Language Development II
Language Development II CPSY 2301
U of M
Popular in Introductory Child Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ng on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CPSY 2301 at University of Minnesota taught by Henriette Warren in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Introductory Child Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
Language Development ll October 20 2015 1 How do infants perceive speech sounds Describe how Janet Werker tested infants ability to distinguish categorical speech differences not present in their native language How does her research expand on the research of Eimas on infants categorical speech perception At what age do infants start failing to distinguish categorical speech differences not present in their native language Can this ability be relearned lnfants perceive speech sounds Infants are like adults perceive speech sounds categories Speech sounds come in categories defined by have they are produced e g place of articulation voicing Elimas Study Categorical speech perception Phonemes smallest meaningful sound categories in human speech e g palba Subjects 14 months olds sucking rate procedure Conclusions 1 month old can distinguish phonemes Both prepared to learn language pick up meaningful differences Hear Ba2 No discriminate Hear Pa Dishabituation Janet Werker 1 month olds can distinguish phonons 6 8 months discriminate more categories than their parents Unless they are native speaker 1012 months only discriminate categories meaningful in their native language 2 Compare and contrast early language development in deaf and hearing children Deaf children born to deaf parents Who communicate in sign language acquire language at least as rapidly amp fully as hearing children born into hearing households Thus any delays or difficulties in deaf children s language development must result from the way the linguistic environment is organized Many deaf children raised Without exposure to a signed language spontaneously begin to gesture in home sign a kind of communication through pantomime When speaking to deaf or hearing problems children research found the same patterns of spontaneous homesign production 3 Describe the development of language during the rst year of infancy Driven by mountain of vocal tract Re exive sounds birth Cooling 12 months Babbling 46 months Consonant vowel combinations Legal syllable with no meaning Already sounds like native language Starts with simple repetition babababa then varied badahuba then intonation added Babies who are deaf babble with their hands Recognize words 10 18 months Slow amp effortful Mostly names for things e g mama dada ball juice Social words hi bye thank you Action words more up Modifiers Hot Mine 4 Describe a languagerich environment for an infant or toddler and discuss whether this type of environment aids in language growth One of the most remarkable features of children s early vocabulary development is the astonishing growth spurt of new words that typically occurs during toddlerhood While the children are learning new words some of them could been seen repeating the unfamiliar word to themselves It will help a lot in their language growth as they are learning new words in an environment which full of now words teaching per day They can have the chances to hear all different kinds of unfamiliar words per day 5 What kinds of words are typical of infants rst words What are overextensions and underextensions and why do infants sometimes commit these errors as they begin to learn language Mostly name for things e g mama dada ball juice Social words hi bye thank you Action words more up Modifiers hot Mine The rst 100 or so words in young children s vocabularies are predominantly nouns used to be label objects Many of these nouns refer to objects that young children can manipulate or somehow act upon eg 39hat amp 39sock are common in the initial vocabularies of American children but sweater amp diaper are not presumably because little children can put on amp take off hats amp socks more or less effectively but cannot do the same with sweaters amp diapers In addition objects that can change amp more amp thus capture children s attention eg cars amp animals are likely to be named large immobile objects that are 39just there eg tress amp houses are not 6 What evidence do we have that comprehension receptive language precedes production expressive language in language acquisition Reception language is the ability to listen amp understand language Exception language is the ability to communicate with others using language When children begin to talk their receptive language skills are usually much more advanced than their expressive language skills At about 4 years old most children have a speaking vocabulary of about 2300 words but receptive language vocabulary of what 8000 words Receptive vocabulary plays a big part in listening comprehension which is related to later literacy skills amp is comprehension which is related to later literacy skills amp is necessary for understanding directions amp for social contact It s easy to recognize the development of expensive language 7 What is fast mapping How do principles like mutual exclusivity whole object bias and joint attention help children learn new words during their vocabulary spurt Fast mapping The way in which children quickly form an idea of the meaning of an unfamiliar word they hear in a familiar amp highly structure social interaction Rapidly learning a new word after just one exposure Mutual exclusivity Assuming one label per object 3 year old saw familiar eg cup amp unfamiliar e g whisk object Show me to the blicket Children selected unfamiliar object Object that does not already have a have Whole object assumption Expect a new word to refer to a whole object rather than an attribute or action Joint attention Use social cues e g what child amp adult re attending to to help figure out meaning of new word Look it s a modi 8 What is known about young children s conception of word order and grammar usage during their acquisition of language Word order Through experiment oneword speakers Hear Cookie Monster is Tickling Big Bird amp let children to watch 2 videos Look at the video that corresponds to what they hear So understand word order before they can produce 2 word sentenous They comprehend more than they can produce Grammar Usage At first both regular forms amp irregular coreect for plurals amp past tense Eg mice ran Just repeating what they heard Later overgeneralize Eg Mouse runned Figured out pattern but over apply the rule Then finetrue it all They understand the rule amp the exceptions 9 What does research suggest about whether bilingual children are harmed by learning more than one language at a time How and why is age important in the timing of learning a second language What is the neurological evidence that supports the idea that earlier is better when it comes to learning a second language Be sure to include ndings from Hoff et al 2014 in your answer Bilingual Children are not harmed by learning more than one language at a time They get used to that language environment while they are young Their brain adapt that secondary language skills while they are young Ev i d e n c e A team of researchers headed by LauraAnn Petitto looked at the language acquisition both of hearing Canadian children who had deaf parents amp were acquiring sign language amp French amp out of hearing Canadian children who were acquiring French amp English No evidence of language delay in either group DLL children seem to master some specific skills better than children who only learn a single language Bilingual children are able to see both the faces amp the vase in an ambiguous figure at an earlier age than children who only learn a single language Findings from Hoff et al 2014 Some children are exposed to a variety of language One significant differences concerns the amount of talk that adults direct to infant North American mothers e g are known to talk to their babies from birth if not before even using the babies burps sneezes amp other noises to engage in conversation with them 10 What is meant by quotpragmaticsquot of language What sorts of skills are important in children s and adults ability to have a conversation Pragmatics Using the same words to convey different meanings Young children will often use a succession of protodeclaratives for the purpose of sustaining a dialogue A common gestural example of this is a child s bringing all of his or her toys one after another to show to a visitor if each presentation is acknowledged by a smile or a comment Listening Turntasking Ask questions Imitation Body Language physical gestures
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