Study Guide 3
Study Guide 3 PY 358
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Davis on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 358 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Theodore Tomeny in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Exam 3 Study Guide (Chapters 8-11) PY 358 – Abnormal Psychology Instructor: Dr. Tomeny Chapter 8 Key terms: Be familiar with the following terms. While knowing deﬁnitions is important, it is equally important that you are able to apply these terms in real-world contexts to various aspects of abnormal psychology. erectile disorder: a condition with persistent and recurrent inability to maintain an adequate erection until completion of sexual activity exhibitionistic disorder: the recurrent fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving exposing one’s genitals to an unsuspecting stranger female orgasmic disorder: a condition with persistent and recurrent delay or absence of orgasm following the normal excitement phase; sometimes called anorgasmia female sexual interest/arousal disorder: a condition with persistent or recurrent inability to maintain adequate vaginal lubrication and swelling response until the completion of sexual activity fetishistic disorder: the sexual arousal (fantasies, urges, or behaviors) that involves nonliving objects (not limited to female clothing used in cross- dressing) frotteuristic disorder: the consistent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving touching and rubbing against a non consenting person gender dysphoria: a strong and persistent cross-sex identiﬁcation in which a person’s biological sex and gender identity do not match genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder: the consistent genital pain associated with sexual intercourse male hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a condition with reduced or absent sexual desires or behaviors, either with a partner or through masturbation pedophilic disorder: the consistent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a child or children not yet 14 years old; the person involved is at least 16 years old and at least 5 years older than the child or children premature (early) ejaculation: a persistent or recurrent pattern of ejaculation occurring during partnered sexual activity with approximately 1 minute following vaginal penetration and before the individual wishes it sex reassignment surgery: a series of behavioral and medical procedures that matches an individual’s physical anatomy to gender identity sexual dysfunctions:the absence or impairment of some aspect of sexual response that causes distress or impairment considering age, sex, and culture sexual masochism disorder: a person’s consistent intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving actual acts of being humiliated, beaten, bound or otherwise made to suffer sexual sadism disorder: the consistent sexual arousal that occurs when one inﬂicts acts of humiliation, beating, bondage, or acts of suffering on another person transgender behavior: the behavioral attempt to pass as the opposite sex through cross- dressing, disguising one’s own sexual genitalia, or changing other sexual characteristics transsexualism: another term for gender dysphoria commonly used to describe the condition when it occurs in adolescents and adults transvestic disorder: the sexual arousal in men that results from wearing women’s clothing and is accompanied by signiﬁcant distress or impairment voyeuristic disorder: the consistent intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors centered on observing an unsuspecting person who is naked, disrobing, or engaging in sexual activity Application of terms/concepts: - Be familiar with the sexual response cycle and which disorders are associated with the different parts of the sexual response cycle 4 phases: • desire (male hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual interest/arousal disorder, erectile disorder) • arousal (same as above) • orgasm (female orgasmic disorder, delayed ejaculation and premature ejaculation) • resolution (genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder) - What’s the difference between “sex” and “gender” as it relates to this set of disorders? sex- determined by chromosomes, parts of biological body, anatomy of reproductive system and the secondary sex characteristics gender- gender role, social role based on the sex of the person, personal identiﬁcation of ones own gender based on an internal awareness (gender identity) - How are disorders of sexual dysfunction, gender dysphoria, and paraphilias different? • Gender Dysphoria- individuals have an incongruence between their biological sex and what they want to be called/ their gender. functional impairments include peer rejection, social isolation, negative moods and depression Sexual Dysfunction- absence or impairments of some aspect of sexual response that causes • distress or impairment (considers age, sex, and culture). Includes disorders of sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and pain • Paraphilia- intense and persistent sexual interests other than sexual interest in genital stimulation or preparatory fondling with phenotypically normal, physically mature consenting human partners. Disorders occur when paraphilia cause distress or impairment to the person or when the satisfaction of a paraphilia has caused harm or risk of harm to another person - How do the major models explain the development of these disorders? • Gender Dysphoria: biological- brains of transexual males similar to heterosexual females not homosexual males, prenatal hormone levels effect development, hormonal conditions (CAH- congenital adrenal hyperplasia- missing enzyme needed to make a hormone), androgen production. psychosexual- parental rejection, parent-child relationship • Sexual Dysfunction: Biological- hormonal imbalances (hypothyroidism and hypogonadism), menopausal changes, testosterone decrease with age, physical disorders (cardiovascular, hypertension, diabetes, kidney failure, cancer…) can decrease sexual desire and performance, decreased androgens, alcohol and drugs can create temporary sexual dysfunction, drugs block dopamine receptors or serotonin repute in the brain also delay ejaculation. Psychosocial factors- negative emotion states (depression) can be associated with sexual dysfunction, anxiety and stress, classical conditioning, couple distress, negative life events, aging • paraphilia: etiology is unknown. Biological- endocrine abnormalities and neuroanatomical/ neurochemical studies fail to detect speciﬁc abormalities. Psychosocial- common belief that people who were abused as children abuse others but data doesn't support this. behavioral conditioning reinforces the negative behaviors - You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the sexual disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with which disorders and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another • Gender Dysphoria: a marked incongruence between ones experienced/expressed gender and the assigned gender, of at least 6 months duration • Male Hypoactive sexual Desire Disorder: persistently or recurrently deﬁcient or absent sexual/ erotic thoughts or fantasies and desire for sexual activity. Often associated with decreased sexual desire include low sexual satisfaction, the presence of another sexual dysfunction(such as pain), negative thoughts about sexuality, and other forms of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety, and couple distress • Female Sexual Interest/ Arousal Disorder: signiﬁcantly reduced or absent sexual interest/ arousal as indicated by reduced interest in sexual activity or lack of sexual excitement/ pleasure/response during sexual activity. When symptoms are primarily psychological the condition is sometimes called subjective sexual arousal disorder. When symptoms are physiological it can be called genital sexual arousal disorder and there are subjective feelings of sexual desire but not physiological response • Erectile Disorder: also known as erectile dysfunction, is the repeated failure to obtain or maintain erections during partnered sexual activities. diagnosis isn't given unless there is consistent inability to achieve or maintain an erection or there is marked decrease in erectile rigidity • Delayed Ejaculation: also called retarded ejaculation, marked delay in or inability to achieve ejaculation despite adequate sexual stimulation (not as common as premature ejaculation) • Female Orgasmic Disorder: a difﬁculty experiencing orgasm and/or markedly reduced intensity of orgasmic sensations. sometimes called anorgasmia. Symptoms must occur on all or almost all sexual activity experiences • Premature (early) Ejaculation: a persistent or recurrent pattern of ejaculation occurring during partnered sexual activity within approximately 1 minute following vaginal penetration and before the individual wishes it. Also deﬁned as the lack of control over ejaculation or inability to inhibit ejaculation long enough for a partner to reach orgasm 50% of the time Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder: pain in the vaginal or pelvic region. Men also report • pain during sexual intercourse • Fetishistic Disorder: recurrent and intense sexual arousal (fantasies, urges, or behaviors) that involves nonliving objects or a highly speciﬁc focus on nonessential body parts. Most common objects are female underwear, stockings, footwear, or other apparel. Sexual arousal must be accompanied by clinically signiﬁcant distress or impairment in order to be considered a disorder • Transvestic Disorder: recurrent and intense sexual arousal that results from cross-dressing and is accompanied by signiﬁcant distress or impairment. Not every man who cross dresses suffers from functional transvestic fetishism • Pedophilic Disorder: recurrent and intense sexual urges, sexually arousing fantasies or behaviors involving sexual activity directed toward a prepubescent child or children. Diagnosis is appropriate if the person has acted on the urges or fantasies but denies distress or functional impairment. pedophile and child molester are not synonyms Exhibitionistic Disorder: recurrent and intense sexual arousal involving exposing ones • genitals to an unsuspecting person. may also include the act of masturbation in front of a stranger • Frotteuristic Disorder: recurrent or intese arousal (in the form of urges, fantasies, or behaviors) the involve touching or rubbing against a non consenting person. Behavior occurs in public places such as crowded buses or subways. Areas of contact are primarily thighs, buttocks, genitals or breasts. Usually person fantasizes about a positive emotional relationship with the victim • Voyeuristic Disorder: involves sexually arousing urges, ,fantasies, and behaviors that are associated with seeing an unsuspecting person naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity. To be considered a disorder the person must experience signiﬁcant distress or perform actual voyeuristic acts • Sexual Masochism Disorder: recurrent and intense sexual arousal that occurs as a result of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer. Events actually occur and are not simulated • Sexual Sadism Disorder: involves inﬂiction of pain or humiliation but the physical or psychological suffering is inﬂicted on another person. Disorder found primarily among males. Chapter 9 Key Terms: amphetamines: a group of stimulant drugs that prolong wakefulness and surprise appetite barbiturates: sedatives that act on the GABA system in a manner similar to alcohol benzodiazepines: a group of sedatives that can be used responsibly and effectively for the short term but still have addictive properties caffeine: a central nervous system stimulant that boosts energy, mood, awareness, concentration, and wakefulness cocaine: a stimulant that comes from the leaves of the coca plant that is indigenous to South America crystal methamphetamine: a form of methamphetamine that produces longer lasting and more intense physiological reactions than the powdered form delirium tremens: a symptom characterized by disorientation, sever agitation, high blood pressure, and fever, which can last up to 3 to 4 days after stopping drinking detoxiﬁcation: a medically supervised drug withdrawal Ecstasy: the pill form of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a common “club” drug and a frequent trigger for emergency room visits fetal alcohol syndrome: a condition in babies that occurs when pregnant mothers drink alcohol and it passes through the placenta and harms the developing fetus; it is the leading known preventable environmental cause of intellectual disability hallucinogens: drugs that produce altered states of bodily perception and sensations, intense emotions, detachment from self environment, and for some users, feeling of insight with mystical or religious signiﬁcance inhalants: the vapors from a variety of chemicals that yield an immediate effect of euphoria or sedation and can cause permanent damage to all organ systems including the brain lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): a synthetic hallucinogen, ﬁrst synthesized in 1938 marijuana: a drug derived from the cannabis sativa plant that produces mild intoxication methadone: the most widely known agonist substitute; used as a replacement for heroin nicotine: a highly addictive component of tobacco that is considered to be both a stimulant and a sedative opioids: a drug group derived from the opium poppy which includes heroin, morphine, and codeine relapse prevention: the treatment approach that uses functional analysis to identify the antecedents and consequences of drug use and then develops alternative cognitive and behavioral skills to reduce the risk of future drug use sedative drugs: a substance group including barbiturates and benzodiazepines which are central nervous system depressants and cause sedation and decrease anxiety substance intoxication: the acute effects of substance use substance abuse: the ingestion of a substance that leads to disruption in social, educational, or occupational functioning tetrahydrocannabinol: the active ingredient in marijuana tolerance: the diminished response to a drug after repeated exposure to it withdrawal: a set of symptoms associated with physical dependence on a drug that occur when the drug is no longer taken - Be able to differentiate between the different levels of substance use (e.g., use, abuse, dependence, intoxication) • Use: low to moderate use experiences that do not produce problems with social, educational, or occupational functioning. Drinking caffeinated sodas daily, drinking a beer or two at weekend parties, having wine with dinner, smoking marijuana occasionally. Use does not impair functioning • Abuse: use of substance to the point of impairment. results in the failure to fulﬁll major role obligations at work, school or home • Dependence: often take larger amounts over a longer period of time than was intended (tolerance), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use, a great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance, substance still used despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance • Intoxication: categorized as a substance-induced disorder. acute affects of substance use. reversible (one comes down from the intoxicated state) and substance speciﬁc (the features of intoxication vary with the substance ingested). Also results in maladaptive behavioral or psychological changes associated with the central nervous system. Symptoms emerge shortly after drug use - Who is at greatest risk for substance use disorders? • being around substance and other users creates a greater risk (social settings) • people with differences in neurobiology- defects in the reward pathway family genetic component • • operant conditioning- drug induced euphoria has a positive physical feeling and reinforcement (do drugs because you don't want the withdrawal) • experimentation during adolescence, drug involvement is progressive - Be familiar with how and why certain substances are dangerous (i.e., what’s their mechanism of action/effect on the body?). Why are they so addictive? Licit Drugs: • Caffeine: CNS stimulant, boosts energy/mood/awareness/concentration/wakefulness. Impact on neurotransmitters(adenosine and serotonin). Most commonly used drug. Health effects- cardiovascular disorders, reproductive problems, osteoporosis, cancer, psychiatric disturbances Nicotine: highly addictive, can enter the bloodstream via the lungs (smoking), mucus • membranes of the mouth or nose (chewing tobacco/snuff), and skin (transdermal patch). It is a stimulant and a sedative. rapid action and rapid effect. Stimulates the adrenal glands causing a discharge of epinephrine(feeling of a rush/kick). Leads to a glucose release and increases blood pressure, respiration, and heart rate. Releases dopamine in the brain which directly affects the brains pleasure and motivation centers • Alcohol: depressant, absorbed by the stomach and intestines into blood. Impacts the neurotransmitter GABA and causes more to be released. Physiological and psychological impact on the body- impairment ranges. Illicit Drugs: • Marijuana: when smoked it can enter the brain and last for 1-3 hours. Active ingredient THC is received by brain receptors which inﬂuence pleasure, persistent memory loss, impairment of attention, learning skills, and motor movement. most frequent illicit substance. activates the brains reward system by stimulating the release of dopamine leading to the feelings of euphoria and “high”. • Amphetamines: stimulant drug that prolongs wakefulness and suppresses appetite. ecstasy(pill form) is a club drug. Crystal methamphetamine produces longer physiological effects. increase heart rate and blood pressure, damage blood vessels in the brain (causes stroke). Users can develop paranoid anxiety, confusion, insomnia (these psychotic symptoms can continue for years after stopped use). Over time become violent and aggressive, suffer from emaciation and malnutrition, tolerance develops rapidly • Cocaine: used as a pain killer and stimulant, increased dopamine levels. Has anesthetic and conversant effects. Produces immediate euphoric effects. powerful effects thought to be caused by inhibiting nerve cells reabsorption of dopamine- stimulation of reward pathways increases and provides more positive feelings • Sedative drugs: 2 classes- Barbiturates(sedatives that act on GABA system in a manner similar to alcohol) and benzodiazepines(sedatives that can be responsibly and effectively used for the short term but still have addictive properties). legal when prescribed but can become over sedated, high potential for overdose. creates problems with thinking and interacting with others. • Opioids: heroin, morphine, codeine. Used to treat physical pain, causes numbness. Impacts neurotransmitters (endorphins). tolerance develops rapidly (2-3 days) • LSD and natural hallucinogens: produce altered states of bodily perception and sensations, intense emotion, detachment from self and environment, feelings of insight with mystical/ religious signiﬁcance. causes psychological symptoms like emotional swings, panic, and paranoia. not considered addictive because there is no withdrawal. dangerous because of a “bad trip” • Inhalants: vapors from a variety of chemicals that yield an immediate effect of euphoria or sedation. causes permanent damage to the brain and organs (irreversible), nerve damage (muscle spasms and tremors) - You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the substance use disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with each disorder and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another Chapter 10 Key Terms: antipsychotics: a class of medications that block dopamine receptors at the neuron receptor sites atypical antipsychotics: a group of medication that effectively treats positive symptoms, is much less likely to produce tardive dyskinesia, and have some effect on the negative symptoms and cognitive impairments brief psychotic disorder: the sudden onset of any psychotic symptom that may resolve after 1 day and does not last for more than 1 month catatonia: a condition in which a person is awake but is unresponsive to external stimulation cognitive impairment: the diminishment in visual and verbal learning and memory, inability to pay attention, decreased speed of information processing, and inability to engage in abstract reasoning, any or all of which may be found in different psychotic disorders conventional or typical antipsychotics: medications that effectively reduce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but produce serious side effects delusion: a false belief delusional disorder: a condition in which a person has a non bizarre delusion, no other psychotic symptoms, and few changes in overall functioning other than the behaviors immediately surrounding the delusion delusions of inﬂuence: the belief that other people are controlling one’s thoughts or behaviors dopamine hypothesis: the theory that a cause of schizophrenia in the presence of too much dopamine in the neural synapses early-onset schizophrenia: a form of schizophrenia that develops in childhood or adolescence (usually before age 18) expressed emotion: a concept used to describe the level of emotional involvement and critical attitudes that exist within the family of a patient with schizophrenia gene–environment correlation: the person who contributes to a patients genetic makeup and provides the environment in which the patient lives hallucination: a false sensory perception negative symptoms: the behaviors, emotions, or though processes (cognitions) that exist in people without a psychiatric disorder but are absent (or substantially diminished) in people with schizophrenia persecutory delusions: a patient’s belief that someone is persecuting him or her or that the person is a special agent/ individual positive symptoms: a group of schizophrenic symptoms including unusual thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that vary in intensity and in many cases are responsive to treatment psychomotor retardation: a condition in which a person has slowed mental or physical activities psychosis: a severe mental condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality schizoaffective disorder: a condition in which, in addition to all of the symptoms of schizophrenia, the patient suffers from a major depressive, manic, or mixed episode disorder at some point during the illness schizophrenia: a severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganization in thought, perceptions, and behavior schizophreniform disorder: a condition with symptoms that are identical to those of schizophrenia except that its duration is shorter (less than 6 months) and it results in less impairment in social or occupational functioning tardive dyskinesia: a neurological condition characterized by abnormal and involuntary motor movements of the face, mouth, limbs, and trunk Application of terms/concepts: - What is psychosis? Under what conditions can it occur? Psychosis is a mental condition characterized by a loss of contact with reality. People who are psychotic have false thoughts (delusions) and/or see or hear things that are not there (hallucinations). These are referred to as “positive” symptoms; “negative” symptoms like loss of motivation and social withdrawal can also occur. - Be able to differentiate delusions from hallucinations • Delusions: a false belief (delusions of inﬂuence-thought withdrawal, thought broadcasting, or thought insertion) • Hallucinations: a false sensory perception - Be familiar with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia and how they differ. How does schizophrenia typically develop and change over time? • Positive Symptoms: unusual thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, symptoms that shouldn't be there, delusions, loose associations, thought blocking, clang associations, catatonia and waxy ﬂexibility, hallucinations(usually hearing voices), neologisms(making up words). • Negative Symptoms: behaviors, emotions, or thoughts that are absent in people with schizophrenia, blunted effect, anhedonia(inability to experience pleasure), avolition(don’t care), alogia(decreased speech), psychomotor retardation, cognitive impairment, social withdraw There are 4 phases of development: • Gradual Onset: some deterioration of functioning • Prodromal Phase: social withdrawal, deterioration in hygiene • Acute Phase: starts to exhibit positive symptoms • Residual Phase: psychotic symptoms no longer present but negative symptoms remain -onset could be acute or gradual (could have disorder for years before actively showing symptoms) - Know the different types of hallucinations and delusions (auditory, tactile, paranoid, grandeur, etc.) • Auditory: most common, range from simple noises to one or more voices of either gender. voices most commonly negative in quality and content but on occasion can be comforting or kind. exclusive to schizophrenia are hallucinations that keep a running commentary on the individuals behavior or several voices that have a conversation • Visual: less common and mostly occur in the most severe form of the disorder. common examples include seeing the devil or a dead relative or a friend • Tactile: touch Paranoid: thinking someone is out to get you • • Grandeur: characterized by fantastical beliefs that one is famous, omnipotent, wealthy, or otherwise very powerful. The delusions are generally fantastic and typically have a supernatural, science-ﬁctional, or religious theme. - Be familiar with the models used to explain schizophrenia Biological: dopamine hypothesis (the presence of too much dopamine in the neural synapse), • neurotransmitters (deﬁcits in serotonin, GABA, glutamate), neuroanatomy and brain structure/ function- enlarged ventricles, viral theories/prenatal theories, synaptic pruning(weaker synaptic contacts in brain are eliminated and stronger connections are strengthened) doesn't happen Genetics and the Environment: risk of developing is 15% if one parent has it and 50% of both • parents, genetic and environmental factors increase the risk of psychotic disorders and even if no genetic risk is there they can still develop • Family Inﬂuences: schizophrenogenic mother (dominant, cold, aggressive, rejecting), expressed emotion (level of emotional involvement and attitudes that exist within a family of a patient with schizophrenia- may be the cause or the result) - You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the psychotic disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with each disorder and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another • Schizophrenia- severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganization in thought, perception, and behavior. symptom severity is equal to the level of impairment. signiﬁcant human toll on individual and family. Positive outcomes more common in developing countries • Brief Psychotic Disorder: sudden onset of psychotic symptoms does not last for more than a month • Schizophreniform Disorder: symptoms last less than 6 months • Schizoaffective Disorder: schizophrenia and depression or mania or both • Delusion Disorder: presence of non bizarre delusions Chapter 11 Key Terms: antisocial personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others avoidant personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation borderline personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affect with marked impulsive features such as frantic efforts to avoid real of imagined abandonment Cluster A: a group of personality disorders that include characteristic ways of behaving that can be viewed as odd, quirky, or eccentric; includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders Cluster B: a group of personality disorders that include characteristic ways of behaving that can be viewed as exaggerated, inﬂated, dramatic, emotional, or erratic; includes antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, and historionic personality disorders Cluster C: a group of personality disorders that include characteristic ways of behaving that are marked by considerable anxiety or withdrawal; includes avoidant, dependent, and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders dependent personality disorder: a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of by others that leads to dependency and fears of being left alone histrionic personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking narcissistic personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration from others, and lack of empathy obsessive-compulsive personality disorder: a pervasive preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control to the point of distress paranoid personality disorder: a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent personality disorder: an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior tat deviates from the norm, is pervasive and inﬂexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable across time, and leads to distress or impairment schizoid personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of social detachment and a limited expression of emotion in interpersonal contexts schizotypal personality disorder: a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deﬁcits marked by acute discomfort, reduced capacity for close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and behavioral eccentricities temperament: personality components that are biological or genetic in origin, observable from birth (or perhaps before), and relatively stable across time and situations Application of terms/concepts: - How do psychologists differentiate normal from abnormal personalities? personality- a unique and long term pattern of inner experience and outward behavior that leads to consistent reactions across various settings, a sum of the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics personality disorder- enduring pattern of pervasive and inﬂexible experiences and behaviors that deviate from expectations of ones culture and leads to distress or impairment state (short term) vs trait (long term characteristic) vs disorder (no longer consistent with culture expectations) - What is unique about personality disorders and why does this make them so difﬁcult to treat? -have few biological or observable signs -cant be detected through a blood test -3 Ps for patterns of behavior: persistent(overtime), Pervasive(over multiple people/situations) and Pathological (clearly abnormal) - Know the characteristics of the three clusters. Cluster A: Odd, eccentric, quirky • Paranoid- fears information will be used against them, question loyalty and trustworthiness, suspect inﬁdelity in a sexual or romantic partner, quick to rebut in angry manner • Schizoid- being neutral regarding praise or criticism, lack of enjoyment in activities, lack of emotionality, preference for isolation, lack of desire for relationships, few friends Schizotypal- usually perceptual experiences and odd thinking/speech, suspicious and • paranoid, inappropriate emotional expression, limited number of friends and relatives, odd eccentric or peculiar beliefs, ideas of reference and abnormal beliefs Cluster B: behaviors viewed as exaggerated, inﬂated, dramatic, erratic • Antisocial Personality Disorder- failure to conﬁrm to social norms with respect to the law, age at least 18 with evidence of conduct disorder before 15, impulsivity or lack of planning skills, irritability, regular irresponsibility - a lot of people in prison/ high proﬁle • Narcissistic- a grandiose sense of self importance, preoccupation with success, a belief that one is special/unique, need for excessive admiration, sense of entitlement, exploitation of others for personal ends, lack of empathy, envy of others pf the belief others are envious of oneself, arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes • Borderline- signiﬁcant, consistent, unstable self perception, inappropriate irritability or expression of anger, recurrent suicidal behavior, gestures or threats, impulsivity in at least two destructive areas, chronic feelings of emptiness and emotional instability, a pattern of strained interpersonal relationships. On a continuum from mild to severe, difﬁcult, treatment resistant, manipulative, demanding, attention seeking • Histrionic- showing inappropriate sexually seductive and extreme emotionality, using physical appearance as a means of getting attention, perceiving relationships as more intimate than they are in reality, inappropriate irritability and speaking in an impressionistic manner, uncomfortable when not the center of attention Cluster C: considerable anxiety or withdrawal, obsessionally, fear of independence • Avoidant- avoid occupational activity because fear or rejection, avoidance of interaction with others unless sure of being liked, fear of rejection, preoccupation with fear of being negatively evaluated, discomfort and reluctance in social situations- symptoms are more severe than social anxiety disorder • Dependent- indecisiveness and need for excessive reassurance, needs others to be responsible for most aspects of his/her life, difﬁculty communicating disagreement for fear of being rejected, lack of self conﬁdence, goes to extreme lengths to get approval from others, feelings of discomfort when alone, need to seek new relationships when one ends Obsessive Compulsive- have OCD and like it, extreme devotion to productivity to • exclusion of leisure activities, preoccupied with rules, orderliness, structure, rigidity, stubbornness, extreme strictness about morality, inability to discard old/ useless objects - How do we treat personality disorders? What are common techniques? Biological- medication, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics psychological- cognitive behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), impatient therapy hard to treat individual because individual isnt typically distressed ﬁve factor model of personality used to diagnose people do not always ﬁt in one of the disorders boxes, personality disorders NOS, some believe personality disorders are not clear cut categories - You won’t be asked to list every symptom of the personality disorders, but be able to recognize which major symptoms are associated with each disorder and know how these disorders are differentiated from one another *disorders listed above*
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