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Exam 3 Study Guide

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by: Grace Harmon

Exam 3 Study Guide ISS 210

Grace Harmon
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Here is a Study Guide for Exam 3. It covers chapters 8 and 12 for ISS210
Society and the Individual
Dr. Garcia
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Harmon on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISS 210 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Garcia in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 463 views.


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Date Created: 11/08/15
Exam  3  Study  Guide   Chapter  8   All  legislation  covered  in  lecture   •   Federal  Hate  Crimes  Law  (1969)   o   Criminal  offense  against  a  victim  motivated  by  the  victim’s  race,  color,  religion,   or  national  origin  (motivated  by  a  person’s  identity  or  perceived  identity)     §   The  victims  must  have  been  engaged  in  a  federally-­‐protected  activity,  like   voting  or  going  to  school     o   Has  to  be  proven  that  a  person  was  targeted  because  of  their  race     •   Matthew  Shepard/James  Byrd.  Jr.  Hate  Crimes  Prevention  Act  (2009)   o   Matthew  Shepard  killed  because  he  was  gay  (wasn’t  prosecuted  with  hate   crimes  because  they  weren’t  doing  a  federally  protected  activity)     o   James  Byrd  Jr.  killed  because  he  was  black  (“”)   o   Expanded  the  1969  US  federal  hate-­‐crime  law  to  include  crimes  motivated  by  a   victim’s  actual  or  perceived   §   Gender   §   Sexual  orientation   §   Gender  identity     •   First  federal  law  protecting  transgender  people     §   Disability     §   Removed  the  federally-­‐protected  activity  requirement   All  theoretical  perspectives  covered  in  lecture   •   Deficiency  Theories  (micro-­‐level,  person-­‐blame)   o   Biological  v.  Cultural   o   Biological   §   The  inferiority  of  some  racial  groups  is  the  result  of  flawed  genetic  traits   (generally  not  accepted  in  the  scientific  community)     o   Cultural   §   The  lifestyle  (culture)  of  minority  groups  is  flawed  and  responsible  for  the   group’s  inferiority  status  (popular  in  public  discourse)     •   Bias  Theories  (micro-­‐level,  person-­‐blame)   o   Blame  individuals  who  hold  prejudiced  attitudes  for  the  secondary  status  of   minorities  (blames  the  extremists)     §   Many  sociologists  argue  prejudice  is  not  the  essence  of  racism     §   Ignores  the  structural  foundations  of  racism     •   Structural  Discrimination  Theories  (macro-­‐level,  structural-­‐blame)   o   Focus  on  institutionalized  patterns  of  discrimination  as  the  sources  of  the   secondary  status  of  minorities     o   Themes  of  institutional  discrimination   §   The  importance  of  history     §   Discrimination  can  occur  without  conscious  bigotry     §   Institutions  are  interrelated  (housing  affects  education  affects   employment  affects  income  affects  housing)     o   Institutional  discrimination   o   Exploitation  theory     §   Racial  subordination  in  the  US  is  a  manifestation  of  the  class  system   inherent  in  capitalism     §   Discrimination  limits  search  for  talent  and  leadership  to  dominant  groups     Color-­‐blind  racism   •   Color-­‐blindness:  Idea  that  race  no  longer  matters  in  explaining  inequality  or  in   policymaking  because  racism  have  been  overcome     o   Media  uses  multiracial  composition     Discrimination   •   Discrimination  against  African  Americans  and  Latinos   o   Unequal  Treatment  of  Blacks  and  Latinos   §   Income     §   Education   §   Unemployment   §   Type  of  Employment   §   Health   §   Criminal  Justice       Environmental  racism   •   Environmental  Racism:  The  disproportionate  exposure  of  some  racial  groups  to  toxic   substances   o   Race  is  the  strongest  predictor  of  hazardous  waste  facility  location  in  the  country     o   3  out  of  5  African  Americans  and  Latinos  live  in  communities  with  abandoned   toxic  waste  sites  because  of  land  use,  housing  patterns,  and  infrastructure   development     o   living  in  “high-­‐opportunity”  neighborhoods  (which  are  typically  White)  can  live   up  to  20  years  longer  than  residents  of  “low-­‐opportunity”  neighborhood  in  the   same  city   o   zip  code  is  more  important  than  genetic  code  in  determining  a  person’s  health     o   minorities  receive  lower-­‐quality  healthcare  than  Whites  because  of  racial   prejudice  and  difference  in  the  quality  of  health  plans       Hate  crimes  and  trends   •   500%  increase  in  hate  crimes  of  American  Muslims  in  2001  (following  9/11)   •   Jews  are  targeted  most  often  for  their  faith   •   Bias  Breakdown  2014   o   Race  and  Ethnicity  (60%)   o   2.  Sexual  orientation  (20%)   o   3.  Religion  (17%)     o   Race=  50%   o   Sexual  orientation=  20%  (1/5  of  hate  crimes)   o   Religious=  17%     o   Ethnicity=  11%     Institutional  discrimination   •   Institutional  Racism:  Established  and  customary  social  arrangements  that  exclude  on  the   basis  of  race     o   Structural     o   A  complex  pattern  of  racial  advantage  built  into  the  structure  of  society     o   A  system  of  power  and  privilege  that  advantages  some  groups  over  others   o   Social  milieu:  includes  laws,  customs,  religious  beliefs,  and  the  stable   arrangements  and  practices  through  which  things  get  done  in  society     •   Structural  racism  is  about  actions  directed  at  those  considered  racially  different  (not   White)     Islamaphobia   •   Islamaphobiaà  the  fear  and  hatred  of  those  who  are  Arab  or  Muslim   o   Islam  is  frequently  misunderstood     o   Hijab  makes  Muslim  women  easily  identifiable         Model  minority   •   Model  minority   o   Asian  Americans  have  the  highest  educational  level  and  the  highest  median   household  income  so  if  the  Asians  can  do  it  why  can’t  the  Blacks,  Latinos,  etc.?   o   Blames  other  racial  minorities   o   Ignores  the  history  and  ongoing  discrimination  against  Asians     o   Masks  the  diversity  within  and  between  groups     o   It  is  a  positive  stereotype  but  it  is  still  wrong  and  offends  certain  people       Prejudice   •   Prejudiceà  the  negative  evaluation  of  a  social  group  and  individuals  within  that  group   based  on  stereotypes  (attitudes  based  on  beliefs)  (attitudes  don’t  always  mean  a  change   in  your  behavior)   Racial  demographic  trends  and  history  for  all  groups  covered  in  lecture   •   African  Americans     o   Slavery   §   Slavery  enacted  across  the  South  by  1660     §   1830-­‐1880:  proslavery  theorists  developed  a  racist  belief  system  in   response  to  abolitionists     o   Reconstruction:  1865-­‐1877   o   Plessy  v.  Ferguson:  1896   §   Legalizes  segregation     o   Anti-­‐miscegenation  laws   §   Whites  and  blacks  couldn’t  marry  and  have  kids  because  it  was  thought   that  their  kids’  genes  would  be  inferior   §   This  applied  to  other  races  as  well  (Asians  etc.)   o   Disenfranchised  throughout  the  South  by  1910   §   Threats  of  violence  against  Blacks  who  tried  to  exercise  their  right  to  vote   §   Literary  tests     o   Jim  Crow  and  lynchings   §   1884-­‐1914:  3,600  lynchings     o   Great  Migration:  1925-­‐1940   §   Moving  from  the  South  to  the  North  as  a  direct  result  of  the  lynchings  in   the  deep  south     §   Mass  exodus  from  the  terrorism  of  the  South   §   Exposed  Blacks  to  new  forms  of  poverty  and  other  social  problems  in  the   North  (had  to  live  in  certain  areas,  couldn’t  always  get  a  loan  etc.)   o   Civil  Rights  Era   §   Brown  v.  Board  of  Education  (1954):  overturned  Plessy  vs.  Ferguson.   Separate  can  never  be  equal     §   Dismantling  segregation  and  Jim  Crow  in  the  South  were  the  most   significant  advancements     §   Expansion  of  Black  economic  opportunities     •   Led  to  the  mergence  of  a  sizeable  Black  middle  class     •   Conditions  of  the  Black  underclass  were  not  seriously  affected     §   (people  who  are  stuck  in  persistent  poverty  are  dissidents  of  slaves)     §   very  different  experience  of  Blacks  depending  on  education  and  social   class       o   Black  diversity   §   Before  1990:  all  African  Americans  were  direct  descendants  of  slaves     §   African  immigrant  population  is  the  most  educated  group     §   Increase  in  Black  immigration  from  Africa  and  the  Caribbean  today     o   50,000  immigrants  annually     o   more  than  7%  of  US  Black  population  is  foreign  born     §   2/3  of  foreign  born  Blacks  from  the  Caribbean   §   West  Indies,  Haiti,  Jamaica,  Trinidad,  Tobago,  and   Dominican  Republic   §   1/3  from  Africa   o   Black  v.  African  American   •   4  in  10  African  Americans  no  longer  see  “Black”  as  a  single  racial-­‐ ethnic  group   •   more  than  25%  of  Blacks  are  foreign-­‐born  in  New  York,   Massachusetts,  and  Minnesota     •   Latinos   o   Largest  minority  group     o   Hispanic:  all  people  from  Spanish-­‐speaking  countries  of  Latin  America  and  Spain     o   Latinos  have  a  long  history  of  discrimination  by  the  government     o   Major  Hispanic  Groups:  Mexican,  Puerto  Ricans  and  Cubans  (with  Mexicans   being  the  largest)   o   Mexican  Americans   §   Originally  a  conquered  group     §   Treaty  of  Guadalupe  Hidalgo  (1848)   •   Part  of  northern  Mexico  that  became  part  of  the  United  States     •   Mexico  lost  more  than  half  its  territory:  California,  Colorado,  New   Mexico,  Nevada,  Utah,  and  most  of  Arizona  (plus  Texas  which  had   been  annexed  previously)   §   Our  relationship  with  Mexicans  is  largely  dependent  on  the  economy  (we   depend  on  them  for  labor,  and  proximity,  they  are  close)     o   Puerto  Ricans   §   Annexed  from  Spain  in  1898     §   Jones  Act  of  1917   •   Granted  US  citizenship  to  Puerto  Ricans  giving  them  free  access  to   the  US  mainland     §   1952:  Became  a  commonwealth     •   Not  representatives  in  Congress;  cannot  participate  in  the   Presidential  election   •   Do  not  pay  federal  taxes  but  all  imports  and  exports  are  highly   taxed     §   darker  phenotypically,  lower  education,  lower  wealth  (similar  to  African   Americans  in  certain  situation)     o   Cuban  Americans   §   Four  qualities  that  are  unique  to  Cuban  Americans   •   Class  background   •   Race  (lighter  skin)     •   Miami  Ethnic  Enclave  (invites  anyone  from  Cuba  that  wants  to   come  US  to  come)  (these  are  the  very  wealthy  Cubans,  that  would   lose  things  if  Cuba  went  to  socialist  economy)     o   2/3  of  Cubans  reside  in  Miami     •   US  Government  Policy  (we  set  up  Cubans  with  everything  they   need,  and  financially  supported  them)   •   Asian  Americans   o   One  of  the  fastest  growing  facial  groups  today   o   Extremely  diverse     §   Nation  of  origin,  language,  religion,  SES  (socioeconomic  status)     o   Major  Asian  American  Groups  in  the  US:  Chinese,  Asian  Indian,  Filipino   o   Waves  of  immigration   §   Two  waves   §   1.  Mid-­‐19  century  –  early  20  century   •   Chinese     •   Japanese   •   Unskilled  laborers  recruited  for  construction  and  agricultural  work     §   2.  Post  1965   •   considerably  more  diverse  in  national  origin     •   higher  in  class  origin,  well  educated,  occupationally  skilled     st o   Except  for  the  Japanese,  Asians  in  the  US  are  predominantly  1  generation   immigrants   o   Chinese  Exclusion  Act  (1882)   §   Halted  the  entry  of  most  Chinese  immigrants  until  1943     o   Executive  Order  9066   §   The  US  government  argued  that  the  relocation  camps  were  vital  to  the   national  security  of  the  US     §   Almost  exclusively  applied  to  Japanese  Americans  (Japanese  descent)   §   Threat  was  perceived  after  the  bombing  of  Pearl  Harbor     §   Two  thirds  of  those  interned  were  American-­‐born  second  and  third   generation     •   Native  Americans   o   Larger  today  than  in  centuries   o   Pre-­‐contact  population:  7  million     §   Before  Europeans  arrived  to  the  US     §   Reduced  to  250,000  through  disease  (biggest  cause),  hunger  and  murder     o   562  tribal  groups  in  the  US  today     o   35%  (1/3)  of  Native  Americans  live  on  reservation  today     §   278  federal  Indian  reservations     •   Navajo:  16  million  acres  (AZ,  NM,  UT)  143,000  people     o   Tribal  groupings  (largest  3)     §   Cherokee   §   Navajo   §   Choctaw     o   24%  poverty  rate  (twice  that  of  Whites)  (this  is  on  the  national  level,  not   reservations)   o   lowest  levels  of  life  expectancy,  per  capita  income,  employment,  and  education     o   Modern,  Pan-­‐Indian  organizations  have  grown  in  cities   •   Arab  Americans   o   Demographic  diversity   §   About  3.5  million  live  in  the  US  (less  than  1%  of  the  US  population)   •   22  nations  of  origin     §   Arabic  language  is  the  single  most  unifying  force     o   Arab  v.  Middle  Eastern  v.  Muslim   §   Largest  Arab  Americans  groups:   •   Lebanese  (37%)   •   Egyptian  (12%)  and  Syrian  (12%)     §   95%  of  Arabs  in  the  Middle  East  are  Muslim     •   most  Muslims  live  in  South  and  Southeast  Asia     §   Most  Arab  Americans  are  Christian  ******   •   Number  of  Muslim  Arab  Americans  is  growing     •   25%  of  Muslims  in  the  US  are  African  Americans     o   Immigration  waves   §   Two  Waves   §   1890s-­‐1920s   •   Christians:  coming  from  Lebanese  and  Syrian   •   Peddlers,  shopkeepers,  factory  workers   •   Rapid  assimilation     §   Post  1980   •   Tremendous  growth  since  1980   •   Iraqi,  Yemeni,  Palestinian,  Egyptian,  Jordanian   •   Fleeing  political  unrest   •   Muslims  predominate   •   Absorption  problematic     o   Settlement  patterns   §   California,  Florida,  Michigan,  New  Jersey  and  New  York   §   Largest  population  is  in  NYC  (per  capita,  per  head)  (true  of  every  group)   §   The  largest  concentration  of  Arabs  in  the  world,  outside  the  Middle  East,   is  in  Michigan  (%  of  our  population  is  the  highest)   •   1.2%  of  the  total  MI  population  (nationally  it  is  less  than  1%)   •   1/3  of  Dearborn  population  is  Arab   •   2/3  of  Dearborn’s  public  school  students  are  Arab     o   Immigrant  Characteristics   §   54%  are  foreign-­‐born   •   the  percentage  is  higher  in  Metro  Detroit     §   the  two  largest  populations  make  up  nearly  ¾  of  the  Metro  Detroit   population   •   Lebanon/Syria   •   Iraq   §   Simultaneously  old  and  new   •   Lebanese/Syrian  the  most  well-­‐established  (Christian)   •   Yemenis  are  the  newest  (Muslim)   §   Almost  all  the  Yemenis  in  Detroit  are  Muslim     §   Citizenship  rates  do  not  differ  by  country  of  origin,  religion,  or  gender   after  controlling  for  time  in  US     §   The  vast  majority  speak  English  fluently  but  speak  a  language  other  than   English  at  home       Racial  formation   •   Racial  formationà  society  is  continually  creating  and  transforming  racial  categories     o   One  Drop  Rule:  if  you  have  one  drop  of  African  ancestry  it  means  you  are  black.   Varies  by  state     o   Hispanics-­‐  can  identify  as  White,  but  may  not   o   Arab  Americans-­‐  US  government  classifies  them  as  White  but  they  know  they   aren’t  White,  and  they  know  they  aren’t  White.     o   2000  Census:  introduction  of  more  than  one  racial  category  (can  check  more   than  one  box)     §   2.9%  identified  themselves  as  multiracial  (reporting  more  than  one  race)         Racial  stratification   •   Racial  stratificationà  a  system  of  inequality  in  which  better  occupational  opportunities,   income,  and  education  are  afforded  to  Whites     o   Racial  problems  have  structural  foundations     §   Human  agency  never  disappears       Racism   •   Racismà  Belief  that  one  race  is  supreme  and  all  others  are  innately  inferior  (can  be   racist  but  not  be  acting  on  it)       Scapegoating   •   Scapegoating:  a  person  that  is  unfairly  blamed  for  problems     Stereotypes   •   Stereotypesà  unreliable  generalizations  about  all  members  of  a  group         Chapter  12     All  property  crimes   •   Household  burglary     •   Motor  vehicle  theft   •   Theft     All  steps  and  biases  of  the  judicial  process   •   Magistrate  and  the  Setting  of  Bail   o   Primary  functions  of  the  magistrate  are  to  inform  defendants  of  their  right  to   counsel,  to  assign  them  counsel  if  so  requested,  to  set  a  date  for  preliminary   hearing  and  to  set  a  bail   o   Bail:  posting  of  money  by  the  accused  to  guarantee  that  he  or  she  will  be  present   at  the  trial     o   Constitution  provides  the  right  to  bail  in  noncapital  cases     o   Problem=  the  amount  of  bail  to  be  posted  is  left  to  the  discretion  of  the   magistrate     §   Magistrates  tend  to  set  a  high  bail  for  protestors  and  minority  groups   which  violates  the  8  amendment     o   Problem=  magistrates  tend  to  set  bail  based  on  the  type  of  crime  alleged  instead   of  by  the  accused  ability  to  pay     o   Problem=  bail  bondspersons  have  the  power  to  decide  whom  they  will  bond  and   whom  they  will  not   o   *biggest  problem  with  bail-­‐setting  practice  is  that  it  imprisons  the  poor     •   Plea  Bargaining     o   Plea  bargaining:  arrangement  between  the  prosecution  and  the  accused   whereby  the  latter  pleads  guilty  in  return  for  a  reduced  charge     §   Provides  more  lenient  punishment     o   Fewer  than  10%  of  people  charged  with  crimes  ever  go  to  trial     o   Members  of  the  judicial  process  encourage  plea  bargaining  because  of  the   overwhelming  case  load  facing  the  police   o   The  poor  are  likely  to  plea  bargain     §   because  they  can’t  afford  a  lengthy  trial   §   because  if  they  can’t  pay  the  bail  they  have  to  stay  in  jail  until  their  trial   o   the  need  for  a  good  lawyer  is  high  in  plea  bargaining  situations   §   the  court  appointed  lawyer  poor  people  get  isn’t  as  good   •   Adversary  System   o   Adversary  system:  the  US  system  of  justice,  whereby  the  state  and  the  accused   engage  in  a  public  battle  to  argue  and  provide  evidence  before  an  impartial   judge  or  jury     o   For  this  to  work,  the  adversaries  must  be  relatively  equal  in  ability,  incentive  and   resources  (which  usually  isn’t  the  case)   o   Simpson  case=  money  changes  everything   o   80-­‐90%  of  all  felony  defendants  are  too  poor  to  hire  their  own  lawyer  and  are   represented  by  court-­‐appointed  lawyers   •   Trail  by  Jury   o   Certain  categories  of  people  are  underrepresented  on  juries   §   Minorities   §   People  not  registered  to  vote   §   Students   §   Low-­‐prestige  occupational  groups   o   Attorneys  for  the  state  and  the  accused  attempt  to  choose  jurors  who  are  likely   to  favor  their  particular  side   o   Juries  tend  to  be  more  lenient  than  judges     o   Because  jury  trials  increase  the  probability  of  acquittal  for  defendants,  they   should  be  equally  available  to  all  people     •   Judicial  Sentencing   o   Mandatory  sentencing:  by  law,  judges  must  incarcerate  certain  types  of  criminals   §   “three  strikes  and  you’re  out”-­‐  law  passed  by  the  federal  government  in   1994,  someone  found  guilty  of  three  serious  crimes  would  be  locked  up   for  life  with  no  hope  for  parole     §   problems:     §   1.  US  still  has  the  highest  crime  rates  so  its  not  working   §   2.  This  mandatory  provision  increases  the  demand  on  limited  prison   space     §   3.  The  prison  are  increasingly  populated  by  lower-­‐level  offenders     o   Determinate  sentencing:  for  a  given  offense,  a  judge  must  impose  a  sentence   that  is  within  the  guidelines  of  the  law     o   Until  the  1970s,  judges  had  a  lot  of  power  in  deciding  the  exact  punishment  for   convicted  criminals   o   Capital  Punishment:  killing  of  a  criminal  by  the  state   o   As  of  2012…   §   35  states  and  the  federal  prison  system  held  3,170  prisoners  under   sentence  of  death   §   98%  are  male   §   50%  have  less  than  a  high  school  education     §   racial  minorities  are  disproportionately  found  on  death  row     §   blacks  are  12.6%  of  the  population  but  made  up  42%  of  those  awaiting   execution  in  2012   All  victimless  crimes   •   Gambling,  recreational  drug  use,  and  prostitution     •   Victimless  Crimes:  acts  that  violate  moral  order  crimes;  they  may  offend  the  majority   but  they  do  not  harm  other  people   o   Argument  for  these  laws  is  that  the  state  has  a  right  to  preserve  the  morals  of  its   citizens  in  the  interest  of  promoting  social  stability  and  consensus     •   Many  so-­‐called  victimless  crimes  affect/hurt  other  people   o   Family  members  of  an  alcoholic,  drug  addict  or  compulsive  gambler  are  affected   both  materially  and  emotionally       All  violent  crimes   •   Rape/sexual  assault   •   Robbery  assault     Determinate  sentencing   •   Determinate  sentencing:  for  a  given  offense,  a  judge  must  impose  a  sentence  that  is   within  the  guidelines  of  the  law       Exoneration  trends   •   Sex   o   Higher  rates  of  male  arrests  than  females   o   Women’s  crime  rate  is  increasing     o   Men  are  more  likely  to  be  both  the  offender  and  the  victim  in  a  crime   o   Women’s  crime  rate  is  increasing   o   Women  experienced  the  largest  increase  in  arrests  for  larceny-­‐theft,  vagrancy,   and  driving  under  the  influence     o   The  national  imprisonment  rate  for  males  was  14  times  the  imprisonment  rate   for  females       •   Age   o   Young  people  commit  a  disproportionate  amount  of  street  crime     o   Incarceration  rates  peak  from  males  and  females  between  ages  24-­‐34     o   drop  off  sharply  for  males  after  age  49   o   drop  off  sharply  for  females  after  age  44     o   “maturation  leads  to  less  crime”  occurs  across  White,  Black  and  Hispanic   populations     •   Social  Class   o   Those  arrested  are  mostly  the  poor,  the  undereducated,  and  the  unemployed     o   Majority  of  people  processed  by  the  criminal  justice  system  for  committing   street  crimes  are  the  undereducated,  the  poor,  the  unemployed,  or  those   working  at  low-­‐level  alienating  jobs     o   Reasons  for  this   §   1.  Kinds  of  crimes  listed  by  the  FBI  are  those  of  lower  classes  (white-­‐collar   and  corporate  crimes  are  omitted)   §   2.  The  police  and  others  in  the  criminal  justice  system  assume  that  lower-­‐ class  people  are  more  likely  to  be  criminals   §   3.  Economic  deprivation  may  induce  people  to  turn  to  crime  to  ease  their   situations   o   households  in  the  lowest  income  category  were  victims  of  burglary  at  a  rate  that   was  more  than  2  times  higher  than  the  rate  of  households  earning  $75,000  or   more   o   those  in  lofty  occupational  and  political  roles  commit  white-­‐collar  crimes     o   white-­‐collar,  political  and  corporate  crimes  do  much  more  harm  to  society  than   crimes  by  the  poor  but  crimes  by  the  poor  are  seen  as  the  crime  problem     •   Race   o   Blacks  constitute  39.4%  of  arrests  for  violent  crimes  and  30.1%  of  arrests  for   property  crimes     o   People  labeled  as  criminals  in  the  US  are  disproportionally  people  of  color-­‐   African  Americans,  Hispanics  and  Native  Americans   o   Racial  minorities  commit  many  crimes  on  the  street  because  of  the  social   conditions  of  unemployment,  poverty,  and  racism  fall  more  heavily  on  them     Fair  Sentencing  Act   •   Fair  Sentencing  Act  (2010):  reduced  crack  cocaine  v.  powder  cocaine  sentencing   disparity  from  100:1  to  18:1  and  eliminated  the  5-­‐year  mandatory  minimum  for  simple   possession  of  crack  cocaine       Mandatory  sentencing   •   Mandatory  sentencing:  by  law,  judges  must  incarcerate  certain  types  of  criminals     National  Crime  Victimization  Survey   •   National  Crime  Victimization  Surveys     o   household  survey,  initiated  in  1972  by  the  US  Dept.  of  Justice     o   surveys  70,000  individuals  yearly  on  whether  they  were  victims  of  a  specific  set   of  crimes     o   54%  of  violent  victimizations  were  not  reported  to  police     §   simple  and  sexual  assaults  least  likely  to  be  reported       Peremptory  Strikes   •   a  right  in  jury  selection  for  the  attorneys  to  reject  a  certain  number  of  potential  jurors   without  stating  a  reason.   Police  and  policing   •   Formal  law  enforcement  policy  begins  with  the  police     •   Police  have  great  decisional  latitude     •   Police  support  the  status  quo   •   The  danger  inherent  in  their  occupation  promotes  a  particular  worldview  among  the   police   o   In  the  interest  of  self-­‐defense,  they  tend  to  assume  the  worst  of  people  they   believe  to  be  dangerous  (minorities,  protesters,  and  drug  users)     •   Police  tend  to  be  socially  isolated     o   Police  personnel  are  the  objects  of  hostility  for  many  (especially  minority  groups)   o   Police  tend  to  become  hostile  toward  members  of  certain  social  categories   overtime   o   Self-­‐fulfilling  prophecy:  police  are  harassed  by  victimized  categories  of  society  so   they  harass  their  tormentors  which  turns  into  charges  of  police  brutality     •   Suspects  who  are  poor,  minority  and  male  are  more  likely  to  be  formally  arrested  than   suspects  who  are  white,  affluent  and  female       Public  opinion  on  prison  population   Racial  profiling   •   Profilingà  any  police-­‐initiated  action  based  on  race,  ethnicity,  or  national  origin  rather   than  on  a  person’s  behavior     o   Often  based  on  explicit  stereotypes     o   Overwhelming  evidence  that  race  is  not  a  valid  predictor  of  criminal  behavior     o   Examples:  driving  while  black,  flying  while  Muslim     Recidivism   •   Recidivism  Rate:  the  return  to  crime  by  ex-­‐prisoners     o   50-­‐60%  of  inmates  in  US  prisons  or  jails  are  repeating  criminals     Stop  and  Frisk   •   Stop  and  Frisk  (violation  of  civil  liberties)  (young  black  men  and  latino  men  were  the   targets  of  this  program)  (over  half  of  the  stops  were  black  or  latino  men)  (whites  were   found  with  more  guns)     •   Part  of  racial  profiling       Three  Strikes  Rule   •   “three  strikes  and  you’re  out”-­‐  law  passed  by  the  federal  government  in  1994,  someone   found  guilty  of  three  serious  crimes  would  be  locked  up  for  life  with  no  hope  for  parole     •   Problems   o   1.  US  still  has  the  highest  crime  rates  so  its  not  working   o   2.  This  mandatory  provision  increases  the  demand  on  limited  prison  space     o   3.  The  prison  are  increasingly  populated  by  lower-­‐level  offenders     Uniform  Crime  Rates   •   FBI’s  Uniform  Crime  Report  (UCR)   o   Not  very  reliable  information   o   Based  on  arrest  figures  and  reports  supplied  by  law  enforcement  around  the   country     o   Violent  crimes:  murder,  forcible  rape,  robbery,  and  aggravated  assault   o   Property  Crimes:  burglary,  larceny-­‐theft,  motor  vehicle  theft,  and  arson   o   Limitations  of  Crime  Stats   §   Includes  only  crimes  reported  to  police     §   Minorities  are  less  likely  to  contact  police     §   Women  (everyone)  underreport  incidents  of  rape  and  domestic  assault     §   Excludes  many  other  criminal  offenses     •   Focuses  on  traditional  street  crimes  and  omits  white  collar,   corporate,  and  organized  crime        


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