EBIO Diversity of Life Midterm #3 Study Guide
EBIO Diversity of Life Midterm #3 Study Guide EBIO 1010-02
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ian Seaman on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Fungi Characteristics 1. specialized to absorb or extract nutrients from environment 2. fungi are more related with animals 3. made up of tiny filaments called hyphae which gives a large surface area for digestion 4. fungal cell walls are made of chitin (also found in arthropods) 5. many can grow as single cells (also known as the yeast form) 6. the cross walls (septa) are rarely complete, they are usually just an opening 7. some do not have internal cell walls (a tube) which may explain why fungi grow rapidly Reproduction in Fungi 1. fungi nucleus is typically haploid (n) 2. only zygote is diploid, which divides by meiosis to form spores 3. Septa/cross walls are only complete when hyphae are ready to reproduce 4. hyphae may have more than one nucleus 5. Sexual Reproduction the fusion of two haploid hyphae of compatible mating types 6. Spores are the most common means of reproduction, they can be dispersed by wind Nutrition in Fungi 1. fungi are heterotrophs, usually parasitic or saprobic (consumers of dead matter) 2. all fungi digestion is extracellular 3. fungi obtain food by secreting digestive enzymes to break down the nutrients 4. fungi can also break down cellulose (plants) and lignin 5. some can also be predators Kingdom Fungi: Phyla Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Basidiomycota Ascomycota chytrids bread molds endomycorrhizal mushrooms morels, molds aquatic, named for the forms many are yeasts flagellated fungi zygospore intracellular sources of food, unicellular association with some are ascomycetes, 90% of plants hallucinogenic/ reproduce (arbuscular poisonous assexually by mycorrhizae) budding related to not a fungus cannot named for named for ascus ancestral fungi monophyletic survive without Basidium group host possess motile zygospores form represents a spore includes zoospores new hyphae mutualism germination Penicillin species causes lack septa in capable of heterokaryotic global decline in hyphae except increasing crop can be asexual frogs for reproduction yields (conidia) Reproduction in Zygomycota: Sexual 1. fusion of two gametangia (hyphae) 2. fertilization 3. creation of the zygosporangium 4. Karyogamy haploid nuclei fuse to form the diploid zygote nucleus 5. meiosis occurs during germination of zygospore 6. spores are released Asexual (more common) 1. sporangiophores, who have sporangia, release spores 2. spore germination 3. monokaryotic hyphae are formed Symbiotic Associations: Lichens Mycorrhizae between fungus and photosynthetic partner between fungi and plants protects partner from strong light and found on 90% of roots desiccation Key: Kingdom Clade Subclade SubSubClade Phylum Origin of Kingdom Plantae 1. all green algae and land plants shared common ancestor 2. single species of green algae gave rise to land plants 3. land plants are multicellular 4. have both haploid and diploid stages 5. haploid stage is smaller Adaptations to Terrestrial Life 1. protection from desiccation 2. moving water through the body 3. dealing with UV radiation caused mutations 4. haplodiplontic life cycle (alternation of generations) Alternation of Generations 1. all land plants are haplodiplontic 2. relative sizes vary 3. gametes fuse (fertilization) directly into zygote 4. in plants, gametes themselves grow into a new organism 5. natural selection acts differently on each stage of the life cycle 6. Gametangium where gametes are produced 7. Sporangium where spores are produced Plant Body Organization 1. vascular plants consist of a Root System and Shoot System (RootandShoot System) 2. both include an apex 3. 3 types of tissue dermal, ground, and vascular 4. each type extends through root and shoot system 5. plant extends from the apical meristems 6. Xylem waterconducting tissues 7. Ploem foodconducting tissues Characteristics of the Root System 1. adapted for growing underground to absorb water 2. 4 Regions: a. Root Cap b. Zone of Cell Division c. Zone of Elongation d. Zone of Maturation Characteristics of the Shoot System 1. support for aboveground stem 2. shoot apical meristem initiates stem tissue 3. leaves are site of photosynthesis, determinate 4. 2 different morphological groups microphylls (lycophyta) and megaphylls 5. leaves are covered with transparent epidermal cells, waxy cuticle Characteristics of Bryophytes 1. rely on diffusion 2. limited to moist environment; needs water to reproduce 3. lack true rootshoot system, has tiny “leaves” 4. roots are tiny rhizoids 5. the leafy green plant “moss” is the gametophyte 6. the sporophyte depends on the gametophyte tissue Bryophytes Tracheophytes lack vascular tissue has vascular tissue Clade Bryophytes: Phyla Bryophyta Hepaticophyta Anthocerophyta Mosses Liverworts Hornworts 2 growth types: Cushiony lobes are in the shape of a flat gametophyte stage Moss or Feathery Moss liver dioecious life cycle is similar to mosses closely related to mosses males have antheridia, antheridia and archegonia are symbiotic with cyanobacteria females have archegonia located on the stalks sperm swims through thin they can little buds called film of water gemmae fertilization occurs in simplest body flat scaly leaf archegonium (gametophyte) sporophyte has a stalk with a stores food as oil capsule on top spores germinate into tiny diploid zygote grows directly green threads called into an adult protonema mosses can reproduce asexually by fragmentation Characteristics of Tracheophytes 1. no roots or leaves; includes Xylem and Phloem 2. develops in sporophyte; not gametophyte 3. 3 clades: Lycophytes, Pterophytes, and Seed Plants 4. the evolution of vascular tissue and seeds lead tracheophytes to complete land invasion 5. true leaves (euphylls) evolved as a web of tissue between terminal branches 6. global drop in CO2; think flat blades of tissue were more efficient in capturing CO2 Similarities between Bryophytes and Differences between Bryophytes and Tracheophytes Tracheophytes flagellated sperm sporophyte is dominant stage in tracheophytes limited to moist environment monoecious in tracheophytes sporangia are attached to sporophylls in tracheophytes sporophylls are organized into a clubshaped strobilus Clade Tracheophytes: Phyla Lycophyta Sphenophyta Psilophyta Pterophyta club moss horsetails whisk ferns ferns sister group to ferns closely related to only living vascular shares a common and other fern allies ferns plants that lack true ancestor with whisk leaves or true roots ferns tropical species are leaves are flattened sporangia are bright clusters of sporangia called Epiphytes stems yellow are called sori, which are protected by an Indusium includes Lycophylls hollow stems, rough gametophytes are spores are ejected by small simple leaf to touch tiny sporangium; needs (microphyll) water to reproduce sporophylls highly branched lacks chlorophyll dominance of organized into vegetative stalks sporophyte; strobili, fall to ground gametophyte lacks and release spores vascular tissue gametophyte is homosporous spores, spores germinate into independent, dispersed by elaters an autotrophic freeliving gametophyte called a prothallus some have unbranched sporophyte grows out autotrophic reproductive stalk of an archegonia gametophytes Characteristics of Seed Plants 1. breaks link with water, first fully terrestrial plant; sperm does not need water 2. entire male gametophyte (pollen grain) moves through air to reach egg 3. all adult sporophytes of seed plants bear sporangia in a strobilus (pine cone) 4. all seed plants are heterosporous; all spores come from a mother cell 5. spores are smaller gametophytes than that of ferns 6. Microspores Male Megaspores Female 7. there is no antheridia in seed plants 8. seed plants are final stage in alternation of generations 9. Sporophyte is the dominant form 10. male gametophytes are free living vs. female gametophytes who are dependent on sporophyte 11. success is attributed to evolution of seed; protects and provides food for embryo Male Gametophytes (Seeds) Female Gametophytes (Seeds) pollen grains develops within an ovule dispersed by wind enclosed within sporophyte tissue in angiosperms pollen grain only have 4 cells Characteristics of Gymnosperms 1. plants with “naked” seeds 2. lack flowers and fruits 3. all have ovule Clade Gymnosperms: Phyla Coniferophyta Cycadophyta Gnetophyta Ginkgophyta pines, spruces, firs cycads ephedra Ginkgo Biloba found in colder, arid tropical typical to arid regions Pines tough, slowgrowing odd group leaves have 2 forms needlelike leaves of sperm male gametophyte dioecious, separate Ephedra shows transitional pollen grain, male and female photosynthetic stem stage in seed microspores in male sexes without leaves evolution with cycads cones by meiosis female gametophyte resemble palm trees source of drug both have flagellated larger, 2 ovules, each Ephedrine synthetic sperm have a sudafeds megasporangium female cones take 2 leaves are Ephedrine is banned seeds are covered in or more seasons to welldefended; sharp in U.S fleshy coat Butyric mature tips; toxins Acid vomit during spring, pollen used in chinese grains drift in herbal medicine between open scales year later, female gametophyte matures 15 months after pollination, male sperm fertilizes egg Characteristics of Angiosperms 1. these are flowering plants 2. ovule is enclosed in diploid tissue 3. Carpel modified leaf that covers seed 4. Primordium early stage that develops into a bud at the end of a stalk called a Primel 5. Carpel has three major regions: Ovary (swollen base with ovules), Stigma (tip where pollen lands), and Style (neck or stalk) Flower Whorls 1. Outermost sepals 2. Second petals 3. Third stamens (androecium), each stamen has a pollenbearing anther (meiosis) 4. Innermost gynoecium Clade Angiosperms: Phylum Phylum Anthophyta 1. water lilies were one of the first clades to evolve 2. angiosperms quickly became dominant plants 3. gymnosperms are perennials; angiosperms can be perennials or annuals 4. ovules are encased in an ovary, not a strobilus like in gymnosperms 5. Coevolution animals and angiosperms had successive evolutionary change 6. fruits function to disperse seeds through tiny hooks and spines, wind 7. flowers that rely on wind are tiny 8. flowers that are pollinated by animals have showy petals, nectar 9. flowers try not to pollinate themselves through prevention by: Chemical, Architectural, and Temporal Adaptations that Made Angiosperms Superior Competitors 1. able to survive in diverse habitats 2. mature more quickly 3. fruit for seed dispersal 4. abundance in seeds 5. wider vessels to conduct water 6. animals aid in pollination Characteristics of Seeds 1. can maintain dormancy under unfavorable conditions; can pause growth 2. protects young plant when most vulnerable 3. provides food for embryo 4. germination needs water and oxygen 5. some seeds can only germinate under certain conditions (fire) Characteristics of Fruit Contains 3 Genotypes: ● Sporophyte Tissue ● Embryo ● Gametophyte simply defined as mature ovaries during seed formation, flower ovary develops into fruit Pericarp ovary wall Fruit Dispersal Methods: ● ingestion by animals ● hooked spines ● blowing in the wind ● floating in water Alternation of Generations The Haplodiplontic Life Cycle Simple: Complex: Vocabulary: Kingdom Fungi : 1. Mycology study of fungi 2. Hyphae tiny filaments used in mushroom structure 3. Mycelium body of a mushroom, made of a tangle of intertwined hyphae 4. Monokaryotic (mostly pertains to hyphae) one nucleus 5. Dikaryotic two nuclei 6. Heterokaryotic the nuclei are derived from genetically distinct individuals 7. Homokaryotic nuclei are derived from genetically similar individuals 8. Dikaryon Stage occurs before parental nuclei form the diploid nucleus (n + n) 9. Gametangia occurs in the gametophyte via mitosis (haploid), place of gamete formation 10. Zygosporangia only occurs in phylum Zygomycota, this bridgelike structure between two gametangia blocks off the two through septa, then the nuclei form a zygote 11. Zygospore emerges after zygosporangium wears away, created by nuclear fusion of haploid cells, this is the diploid reproductive stage 12. Karyogamy process of haploid nuclei fusing to form diploid zygote nucleus 13. Germination growth of hyphae from the spore, in Plantae it is the process in which spores (seeds) become the gametophyte 14. Sporangiophore a specialized hypha that contains sporangia 15. Sporangia where spores are formed 16. Arbuscular Mycorrhizae member of phylum Glomeromycota, forms symbiotic relationship with 90% of plants 17. Mutualism symbiotic relationship in which both parties benefit 18. Basidia clubshaped reproductive structure, produces spores (basidiospores), important characteristic of phylum Basidiomycota 19. Ascus saclike reproductive structure, produces ascospores, special to phylum Ascomycota 20. Budding form of asexual reproduction 21. Lichens fungi symbiotic relationship between fungus and photosynthetic partner, protects from strong light and desiccation 22. Mycorrhizae between fungus and plants, found on 90% of roots Kingdom Plantae 1. Desiccation decay through extreme dryness; lack of water 2. Alternation of Generations natural selection acts differently on each stage of the life cycle (Gametophyte and Sporophyte) 3. Archegonia structure of the gametophyte phase that produces eggs 4. Sporophyte multicellular diploid stage 5. Gametophyte multicellular haploid stage 6. Gametangium where gametes are produced 7. Sporangium where spores are produced 8. Root System part of vascular plants where the anchoring and roots are located 9. Shoot System part of vascular plants that is aboveground; stems 10. Apex point of extension, or growth, in vascular plants, Root and Shoot system each have one 11. Meristems cells that divide infinitely to give rise to differentiated cells 12. Apical Meristem located at tips, they need protection, primary plant body 13. Xylem principal waterconducting tissues, include the Vessels and Tracheids made of dead cell tubes; also conducts inorganic ions 14. Phloem principal foodconducting tissues; made of Sieve cells 15. Transpiration diffusion of water vapor 16. Leaves started as primordia, site of photosynthesis, determinate 17. Primordia organ or tissue in first, earliest stage of development 18. Microphyll specific to lycophyta, type of leaf that only has one, unbranched vein 19. Megaphyll specific to majority of plants, type of leaf that is multibranched 20. Rhizoids a “root hair” underground, particular to mosses and liverworts, serving both to anchor the plant and (in terrestrial forms) to conduct water. (Google) 21. Antheridia haploid structure (Gametophyte) that produces sperm 22. Archegonium where fertilization occurs (Gametophyte) 23. Protonema tiny green threads that occur from spores germinating 24. Gemmae specific to liverworts, little buds used in reproduction 25. Heterosporous produces two different types of spores 26. Homosporous only one type of spores 27. Euphylls “true leaves” formed by a web of tissue between terminal branches 28. Fern Allies Phylum Lycophyta, Sphenophyta, and Psilophyta 29. Monoecious plants that bear both sperm and eggs on the same gametophyte 30. Dioecious separate male and female 31. Sporophylls leaf that holds sporangia 32. Lycophylls small, simple leaf with one vascular strand (microphyll) 33. Sori clusters of sporangia 34. Indusium protects the sorus, umbrellashaped 35. Prothallus autotrophic gametophyte where spores germinate 36. Fiddlehead early stage of sporophyte growing out of archegonia, shaped as a curled frond 37. Integument covering of a seed, may be a husk, or hard coat 38. Pines tough needlelike leaves that have thick cuticles and stromata to prevent water loss, also include canals with resin 39. Megasporangium female cones of pines, larger than that of female, contains 2 ovules 40. Ephedra member of phylum Gnetophyta, a photosynthetic stem without leaves, source of Ephedrine 41. Butyric Acid fleshy coat (vomit) that covers seeds 42. Ovule the structure that produces eggs, includes the integument, megasporangium, and haploid megaspore 43. Carpel modified leaf that covers seed 44. Primordium develops into a bud at the end of a stalk 45. Primel very end of a stalk 46. Flower Whorls four layers of the aboveground flower 47. Coevolution occurs when an evolutionary change in an organism leads to another change in another organism 48. Pericarp ovary wall
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