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Test 2 Study Guide

by: Thomas nelson

Test 2 Study Guide EDU 2100

Thomas nelson

GPA 3.5

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Nature of the Learner
Dr. Sarah Vess
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.

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Date Created: 11/08/15
Thomas Nelson  Exceptional Learner – When a student’s behavior or learning abilities vary enough from  the average or norm to require some form of special or individualized programs or  services  Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) – Law that assures that all children  with disabilities have available to them special education and related services designed to meet their needs, and to provide federal funds to cover part of the cost of its mandates o 6 major principles  Zero Reject – Schools must provide all children with disabilities between  ages of 6 and 17 with special education  Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation  Free, Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)   Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) – Requires that students with  disabilities be educated with nondisabled students as much as possible  General Education classroom with aids and services  Resource services  Self­contained classroom  Specialized setting outside of school (home/hospitalized)  Residential Placement  Due process safeguards – To protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents  Parent and student participation in shared decision making  Individualized Education Program (IEP) – Program of study for every student with  disabilities mandated by IDEA o Must be on IEP team  Child’s parents  Child’s regular teacher  Child’s special education teacher  A knowledgeable representative of the school district  A person who can knowledgeably interpret the evaluation results (School  psychologist)   Other individuals having special knowledge of the child, if requested by  parents or school  Child, if at least 14 years old o Decided at the initial eligibility meeting  IEP is made during meeting and placement recommendations are made  First, a parent or a teacher writes a referral for child to be placed in special education  Don’t need parental permission to evaluate child, but need it for services o Must be in IEP  Child’s current level of educational performance  Measurable goals for the school year  Special education, related services, supplemental aids and services,  assistive technology, program modifications, and support for personnel  Classification – Recognizing a student’s special needs o Advantages   Brings the issues associated with exceptionality to the public’s attention  They get the help they need o Disadvantages   Lowers learner’s level of self­esteem  Labels learners by focusing on “problems,” which reduces opportunities to learn  14 disability categories o Autism (High Incidence Category) o Deaf­Blindness o Emotional Disability o Deafness o Hearing Impairment o Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) o Multiple Disabilities o Orthopedic Impairment o Specific Learning Disability → Highest Incidence Category o Other Health Impairment → High Incidence Category o Speech/Language Impairment o Visual Impairment o Traumatic Brain Injury o Developmental Delay   Largest category is Learning Disabilities at 47.4% of students age 6­21  Inclusion – Process of educating learners with exceptionalities in regular classrooms;  Students don’t leave classroom, support comes to them o Way of enforcing Least Restrictive Environment  Occupational Therapy (OT) – Improving, developing, or restoring functions impaired or  lost through injury, illness, or deprivation  Physical Therapy (PT) – Restore function, increase mobility, prevent loss of mobility  Speech/Language Therapy (SLT) – Habilitation or prevention of communicative  impairments   Twice Exceptional – A gifted and talented student with co­occurring disabilities   Teaching gifted students o Acceleration – Speeding up pace at which student moves through curriculum  (Most common) o Enrichment – Adding material to course’s curriculum to go deeper  Resource Room Program – Where gifted students are taken out of regular  classrooms for special instruction  o Curriculum Compacting – Combo of acceleration and enrichment; Removing  redundant material, leaving more time for students to work on more challenging  aspects of subject   Allocated Time – Total amount of time students spend in school each year  Engaged Time – The amount of allocated time that the students spend actively pursuing  learning goals o Teacher tries to get engaged time as close to allocated time as possible  Differentiated Instruction – Theory based on premise that teaching strategies and content  should vary for each student; teacher reacting responsively to a student’s needs   o 3 main elements  Content – What we teach   Process – How students come to understand and obtain knowledge and  skills  Products – How students demonstrate what they have learned o Differentiate in response to learner  Readiness (for a particular idea or skill at that time; adjust difficulty)  Interest (intrigue for a subject or assignment)  Learning Profile (learning style, intelligence, student talents)  Cooperative Learning – Successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with  students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their  understanding of a subject; Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning  what is taught, but also for helping teammates learn o Techniques  Think­Pair­Share  Numbered Heads Together  Jigsaw – Enables each student of a “home” group to specialize in one  aspect of a learning unit. Students meet with members from other groups  who are assigned the same aspect, and after mastering the material, return  to the “home” group and teach the material to their group members.  Learning Centers  Constructivism – Learners learn through active participation rather than just being told  info o 3 types   Exogenous – Acquisition of knowledge reflects the reality of the external  world (cognitive approach to learning)  Endogenous – Knowledge develops out of earlier knowledge through a  process of cognitive development of structures into which knowledge is  organized (similar to Piaget’s model)  Dialectical – Knowledge comes from the interactions between learners  and the environment, learners and other learners, learners and teacher  (Vygotsky’s model essentially—social constructivism: social interaction  facilitates learning)  Tenets of Constructivism o Learning results from exploration and discovery o Learning is a community activity facilitated by shared inquiry o Learners play an ongoing, active, and critical role in assessment o Learning results from participation in authentic activities (real world) o Learners create knowledge from new info in light of previous experiences o Teachers are facilitators who coach learners as they create their own learning path  Problem­Based Learning – 1 of the 6 Constructivist teaching models; Student­directed  learning focusing on solving complex problems that don’t have a single correct answer  o Presentation of the problem scenario o Identifying the relevant facts associated with the scenario o Generating hypotheses as to possible solutions o Identifying knowledge deficiencies or learning issues o Applying the new knowledge to test the hypotheses generated in the third step o Reflecting on the abstract knowledge gained  Teacher’s role in Constructivist environment o Provide opportunities to manipulate and experiment o Connect activities to everyday experiences o Center around higher order concepts and multiple perspectives o Allow learners to evaluate their own needs, test and revise their knowledge (Self­ reflection) o Connect cognition to context o Emphasize the value of overcoming flawed beliefs for understanding o Ask students to present their experiences and ideas o Work in groups  Discovery Learning – Students are put into a situation in which they have to figure  something out for themselves o Jerome Bruner expanded ideas of Jean Piaget o Procedures learning on an inductive basis (specific to general) o More of a cognitive approach as students create own learning rather than being  told what they should know o Teacher providing problem situations that stimulate and encourage students to  figure out structure of subject matter for themselves o 3 types  Pure Discovery – Minimal teacher guidance  Guided Discovery – Teacher gives hints → Always start out with this one  Expository – Teacher gives final answer and student has to figure out how  to get to the answer o What a teacher should do  Provide examples  Provide access to experiences  Allow collaborative work → communication can be helpful in discovery  Provide questions to answer or possible next steps   Provide already worked examples to trigger background knowledge  Mastery Learning/Teaching Model – Providing as much instructional time and instruction as necessary for each student to achieve mastery on each task before moving on o Based on an approach to school learning by Bloom in 1976 and is a variation of  individualized instruction o Also based on Carroll’s (1963) theory that learning depends on:  How much time and instruction the student needs to learn  If the opportunity to learn & quality of instruction is sufficient to meet the  student’s needs o Different students will require different amounts of instructional time o Different from expectation that group moves at same rate o 3 key approaches to accomplishing mastery­oriented classroom environment  Promoting learning as an active process  Demonstrating enthusiasm for learning  Developing positive teacher­student relationships  Bloom’s Taxonomy – Classification system of categories of cognitive domain organized  into levels o Introduced by Bloom in 1956 and revised by Anderson and Krathwohl in 2001 o Helps teachers to  Define ambiguous terms so they can speak common language with each  other  Identify goals to include in their own instruction  Identify extension directions  Plan learning experiences  Prepare ways to measure learning o Knowledge → Comprehension → Application → Analysis → Synthetic →  Evaluation } Bloom’s o Remember → Understand → Apply → Analyze → Evaluate → Create } Bloom’s  Revised  Learning Objective – Clear­cut statement that says exactly what you want the students to  be able to do as a result of instruction; Typically written as an action statement with an  action verb  Direct Instruction – Utilizes teacher­directed activities o Rosenshine (1979) o Features clearly states goals o Emphasizes covering content o All classroom time spent on task, performance monitoring, and giving immediate  feedback o Teacher chooses instructional materials, activities, tempo, and pacing o Summary of teacher­effects research → Teacher characteristics  Believe students can learn  Most of the class time was focused on instruction  Organized classrooms  Active teaching  Rapid curriculum pacing  Teach students to mastery o Learners actively participate through seatwork and homework o Subject matter is emphasized o Whole class instruction  Recitation is a major feature (teacher provides structure, solicits student  input, then reacts to student input to increase effectiveness of instruction)  Structuring – The way the teacher manages the recitation (hand  signals, calling for attention)  Soliciting – Teacher seeks student input by asking questions  (appropriate level, redirect, probe)  Reacting – Teacher responds to student responses (evaluating,  clarifying, praising, criticizing  o Based on observational research, not theory  Gagne’s Model – System of learning and instruction developed by R.M. Gagne o 9 events of instruction (must happen in order)  Gain attention  Inform learner of objective  Stimulating recall of prior learning  Presenting stimulus  Providing learning guidance  Eliciting performances  Providing feedback  Assessing performance  Enhancing retention and transfer  Culturally Responsive Teaching ­ Framework that recognizes the importance of including students’ cultural references in all aspects of learning o Bring in cultural experiences o Allow students to make connections between what students already know and  what is being taught in the lesson o Builds on prior cultural knowledge o 7 aspects  High Expectations  Positive relationships with families & community  Cultural Sensitivity/Reshaped curriculum mediated for culturally valued  knowledge  Active teaching methods (involve students in a variety of reading, writing, listening, speaking, and viewing behaviors throughout lesson)  Teacher as a facilitator  Student control of portions of the lesson (“healthy hum”­talking at  conversational levels while completing assignments in groups)  Instruction around groups and pairs, low anxiety – complete assignments  individually but in small groups or pairs with time to share ideas and think critically about the work o Physical characteristics of classroom  Print Rich Environment  Learning Centers  Colorful  Arranged Optimally (teacher faces students, pods)  Multiple Libraries  Technology (utilized and displayed)  Student Work displayed  Rules, procedures, and protocols clear o Instructional components   Call and Response  Action Thermometer  Think, Pair, Share  Pick a Stick  Bottoms Up, Heads Together  Raise Your Righteous Hand  Musical Round the Room  Montessori Method – Constructivist understanding of learning with 3 parts: Learner,  environment, and trained adult o Maria Montessori is founder of this method  1  female to enter medical school and graduate in Italy  Equal pay for equal work  Began work with “Idiot” children  Many observations from her work with these children led to key principles within Montessori as to how children learn  Influential in setting up schools and teacher trainings across Europe,  worked with Ghandi’s untouchables while in India during the War  Her book, American translation—The Montessori Method – Still used  today after many revisions – Key in the practice of the Montessori Method o Trained adult has a passive role in the classroom o Child is an active learner o Believed children learn best when engaged in purposeful activities – Not spoon  fed information o Believed 1  6 years are key to intellectual formation and internal constructs o Child constructs knowledge from experiences in the world o Key principles  Self­guiding principles – Children learn when they are ready to learn, they grow and develop at their own pace, they are free to move about and let  their learning and interests guide them  Self­correcting activities – Learning by doing and not hearing, if the child  tries to build something and it doesn’t work then they can tell it is wrong  and try again to get it right  Practical Life Skills – Taking care of the environment in which they live  and go to school, builds concentration skills  Prepared Environment – Different textures, natural items, products visible  to the learner, readily accessible  Organizational Skills – Everything has its place, take care of the learning  environment (put things back where they belong) → Still used today  Independence & Mobility – Not forced to share, encouraged to wait their  turn, floor level bed and chairs so can do on their own, ask for assistance  when needed → Still used today o Most similar to the Discovery Learning 


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