Test 2 Study Guide
Test 2 Study Guide EDU 2100
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Thomas Nelson Exceptional Learner – When a student’s behavior or learning abilities vary enough from the average or norm to require some form of special or individualized programs or services Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) – Law that assures that all children with disabilities have available to them special education and related services designed to meet their needs, and to provide federal funds to cover part of the cost of its mandates o 6 major principles Zero Reject – Schools must provide all children with disabilities between ages of 6 and 17 with special education Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) – Requires that students with disabilities be educated with nondisabled students as much as possible General Education classroom with aids and services Resource services Selfcontained classroom Specialized setting outside of school (home/hospitalized) Residential Placement Due process safeguards – To protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents Parent and student participation in shared decision making Individualized Education Program (IEP) – Program of study for every student with disabilities mandated by IDEA o Must be on IEP team Child’s parents Child’s regular teacher Child’s special education teacher A knowledgeable representative of the school district A person who can knowledgeably interpret the evaluation results (School psychologist) Other individuals having special knowledge of the child, if requested by parents or school Child, if at least 14 years old o Decided at the initial eligibility meeting IEP is made during meeting and placement recommendations are made First, a parent or a teacher writes a referral for child to be placed in special education Don’t need parental permission to evaluate child, but need it for services o Must be in IEP Child’s current level of educational performance Measurable goals for the school year Special education, related services, supplemental aids and services, assistive technology, program modifications, and support for personnel Classification – Recognizing a student’s special needs o Advantages Brings the issues associated with exceptionality to the public’s attention They get the help they need o Disadvantages Lowers learner’s level of selfesteem Labels learners by focusing on “problems,” which reduces opportunities to learn 14 disability categories o Autism (High Incidence Category) o DeafBlindness o Emotional Disability o Deafness o Hearing Impairment o Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) o Multiple Disabilities o Orthopedic Impairment o Specific Learning Disability → Highest Incidence Category o Other Health Impairment → High Incidence Category o Speech/Language Impairment o Visual Impairment o Traumatic Brain Injury o Developmental Delay Largest category is Learning Disabilities at 47.4% of students age 621 Inclusion – Process of educating learners with exceptionalities in regular classrooms; Students don’t leave classroom, support comes to them o Way of enforcing Least Restrictive Environment Occupational Therapy (OT) – Improving, developing, or restoring functions impaired or lost through injury, illness, or deprivation Physical Therapy (PT) – Restore function, increase mobility, prevent loss of mobility Speech/Language Therapy (SLT) – Habilitation or prevention of communicative impairments Twice Exceptional – A gifted and talented student with cooccurring disabilities Teaching gifted students o Acceleration – Speeding up pace at which student moves through curriculum (Most common) o Enrichment – Adding material to course’s curriculum to go deeper Resource Room Program – Where gifted students are taken out of regular classrooms for special instruction o Curriculum Compacting – Combo of acceleration and enrichment; Removing redundant material, leaving more time for students to work on more challenging aspects of subject Allocated Time – Total amount of time students spend in school each year Engaged Time – The amount of allocated time that the students spend actively pursuing learning goals o Teacher tries to get engaged time as close to allocated time as possible Differentiated Instruction – Theory based on premise that teaching strategies and content should vary for each student; teacher reacting responsively to a student’s needs o 3 main elements Content – What we teach Process – How students come to understand and obtain knowledge and skills Products – How students demonstrate what they have learned o Differentiate in response to learner Readiness (for a particular idea or skill at that time; adjust difficulty) Interest (intrigue for a subject or assignment) Learning Profile (learning style, intelligence, student talents) Cooperative Learning – Successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject; Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught, but also for helping teammates learn o Techniques ThinkPairShare Numbered Heads Together Jigsaw – Enables each student of a “home” group to specialize in one aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other groups who are assigned the same aspect, and after mastering the material, return to the “home” group and teach the material to their group members. Learning Centers Constructivism – Learners learn through active participation rather than just being told info o 3 types Exogenous – Acquisition of knowledge reflects the reality of the external world (cognitive approach to learning) Endogenous – Knowledge develops out of earlier knowledge through a process of cognitive development of structures into which knowledge is organized (similar to Piaget’s model) Dialectical – Knowledge comes from the interactions between learners and the environment, learners and other learners, learners and teacher (Vygotsky’s model essentially—social constructivism: social interaction facilitates learning) Tenets of Constructivism o Learning results from exploration and discovery o Learning is a community activity facilitated by shared inquiry o Learners play an ongoing, active, and critical role in assessment o Learning results from participation in authentic activities (real world) o Learners create knowledge from new info in light of previous experiences o Teachers are facilitators who coach learners as they create their own learning path ProblemBased Learning – 1 of the 6 Constructivist teaching models; Studentdirected learning focusing on solving complex problems that don’t have a single correct answer o Presentation of the problem scenario o Identifying the relevant facts associated with the scenario o Generating hypotheses as to possible solutions o Identifying knowledge deficiencies or learning issues o Applying the new knowledge to test the hypotheses generated in the third step o Reflecting on the abstract knowledge gained Teacher’s role in Constructivist environment o Provide opportunities to manipulate and experiment o Connect activities to everyday experiences o Center around higher order concepts and multiple perspectives o Allow learners to evaluate their own needs, test and revise their knowledge (Self reflection) o Connect cognition to context o Emphasize the value of overcoming flawed beliefs for understanding o Ask students to present their experiences and ideas o Work in groups Discovery Learning – Students are put into a situation in which they have to figure something out for themselves o Jerome Bruner expanded ideas of Jean Piaget o Procedures learning on an inductive basis (specific to general) o More of a cognitive approach as students create own learning rather than being told what they should know o Teacher providing problem situations that stimulate and encourage students to figure out structure of subject matter for themselves o 3 types Pure Discovery – Minimal teacher guidance Guided Discovery – Teacher gives hints → Always start out with this one Expository – Teacher gives final answer and student has to figure out how to get to the answer o What a teacher should do Provide examples Provide access to experiences Allow collaborative work → communication can be helpful in discovery Provide questions to answer or possible next steps Provide already worked examples to trigger background knowledge Mastery Learning/Teaching Model – Providing as much instructional time and instruction as necessary for each student to achieve mastery on each task before moving on o Based on an approach to school learning by Bloom in 1976 and is a variation of individualized instruction o Also based on Carroll’s (1963) theory that learning depends on: How much time and instruction the student needs to learn If the opportunity to learn & quality of instruction is sufficient to meet the student’s needs o Different students will require different amounts of instructional time o Different from expectation that group moves at same rate o 3 key approaches to accomplishing masteryoriented classroom environment Promoting learning as an active process Demonstrating enthusiasm for learning Developing positive teacherstudent relationships Bloom’s Taxonomy – Classification system of categories of cognitive domain organized into levels o Introduced by Bloom in 1956 and revised by Anderson and Krathwohl in 2001 o Helps teachers to Define ambiguous terms so they can speak common language with each other Identify goals to include in their own instruction Identify extension directions Plan learning experiences Prepare ways to measure learning o Knowledge → Comprehension → Application → Analysis → Synthetic → Evaluation } Bloom’s o Remember → Understand → Apply → Analyze → Evaluate → Create } Bloom’s Revised Learning Objective – Clearcut statement that says exactly what you want the students to be able to do as a result of instruction; Typically written as an action statement with an action verb Direct Instruction – Utilizes teacherdirected activities o Rosenshine (1979) o Features clearly states goals o Emphasizes covering content o All classroom time spent on task, performance monitoring, and giving immediate feedback o Teacher chooses instructional materials, activities, tempo, and pacing o Summary of teachereffects research → Teacher characteristics Believe students can learn Most of the class time was focused on instruction Organized classrooms Active teaching Rapid curriculum pacing Teach students to mastery o Learners actively participate through seatwork and homework o Subject matter is emphasized o Whole class instruction Recitation is a major feature (teacher provides structure, solicits student input, then reacts to student input to increase effectiveness of instruction) Structuring – The way the teacher manages the recitation (hand signals, calling for attention) Soliciting – Teacher seeks student input by asking questions (appropriate level, redirect, probe) Reacting – Teacher responds to student responses (evaluating, clarifying, praising, criticizing o Based on observational research, not theory Gagne’s Model – System of learning and instruction developed by R.M. Gagne o 9 events of instruction (must happen in order) Gain attention Inform learner of objective Stimulating recall of prior learning Presenting stimulus Providing learning guidance Eliciting performances Providing feedback Assessing performance Enhancing retention and transfer Culturally Responsive Teaching Framework that recognizes the importance of including students’ cultural references in all aspects of learning o Bring in cultural experiences o Allow students to make connections between what students already know and what is being taught in the lesson o Builds on prior cultural knowledge o 7 aspects High Expectations Positive relationships with families & community Cultural Sensitivity/Reshaped curriculum mediated for culturally valued knowledge Active teaching methods (involve students in a variety of reading, writing, listening, speaking, and viewing behaviors throughout lesson) Teacher as a facilitator Student control of portions of the lesson (“healthy hum”talking at conversational levels while completing assignments in groups) Instruction around groups and pairs, low anxiety – complete assignments individually but in small groups or pairs with time to share ideas and think critically about the work o Physical characteristics of classroom Print Rich Environment Learning Centers Colorful Arranged Optimally (teacher faces students, pods) Multiple Libraries Technology (utilized and displayed) Student Work displayed Rules, procedures, and protocols clear o Instructional components Call and Response Action Thermometer Think, Pair, Share Pick a Stick Bottoms Up, Heads Together Raise Your Righteous Hand Musical Round the Room Montessori Method – Constructivist understanding of learning with 3 parts: Learner, environment, and trained adult o Maria Montessori is founder of this method 1 female to enter medical school and graduate in Italy Equal pay for equal work Began work with “Idiot” children Many observations from her work with these children led to key principles within Montessori as to how children learn Influential in setting up schools and teacher trainings across Europe, worked with Ghandi’s untouchables while in India during the War Her book, American translation—The Montessori Method – Still used today after many revisions – Key in the practice of the Montessori Method o Trained adult has a passive role in the classroom o Child is an active learner o Believed children learn best when engaged in purposeful activities – Not spoon fed information o Believed 1 6 years are key to intellectual formation and internal constructs o Child constructs knowledge from experiences in the world o Key principles Selfguiding principles – Children learn when they are ready to learn, they grow and develop at their own pace, they are free to move about and let their learning and interests guide them Selfcorrecting activities – Learning by doing and not hearing, if the child tries to build something and it doesn’t work then they can tell it is wrong and try again to get it right Practical Life Skills – Taking care of the environment in which they live and go to school, builds concentration skills Prepared Environment – Different textures, natural items, products visible to the learner, readily accessible Organizational Skills – Everything has its place, take care of the learning environment (put things back where they belong) → Still used today Independence & Mobility – Not forced to share, encouraged to wait their turn, floor level bed and chairs so can do on their own, ask for assistance when needed → Still used today o Most similar to the Discovery Learning
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