Notes for Exam 3
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Exam Three Notes ▯ Rollo May: One th ▯ Much of his work was inspired by Kierkegaard, a 19 century theologian and pastor Did not understand reality through abstract logic and reasoning Relational truth: There is no one truth, what a person believes is true is unique to them o We cannot understand reality because there is no one truth, everyone’s experiences are different o No one can ever totally experience the world that we experience Phenomenology= ones individual experiences Angst results from knowledge and awareness o Animals are driven by instinct and do not know anything, whereas humans are driven by choices, humans are the only creatures that are aware of death, the knowledge of our death gives us anxiety which drives us to live our lives to the fullest Ex: Adam and Eve experienced angst because they wanted to eat the apple of knowledge, yet they had the knowledge that they were not supposed to ▯ ▯ Existentialism Emphasizes the existence of a human being and their responsibility to create their own individuals path Concerned with human existence, examines how humans live in the world o We actively live in the world and create it Phenomenological approach subjective (individual) reality is important We are concerned with infusing meaning in our lives, what is important to us Disagreement with Freud Increasing sexual freedom does not reduce psychological suffering The structural model and psychic determinism fosters depersonalization by fragmenting the person Freud believed that we had demons inside of us, making us do things (unconscious urges) May argued that we are responsible for our actions Existential neurosis relates to living without meaning and purpose ▯ ▯ Binswanger & Boss Adopted existentialism to increase a sense of meaning and responsibility and to decrease apathy o Holistic approach: focus on the individual person, total organization of the person, every aspect of their being o Ontological orientation: nature of being, living with meaning o Teleological orientation: future personal striving, having purpose and goals ▯ Human Dilemma Conflict between the self (a subject with free will) and the self as an object controlled by powerful external forces o Subjective (individual) mental state vs. objective mental state o A healthy person views these states equally and are able to go back and forth between the two Criticism of Carl Rogers o Overemphasis on the subject side, assuming that we are naturally good and prone to making rational thoughts and decisions Criticism of Skinner o Overemphasis on the object side, assuming that we are controlled by the environment and are deprived of free will ▯ ▯ Being in the World (Dasein) Dasein= being in the world We have an inborn need to actively live in the world and develop a sense of self and purpose o Strive to be autonomous (independent) and distinct (unique) o This development occurs unconsciously and consciously People have a strong sense of who they are, their strengths and limitations Composed of three co-existing interrelated regions o Umwelt, Mitwelt and Eigenwelt The stronger their sense of Dasein, the healthier a person is Umwelt Mode of Dasein The environment around us, has to do with ones physical and biological world Throwness= conditions we are born into o Ex: culture, parents, temperament ▯ ▯ Mitwelt Mode of Dasein Our world with others, our need to form personal relationships with others for the sake of our well being social isolation contributes to an impaired well being Meaningful existence cannot be achieved through isolation o Similar to Adler and Horney who emphasize similar theories ▯ ▯ Eigenwelt Mode of Dasein Our relationship with ourselves, our self awareness Unique to the individual, our belief systems and sense of spirituality Allows us to: o Accurately judge what we want and do not want Knowing what is good and bad for us o Evaluate our experiences o Experience feelings of emptiness and alienation distorted Eigenwelt (not having a realistic idea of you are) Ex: Teenage rebellion against parents: Teenagers do not have a full sense of who they are turns into angst and anxiety leading to the rejection of the parents Having a sense of Eigenwelt allows us to thrive in the world ▯ ▯ Mental Health Deals with resisting social pressures while maintaining Dasein Growth is when a person discovers their potential and value o This discovery is achieved by taking on personal responsibilities living an active and spontaneous life Responsibility is choosing your own thoughts, feelings and actions May on Drives Drives detach us from our personal responsibilities and turns us away from reality ▯ Rollo May: Two ▯ Life as a daily confrontation with mortality: we are constantly dealing with the fact that we are eventually all going to die ▯ ▯ Being: Sense of Existing as a Creative and Dynamic Organism Compared to the phenomenology of living Compared to teleology (purpose) and ontology (meaning) Being= transforming Reducing anxiety and angst by creating our own way of living, using the angst as a motivator to connect us with our fellow world Healthy people have a sense of who they are, what they allow and what is important to them serve as a map for how to achieve goals in their life ▯ ▯ Nonbeing (Death) One absolute fact of our existence, inevitable Opposite of being Physical and psychological stasis (no change) Metaphorical death is also possible to symbolically die, when a part of us dies (like a person in our life who is no longer present) o Ex: divorce No phenomenology: o Physical functions breathing, feeling, hunger, sight, touch o Intrapersonal factors hope, dreams, beliefs, meaning and purpose o Interpersonal factors love competition, disappointment ▯ Angst According to Kierkegaard angst= fear of nothingness Relates to the deteriorating self or the termination of existence Having a strong sense of self-hood combats angst and meaninglessness o This stems from having a good set of beliefs that provide meaning and purpose Identity is the compass that enables us to deal with the challenges of life Ontological anxiety= threat of nonbeing, psychological destruction anxiety o Occurs at every meaningful challenge, a threat to anything meaningful triggers anxiety/ angst o Meaningful challenges relate to the assertion of Dasein (creativity process involving risk and the threat of loss) Clash between being and nonbeing** Having a sense of psychological destruction can inhibit ones creativity because they do not take risks ▯ ▯ Existential Neurosis Represented by o Guilt, emotional numbness, apathy, alienation, constriction of Dasein, decreased tolerance and acceptance of ontological anxiety ▯ ▯ Will and Intentionality Disintegration of values and complex problems lack of internal sense of purpose decreased ability to imagine future states problems with evolving a life focus or organizing the future o A loss of values that guide us and help us understand the world in a meaningful way leads us to loose our sense of purpose which leads us to not be able to strive for the future which in turn leads us unable to evolve Intentionality= when you intend to do something o We have motives to act and achieve our self selected goals at the unconscious and conscious level Will= Getting yourself to do things to make things happen, conscious effort to act with intentionality Neurosis of Modern Times lack of intentionality resulting in feelings of apathy loneliness, anxiety and guilt ▯ ▯ Goals of Psychotherapy Try to reinstate repressed Dasein Increase responsibility for living Find lost will ▯ Humanistic Psychology: Carl Rogers ▯ Actualizing Tendency All motivation is ruled by an innate drive towards growth and development we want to develop our potential and become more complicated and mature human beings o Ex: Babies have the ability to develop speech but do not have the complicated skills yet Unhealthy societies block personal growth which leads to psychic conflict Structure of Personality Phenomenal field= Private inner experiences that we are the center of, awareness at a given moment o No one can share the phenomenal field because it is person to the individual, it can only be understood by accurate empathy Most information is processed outside of our awareness, we process information constantly when we aren’t even thinking about it At first we have to think about what we are doing and then it becomes automatic o Ex: Driving Organismic valuing process= innate and subconscious ability to sense what is beneficial for human growth and what will prevent growth (what is good for us and what is bad for us) Self concept o Conscious viewing of ourselves as a separate and distinct being Self- Actualizing Tendency= Trying to be something you are not (striving to be like the ideal self) o If our self concept is inaccurate, we are separated from reality o Mental health is equated with a state of congruence (when the self concept is in line with the organismic valuing process) Self concept is congruent with organismic valuing process Self- actualization is congruent with actualization tendency Congruence An even feeling between the real self and the ideal self o Congruence is very important for accurate self perception and communication o In order for a therapist to help a client, the therapist must be able to relate to the client o Very important for psychotherapy to be successful o The therapist must be genuine and not put on a front so the patient can relate to them and feel comfortable ▯ ▯ Incongruence Leads to interpersonal problems and emotional suffering Selective attention: incongruent individuals see what they want to see as a defense mechanism against anxiety and confusion Occurs at childhood when children are told that they are being ”bad” and “good” children internalizing conditions of worth ▯ ▯ Successful Interpersonal Relationships Must have self respect and self love respecting yourself leads to the respect of others Living in the present If we are comfortable in our own skin we will have a greater capacity to be respectful of other people Brought up with unconditional positive regard from family ▯ ▯ Therapy Rogers believed that the patient was is the best judge of what they need to work on Therapist must o Be supportive and nondirective o Client oriented o Provide patient with unconditional positive regard most patients will improve if they feel accepted by others o Provide empathetic understanding of client o ▯ Humanistic Psychology: Abraham Maslow ▯ Humanistic Biology Our inner nature is basically good or at worst neutral We are biologically driven to work towards our potential Neurosis results from social and cultural restriction of inner nature (when we cant be ourselves) ▯ ▯ Structure of Personality Hierarchy of needs consists of 5 levels o Deficiency needs (D-Motives) which create a drive state to fulfill a need First 4 levels of the need hierarchy 1. Physiological needs lowest level/ base of the triangle: need for food, water, sleep and sex Needs essential to human survival 2. Safety needs stable environment free from chaos, threat and anxiety 3. Belongingness and Love needs person looks for love and friendship (affection, elation, tenderness, sexual arousal) D-love: selfish desire to be loved by others, serves the purpose of providing security and safety 4. Esteem needs need for self confidence and respect, desire for recognition o Growth needs (B- motives) which is motivation to grow , motivated by “beauty, truth and justice” B-love: non possessive and unconditional regard for another person, allows the growth of each person, Fifth level 5. Self actualization development of a persons full potential, spiritually fulfilled and comfortable with themselves: they are loving, ethical, creative and productive Self actualized people are able to tell if others are being fake or dishonest, generally can judge people accurately Accepting, spontaneous, problem centered o Can achieve peak experiences powerful experiences in which people feel at one with the world Fear of achieving self actualization= “Jonah Complex” afraid of the responsibilities and unknown consequences of self actualization Self actualization Historical Figures Einstein, Eleanor Roosevelt, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington Self actualizers tend to be trail blazers
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