconstructing Social Systems • Social organization o The rules and structure that govern relations within group of interacting people • Social grouping o Gender o Age • Immature, mature, elder • Age sets • Age grades o Families • Parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins o Kinships o Common interest [groups] • Political religious, sports, clubs, extracurricular activities o Population centers o Society--> groups of people at a broad level o Country • Territorially of social groups o Association of group with portion of landscape o From families to countries • Political organization o A society's formal and informal institutions that regulate a populations collective acts • How groups of people (society's) makes decisions • How they behave as a group § Centralized vs decentralized • Decentralized Political Systems o "head man" or "head woman" o Persuasive o Leadership based on age, respect [earned] o Discussion, non-binding consensus • Bands and Tribes K&T CHART • Centralized Political Systems o Complex, agricultural, societies o Stratification, unequal wealth • Extreme elite, extreme poverty o Leadership rested in limited numbers o Spectrum of centralized farms o Chiefdoms Archaeology of Social Systems • Kinship and descent • How did it manifest itself materially? • Gender roles • Social groups and territoriality Archaeology of Political Systems • Mobilization of labor o Architecture, logic • Status and death--> what were they buried with? • status and diet • Trade and access to exotica Origins of Inequality • When/where/how/why does inequality emerge? o Occurs over time, not at once at a specific place and time • Mesopotamia o Chronology • Ubaid period (5000-4000 BC) § Ubaid--> one of the 1st sites of inequality • Uruk period (4000-3200 BC) § 1st urban sites • Early dynastic period (3200-2350 BC) Emergence of Inequality • By the end of Ubaid period o Temples found in every community • Storage facilities o Decision making begins to rest in temples priests, NOT kin-based groups • broadening of religious authority The Rise of States • "Civilizations" or state-level societies o Social entity exhibiting elaborate political hierarchy this is usually highly centralized and sanctioned by the threat of force What constitutes a civilization? • Association with metallurgy (metal objects) • Economy= agriculture o Feed populations (large) o Storage facilities • Economic foundation is specialization o Metal worker, etc… o Consistent way to do things o Stand exchange between people • Development of urban centers o Areas of gather o Huge building • Lots of work • Social rules no longer based on kinship • Elaborate and centralized political system emerge • Establish state religion • Form of writing or recording system So where do we draw the line? • For every rule there is an exception o Lack of metallurgy o State develops without agriculture o Don’t have urban centers o Decentralized political systems Why do civilizations develop? • Increased population • War theory • Environment • Trade and craft Contemporary Approach • Archaic State o High population density that strains food production system • Need for system of interaction • Economy controlled finance institutions and support ruling class Could see state emerge but may not People & Environment in the Past One caveat… • Global climate change= real • Human induced That said… • Environments and global climate have fluctuated • People have altered environments • People have coped to change Coping with Environmental Change • Big Game Hunting--> Broad Spectrum Adaption Nasca Region (south coast of Peru) • Pottery focused on water theme--> animals, plants associated with water • Religious iconography o Agricultural motifs o Water o Blood trophy heads, violence -->fertility, death, rebirth Human-induced Deforestation • When trees are removed--> soil is unsettled--> when it rains a lot--> mudslides Instead of people living in smaller communities, people started living in larger groups/communities • Bigger and more complex • More constrained • People are eating more corn New places for ceremonies and sites/areas of worship • Large posts Nasca Trophy Heads • Important aspect of Nasca culture/society Coping with changing environments • Broader social networks • Ceremonialism and ancestor veneration • Constrained combat and sacrifice People Altering Environments • The Pristine Myth o The “pristine myth ” is the belief that the Americas in 1491 were almost untouched, Eden-like lands. The Wilderness Act of 1964, which was one of the founding documents of the global environment movement according to Charles C. Mann, upheld this idea. Geographer William Denevan in his book, The Pristin Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492, attempts to debunk this myth and reveal how it has influenced the environmental movement today. Houses, Households & Society The Home • Orient family, household, community • Social and economic blocks The Household perspective • Understanding society through lens of daily life o "bottom up" rather than "top down" • "bottom" of social ranking to understand the average daily life • Particularly useful for understanding… o Social change o Inequality o Colonialism o Trade o Identity & gender • Most productive approach is by looking at people's home(s) What do we study? • How should we look @ homes? o Mobile lifeway • Permanence= not goal o Urban politicized lifeway • Permanence= goal o Extended family/lies • Large family= goal o Nuclear family • Large size= not goal • Who built it? o Built by… • Inhabitants • Community • Specialists • Home form? o Round, square, or other? • Most are circular • Circular are difficult to maximize space (????) • Rectangular and square are good Symbolic approaches to home • Homes communicate who we are • Metaphorical association of home and cosmos o Built farms (home) express proper order of things • Socioeconomical status How does the home shape us? • Practice Theory o Structure o Agency o Reciprocal relationship between structure and agency • Mediate through built environment • Reshaping culture • Space syntax § Analysis of spatial configuration in built forms • Access analysis and social interaction The Archaeology of Home: Identity, Urbanism & the State Social Identity • Affiliation with groups based on perceived commonality o History and ancestry o Place o Occupation o Ritual practices o Gender o Age How do we get at Identity Archaeologically? • Mortuary practices o Tomb form o Grave goods • Things you are buried with o Body position • Laid flat, or fetal position? o Style (pottery, tools, etc) • Form • Iconography • __ o Ritual and religion • Architecture • Alters • Offerings and practices o The Home • Architecture • Cuisine • Activity areas o The body • Teeth (crookedness) • Breast implants
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