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UTD / Chemistry / CHEM 1311 / How much oxygen is required to completely react to 0.50g of so2?

How much oxygen is required to completely react to 0.50g of so2?

How much oxygen is required to completely react to 0.50g of so2?

Description

School: University of Texas at Dallas
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry
Professor: Sra
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Unit 3 Study Guide
Description: General Chemistry-Dr. Taylor. This document consists of all of the class notes from this unit
Uploaded: 11/08/2015
14 Pages 51 Views 1 Unlocks
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How much oxygen is required to completely react to 0.50g of so2?



10/21

. Valence Bond Theory

Hybrid Orbitals

valence Bond Theory

· half-filled orbital for overlap

unpairedes H. H:

LOV

1/5 1/3 Don't forget about the age old question of Amines is derived from what?

bond

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22

16

2s

25

2p

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2p

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0.240 mol of naoh. how many grams of na3po4 would be produced?



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Linear:op -ae domains need 2 hybrid orbitals (same energy); S+P+S8

• Trigonal planar:sp? -3e-domains need 3 hybrid orbitals (same energy); stptp *sp?

• Tetrahedral: sp3 -4e domains need 4 hybrid orbitals (same energy); s+p+p+p → sp


How much pci3 is produced in grams?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is bertrand model?

• Trigonal bipyramidal: spod -50"domains need 5 hybrid orbitals (same energy); s+p+p+p+d>sped

octahedral:sp3d2 |-68" domains need 6 hybrid orbitals (same energy); s+P+p+p+d+d>speda use vsePR to predict hybridization COUP - lone pairs still count We also discuss several other topics like What is the formation of a polypeptide chain?

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HH

"head on" overlap, sigma bond

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I pibond (m) 1 sigmabondow)

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unhybridized

porbitals

I single bond I double bond I triple bond

I sigma bond Don't forget about the age old question of What is punnett square?

I sigma & Ipi bond I sigma & 2 pi bonds

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I-O-I

2e - domains spo

18 sigma 4 pi

CT CEC - C-H

budy

e domains -sp?

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10/23

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Chapter 8 -8.2 & 8.5 won't be on the test

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state symbols

s solid

l-liquid .g-gas

aq-aqueous If you want to learn more check out Concerning identity formation during one's lifetime, the "mama" cycle refers to?

SOUP If you want to learn more check out What are the acceptable methods of inventory costing?

2CH3OH (l) + 302 (g)

H Ö

Ü

2 CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)

Ö=c=0

H H

H-C

same number & type of element on both sides of the equation - conservation of mass

•stoichiometric coefficients: the numbers in front of the formulas

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Practice Balancing Equations 3 NaOH + H3PO → Na3PO4 + 3 H2O

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-

PAO 10 + 6H2O P-4

4H 3 POA P - 4 0-06 4- 12

0-16

H-1a

2502 +

02 →

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2503

s-a

s-2

0-6

0-6

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(NH 4 ) 3 PO4 + 3 NaOH IN-3

H - 12 + 3 = 15 PO 4-1 Na-3 10-3

Na3PO4 + 3NH3 + 3H2O

N-3 H-9+ 6 = 15 Poul os Na-3

0-3

BV

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Co Hit +

O2

→ 6CO2 + 7H2O

can't have odd # of

O, double coefficients > 12 202 + 14 42 by sa

2C6H14 + 19.02

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*No

fractional coefficients *

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10/26

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Balancing chemical Reactions

ONLY change coefficients .change coefficients for compounds before elements of balance elements other than sh and o first

treat polyatomic ions as units rather than Individual elements (if it appears on both sides) 1. use smallest whole- coefficients

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Calculations with Balanced Chemical Equations 1. balanced equations allow us to determine quantitatively

how substances react - how much of each reactant is need - how much of each product is produced 1 coefficients are mole ratios

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Stoichiometry: using balanced equations to find relative amount sup

mole ratios are used as conversion factors

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lex: 3 NaOH + H3PO4 → Na3PO4 + 3H2O

0.240 mol of NaOH (given). How many grams of Na3PO4 would be produced?

10. 240 mol NaOH moi Na3 P04 0.0800

3 mol NaOH Nas Pot

- moles

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0.08 moles Nos POA 163.94 g Na3PO4 -

13.11 g Na3PO4

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study

Timol Na3PO4

13.1 g Na3PO4

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*More Practice

2 Al(s) + Fe2O3(s) - Al2O3 + 2Fe + heat 86.09 Fe imol Fe Imol Fe 203 159.79 Fe2O3 - 122.96

Fe2O3 155.85g 12 mol Feous Timol Fe 203

123 g Fe 203

86. Og Fe Imol Fe 1 mol Al 26.98g Al _ 41.5 49

155.85 Ilmolfe Timol Al Al

4 1.59

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2502 + O2 → 2503 how much oxygen (g) is required to completely react 0.50 g of SO2 10.50 g SO2 imol 502 1 mol O2 |32.00 g 02 -

764.07 2 molsoz Ilmo102 0.12 486

Stues o.129 02

)

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eeeeeeeeeeeeet PPPPP

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10/30

0.387

0.494

ex: 2P () + 3.012(g) 2PC13 (1) Mix 12.0g of P and 35.0 g Cl2

How much PC13 is produced in grams? 12. Ogpli molp 2 mol PC13 137.329

130.979 12 moll Timolpcl3

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53.2 g PG 13

35.0 g Cl2 / I molclz 2 mol PC13 (137.329 -

770.9 g C 12 13 mol Cl2 Imol PC13 45.

2g PC (з

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theoretical yield: the max amount of product predicted by stoichiometry .actual yield: the amount produced in a lab setting -percent yield:Cactual/theoretical) x 100; tells

efficiency of reaction

42.

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actual: 42.4g

45.2*100 = 93.8%

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Chapter 9

• General Properties of solutions -solution: a homogeneous mixture -solute: the component that is dissolved in solvent - solventi medium into which solutes are mixed -concentration : describes solution composition

→ dilute: ratio of solute to solvent very small

concentrated ratio is large → saturated: contains as much solute as can be dissolved → unsaturated candissolve moroupsolute → supersaturated: contains more jolute than is actually stable at a givente mp (ex: heat pack - flip the disk & It crystallizes)

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-electrolyte: substance that dissolves in H20 giving la solution that conducts electricity

7 form ions in solution; ionic compounds dissociate into constituent ions But many molecular compounds remain intact when dissolving in water (nonelectrolytes) 1. Ionization

- formation of ions by molecular substance when

dissolving exi HCI Cg) -> H+ (aq) + Cr- (aq) 1. Strong electrolytes

- dissociate, ionize completely (~100% - strong conductors of electricity - all water soluble ionic compounds -all strong acids → HCL, HBO, HI, HNO 3. HCLO3, HC104, H2SO4 -all strong bases → LIOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, Cs OH, Ca (OH)2 Sor (OH)2, Ba(OH)2

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11/02

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Classify

HCl Istrong acid

strong electrolyte

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HC 2 H 302 weak acid weak electrolyte

C6H12O6

all covalent does NOT tonize

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Ze

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front

for

an acid; "first

one up

1 H is usually at the for the firing squad"

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strong bases Look for : -NH3

- NH2

Los

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NOT 100%

weak Glectrolyte Weak acid Weak base

as in, they will not completely dissociate or some parts may stay the same

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Precipitation

Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2Nal(aq) -> Pb12(s) + 2Na No 3 (aq)

Nat

I

Pb2+

NO3

Inat Na

NO3" NO3

Nat I

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NO3

100 ml

100 ml

Pble 200 ML

study

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Molecular Equation : No ions Pb (NO3)2 (aq) + 2Nal(aq) → pbl2 (s) + 2 NaNO3(aq) Tonic Equation : strong electrolytes dissociated * weak electrolytes & precipitates NOT broken down Pb2+ (aq) + 2NO3- (aq) + 2Na+Cag+ 21"(aq) →P612 (s) + 2 Na + (aq) + 2NO3- (aq)

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• spectator ions : ons that stay in solution on both sides of equation ce.g. Na+ and NO3-) Net ionic equation take out spectator ions Pb 2(aq) + 21- (aq) - Pbiz (s)

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Precipitation reactions Fanions &cations trade partners - "metathesis" reaction -AKA double replacement reaction

StySO

soluble

Soluble or Not? alkali metal cations & ammonium -> +1 chargeso - NO3-, C 2 H 3 O2-010. - 1 charge o

-CIC, Br, EXCEPTIONS: Ag, Hg22, P62* 4.504 2 - EXCEPTIONS: Ag", Hg2, Pb2+, cat, Sr 2, Ba2+

1.COPP04*, CrO2, 52 --EXCEPTIONS: alkalı metal <cations & ammonium

OH → EXCEPTION Sialkali metal cations, Ba2+ Ca2+, S72

insoluble

is "soluble or not" really the question? [keep this in mind] there is SOME teeny tiny part that is soluble even in precipitate reactions

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What are the products? Does anything precipitate? ☺

3Pb(NO3)2

+

Fe 2 (504) 301

3 Pb SO 4 + 2 Fe(NO3)3

precipitate

BaCl2 +

Na2SO4

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→ 2 Nacl + BaSO4

precipitate

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silver nitrate + sodium phosphate 3 AgNO3 + Na 3 PO4 → Ag3PO4 + 3 Na NO3

precipitate

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11/04

Announcements

1. Reviews for next week's exam

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SLC 1.102

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Jo 3.516

sunday 4-6 pm Dr. Taylor Monday 5-7pm Dr. McAfee - Monday 7-9 pm Dr. Dieckmann

Tuesday 10-l am Dr. Sra

SLC 1.102

CN 1.112

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Acid / Base Reactions

•Arrhenius definitions: -Acid-releases H+ in solution (e. react with water to produce H30) [hydronium] -Base - releases ot in solution !

Brønsted definitions: I-reld- proton donor - Base - proton acceptor

ex: NH3 (aq) + H2Oce) - NH4 + (aq) + OH- (aqda Weak Acids & Weak Basės

ex HC 2 H 3 O 2 + H2O = H 3 O + + C 2 H 3 O 2 - water can act as a base or an acid

double arrows indicate a reaction in both directions - dynamic equilibrium - dynamic equilibrium forward rates and reverse rates are equal; not true of a strong acid

HA + H2O = H 3 O + + A - - strong and → equilibrium lies far to the right - weak acid - equilibrium lies far to the left nexample of poly protic and (weak)

H3PO4 + H2O - H3O+ + H2 P 04 - weak H2 PO 4 - + H2O = H3O+ + HPO42- weak HPO4 2- + H2O = 43 O + +P 043

weak → H2S04 (initially strong acid 20 H2 SO4 + H2O = H 3 O + + HSO4 HSO4- + H2O = H2O + + SO42

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Acid-Base Neutralization

Acid + Base Salt & Water Cwe'll come back to this another time)

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Quick intro! Oxidation - Reduction Reactions

· involve transfer of electrons btwn reactants -oxidation #s (charges) will change!

· Oxidation = LOSS of electron COIL) Reduction = GAIN of electron (RIG) x: zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq) → Cu (s) & Zn2+ (aq). Zn(s) 2n2+ oxidized

Cu 2+ Cu(s) reduced

ausola

2

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11/06

-Another Review for the Exam: - Monday 9-10pm Dr. sibert

check eLearning for study material

SLC 1.102

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acid + base

salt & water

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KBr & Naci - no reactions

predicted products: KCl and NaBr are both aqueous

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oxidation - Reduction Reactions

an electron has a negative charge (-) loses en → more pos charge oxidation gains e → more neg charge → reduction helpful to remember: - OIL sa Oxidation is Loss -RIG Reduction is Gain

ex: Zn (s) + Cu2+ (aq) → Zn2+ (aq) + Cu(s)

oxidized: 2n must be reactants. reduced: cu 2 J oxidizing agens: Cu2+ → can take e

must be reactants reducing agent: en → can give e away! half reactions: - zn (s) → Zn2+ (aq) + 2e oxidized:e on products side - Cu2+ (aq) + 2e → Cu(s) reduced:e on reactants side

oxidation #s. - elements have an oxidation ofzero -oxidations in any chem species must sum to loverall charge on species

- apply table 9.5 in order from top to bottom * whenever you're doing polyatomic ions, you have to do polyatomics seperately (first) Lex: cr(NO3)3 NO3

5-6 = 0

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UP

+3

+5 - 2

5

- 2

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Balanung Redox Half Reactions Al(s) + N 2+ (aq) → A13+ (aq) + N.(s)

2 [Al(s) → A13+ (aq) + 3e 3 [Ni2+ (aq) + 2e - → Ni(s)]

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2 A1(s) + 3N, 2+ (aq) + 6e) → 2413+ the + 3 NIC) *electrons should cancel

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l'activity series table

- higher up on table means it is more easily oxidized - use table to determine which reactant SHOULD be oxidized, if it is the same in your given equation, a reaction WILL occur

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