Geo 135 Exam 3 SG
Geo 135 Exam 3 SG GEO 135
Popular in World Geography
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Vidano on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEO 135 at Illinois State University taught by David Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Education and Teacher Studies at Illinois State University.
Reviews for Geo 135 Exam 3 SG
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/08/15
Africa Unit 3 Study Guide (sub-Saharan Africa) Sub-Saharan Africa (not including 6.1 and 6.3) Sub-Saharan Africa: everything from the Sahel south (southern area of the Sahara) Key factors of Africa: o 1/5 of the total land mass of the earth o Near the equator o Compact- not a lot of peninsula, it is closer together o It is a plateau continent: raised sea level Its like a table until the coast line, when then goes down Called depressions (there is one in Chad) o A flatland continent mostly, but has some mountains o The Great Rift: land split apart in the East Water will become a large part in between this area Yemen used to fit into Africa, but tectonic plates moved it apart o Not a lot of rivers that are navigable upstream Bad for transportation on rivers because you can’t sail on it- too shallow and small Break of bulk: stop ocean ship and unload cargo off the ship onto something else because you can’t sail your boat any further up there o Astride the equator o Has an A climate: humid equatorial Rarely cold weather Some rainfall, but when it does rain it barely reaches the ground because it is too hot and evaporates Crops do not die, so you can’t replenish agriculture Farming they have s devoted to growing what you can, or animal herding (goats) o Vegetation type is called savannas/steppe which has scrub brush and small bushes Grassland with few forests 1880s-1960s colonization made colonial powers which needed borders o Europeans drew borders, which were straight lines so it was convenient for them. This was not for African tribes because the Europeans ignored the demographics of the area (the ethnic areas) o Tribes were separated, or were in the same region as other tribes This created conflict and friction where wars and large movements of people in effect Areas of similar/common birth were separated- extended families/tribes 1 Fictive kinship: not true relation, but act like they are and the relationship is just as strong. Nigeria has many tribal hostilities in it which leads to civil wars o Different religions (the Islamic front) and different tribes There is no stable government in Africa Liberia o Country in Africa where refugees were sent (slaves from the USA) o Most of the people that were sent back there were not originally from Africa/Liberia, but were born in the USA o Most Africans have been Americans for a long time way before white Americans (1700s) o Amero-Liberians: ancestors came from America in 1800s o Afro-Liberians: ancestors from Africa Life expectancy- Less than 50 years o Due to nutrition, diseases, no medical care, education Aids, upper-respiratory infections with no antibiotics, malaria, etc. Mineral resources o Richest nations in the world o Material resources are abundant, but can’t be a strong country because they don’t have resources to create a surplus of food to create a strong society o Not a lot of agriculture o Only 2 percent of USA is farming, but others do other jobs to support life Cold War in Africa oIn competition for loyalty of Africa and its resources oParties tried to buy over loyalty of African nations Not one cold war, but two Influence of western powers (USA and Europe) and the Soviet Union VS. People’s Republic of China Government oTried democracy, but does not work well Africa had contact with Europe until 4,000 years ago Sahara desert developed because there was a decrease in solar elevation o Rains heavily at times, but rarely hits the ground because it evaporates before Called Virga Desertification: growth of desert. Changing thriving places into desert (Timbuktu) 2 Civilization occurs in developed places: jobs, people, and necessity of water (rivers) o Need to irrigate crops o Ancient civilizations were in the west and east near the rivers Ethiopia is the longest living single dynasty/monarchy with a king Congo was a well established kingdom until 1550 o It did not sell its people for slave trade for a while until it was truly necessary for money City-States: Africa has these, small mini republics that are cities but act as if they are major countries Lack of contact (lack increases to south) Ghana ~1000 years o Invaded by Muslim Arabs ~1062AD Mali [Timbuktu] Songhi East Africa o Kush—Iron tools—23 centuries to ~ 400AD o Nubia—Christian until Muslims (8 thcentury) o AxumEthiopia King Solomon (r. 967 – 927BC) Haile Selassie (1892 – 1975) Kongo City-states Bantu migration (~3000BC) Slave trade Colonization Berlin Conference (November 1884) Disease in Africa Factors o Climate (warm and humid all the time and winter-free environment where it doesn’t kill of microbes and disease), water purity and stagnancy, die in youth or up to age 50 due to disease Terminology o Incidence: number of new cases/period of time o Prevalence: number of cases in the population at a given time Modes of transmission o Vectors: those that spread the disease (mosquito for malaria, black flies) o Reservoirs: where the disease lives (cattle, sheep) o Host: anything that houses the disease Amplifying host: someone infected, and the vector bites the person with the disease, bites something else, infects 3 that object, that object travel, gets bit, and that mosquito now is a vector where the disease was once not present Defining the amount of disease o Endemic: disease naturally occurring at low levels in the population (cold, flu) o Epidemic: more cases than expected of a certain disease in a population Similar to an OUTBREAK: a term used to describe these events o Pandemic: disease that affects global populations: epidemic is now worldwide (Spanish flu in the first world war) o DISEASES DESCRIBED IN NOTES: malaria, cholera, trypanosmiasis, river blindness, guinea worm disease, schistosomiasis, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and AIDS Religion in Africa Varied religious history Distribution= animism: not organized theology, but spiritualistic theory of the world o Rewards and punishments Christianity o South of the Islamic front o East Africa th o Nubia: fell to Islam in the 11 century o Axum: fell to Islam in the 11 thcentury o Ethiopia: since the 4 thcentury AD o West and Central (in notes?) o “Goes native” Colonial period in Africa: late 1800s which brought religions from other counties Islam o North of the Islamic front o West Africa and a little east o Source of conflict in transition zone because part Muslim and the other part is a different religion o Genocide-like activities Didn’t want to call in help (the United Nations) because they didn’t want to be involved Baku Horan: if you go to school and learn your ABCs, it is prohibited because it is western living-NO WESTERN INFLUENCE o Islam and Arabic are pretty synonymous: in Islam the Koran is in Arabic and Mohammad was instructed not to change this Islam hasn’t “gone native” Islam=Arabization Neither region has been there for a long time 4 o Christianity came first in the north east near the Nile River and in the south Sub-Saharan Africa IV: African Slavery Slavery has not always been viewed as a negative thing o It was a way of getting the job done o It was the changing nature of people that changed the view of slavery as immoral Slavery happened in different ways and at different times o East African slave trade/Arabian slave trade Run by Arabs Millions of slaves Operated in two fashions: moved to Arabia, and then to Southwest Asia Zanzibar was a slave plantation when slaves were held to be shipped to Arabia o Moved up the Nile River and then anywhere in the Eastern Mediterranean o 75% survived the slave movement o Women were house slaves or concubines o Atlantic Slave Trade (also called African Slave Trade b/c all slaves were from Africa) Shortest lived slave trade Many slaves were not indigenous There are ship by ship accounts of people on this slave trade Losses on ship of people to show the loss of profit: called Commercial Slavery Everything was insured (the slaves) If the slaves died, the insurance company would pay the person money for their dead slaves Slave decks: chained slaves to these o Ate, slept, urinated, got sick, and died in the same place o This is why the mortality rate was 25% o In 1750, crews washed down the decks of the shops with vinegar and it increase the survival rate Majority of slaves went to other places besides the USA o In British North America (now the USA), crops grown by slaves were tobacco and rice, and neither were very productive and did not create a large profit o Sugar cane was a very large profit holder, so most slaves were taken to the Mediterranean They made so much money they didn’t care about the death of the slaves (the knife used to 5 cut the sugar cane could make wounds on people and they would get infected and die) The germs from the soil would get into the wounds (in the tropics microbes do not die because it is so hot all the time) The slaves lived 5-7 years in the Caribbean (Brazil) Social slavery/Indigenous slavery: in Africa there was social slavery, where it would force the norms of society (what you should/should not do) as a way to control society o It is usually your fault if you are a social slave o If you do something society does not like (ex: adultery, debt) you will become a slave o Lasted into the 1600s because of John Smith o Also practiced among native Americans o Similar to indentured servants Mercantilism: economic theory of how you get rich o You define being rich by the gold in your country and the amount of slaves you own o This type of slavery is called commercial slavery o Captured and sold for the slave trade o Inhumane and random o British make manufactured products (guns) and load the boat and trade with raw materials with Africa (ivory, grains) Problem: raw materials are cheap, but manufactured goods are expensive=not a good trade Give gold in addition to raw materials Set up trading posts o Jamestown was a trading post but it was also a colony o Built stone castles along the coast to store grains for trade Sub-Saharan African Colonization In Africa, they have tribal societies, but no history. It is so fragmented because of tribes Colonization starts in Europe due to desires and needs 1500s-1700s many European countries got involved with coming to America to set up colonies The British and French were very successful In the late 1800s, Europe (esp. Germany) served as a focal point to unite one common Germany o The man in charge had a vision for glory o British and Russia were around him and all were in the same “family”, but were very jealous of each other 6 o Leader of Germany wants to create an empire. He wants to go to Africa because it is an open place. Needs other countries in Europe to get involved in order to make it happen Calls this the Berlin Conference in December of 1884 and January of 1885 o Purpose: Divide Africa because they want a lot of colonies and if every country in Europe works together, they can create an empire o 12 European nations + Turkey & USA (didn’t attend) o Sat down with large maps and divided up the map as they saw fit and turned Africa into many colonies Lots of straight lines which made it convenient for the creators, bur created conflict because tribes were separated or were in the same colony as other tribes Patterns of colonization o European countries mimic their home government Britain o Colonized and made local rulers like in Europe o Largely kept political structure in tact to maintain order and run a government the same way o “On the cheap” (“a nation of shopkeepers”) o Indirect rule, co-opting local rulers Legacy: Hutu – Tutsi strife France o Culturally assimilated “Little Frances” (~ Vietnam) o Culturally French, but look Vietnamese Portugal, Spain o Harsh, dictatorial Belgium o Major colony o Monarchy=very brutal o Personal fiefdom of King Leopold II o Wanton cruelty in the name of productivity o Taken away by parliament, 1908 because it was too brutal and gave it to the Congo Land Tenure Issues o Traditional Communal ownerships Temporary custodianship (w/o rights to sell) o European view—see it as lots of empty land “Land alienation” Expropriation of land by European powers See Custodianshipas ownership (w/ rights to sell) 7 End of Colonialism Factors o Economics Came to get riches, but did not find them Promised (and widely believed) wealth didn’t materialize “Closed systems” didn’t fit into interdependent world: trade only with specific places Colonialism didn’t fit into modern commercial-industrial world World War II’s costEuro-powers bankrupt o Idealism—United Nations, etc. Roosevelt’s “Four Freedoms”—universality of rights (1. 6.1941) Freedom of expression and speech Freedom of worship Freedom from want Freedom from fear (The bill of rights globalized) Think evil will be conquered Declaration of the United Nations (1941) Contextualized the war—Democracy vs. totalitarianism Declaration on Human Rights (1947) o Local pressures (e.g., Mau Mau in Kenya) o Cold War Not fought by main protagonists but was fought by people who believe in wars of national liberation Contest for hearts and minds “Wars of National Liberation” Struggle (armed or not) o “East” vs. “West” struggle (US vs. SU) o “East” vs. “East”—USSR vs. People’s Republic of China o The soviet union was very industrialized and well developed and China was not industrialized and was communist Independence o Colonization in Africa ends o Slow move towards independence of the colonies (mainly in 1960s) o Ghana (1957): first African colony to become an African country o Most of the rest (1960) o Stragglers (mid-1960s onward) o Tanganyka (UK, 1962; Zanzibar, 1963) become Tanzania after independence 8 o Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda (UK, 1962) o Kenya (UK, 1963) o Zambia (UK, 1964) (Northern Rhodesia) o Botswana (UK, 1966) o Lethoso (UK, 1966) o Swaziland (UK, 1968) o Angola (Port, 1975) o Mozambique (Port, 1975) o Zimbabwe (UK, 1979) (Southern Rhodesia) o Namibia (S. Africa, 1990) o Eritrea (Ethiopia, 1993): last African colony to be decolonized and it was the only African country not colonized by the Europeans Legacies …of Colonialism o Land tenure customs disturbed (once you mess with land you can’t get it back) o Traditional practice Communal ownership Temporary custodianship (w/o right to sell) o European view “Land alienation”—expropriation Custodianshipownership (w/ right to sell) o Human activity regulated Families/ethnicities split Post-colonial era: o Herd movement restricted o Overgrazinginduced droughtdesertification …of the Cold War o Two Cold Wars East – West—Communist Bloc vs. Western democracies Intra-Communist Bloc: USSR – PRC o Conflict Economic and political o Bad lines of separation by Europeans because it is hard to have a common government with harsh borders o Animal herding economy: hard to move herds and find food o Led to herd being destroyed due to desertification and grass being killed from eating o Military “Wars of National Liberation” Military hardware Military residue—e.g., land mines 9 …of the End of Colonialism Often, f(colonizer) or f(local conditions)? o Indigenous strife to the fore Hutu – Tutsi Liberia—Afro-Liberians – Amero-Liberians: are they Americans or Africans o Ecological problems (Sahel) o Collapsing infrastructure Airfields became unusable because fall apart Roads not maintained, along with railroads o Governance Tribal/ethnic strife Malmanagement/mismanagement Issue with monarchy “One man, one vote, one time” Descent into dictatorship: military ends and overthrows king Democracy turns into “president for life”, so they don’t need elections and can appoint anyone Too soon? (Ref.: Robert Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy) …of Religious Expansion o Christianity Early growth (3 , 4 , 5 centuries) o Egypt, south to Nubia, Axum, Ethiopia o West & Central Africa o Early contacts with traders (~1600s) o Missionaries (1800s-) o Linked to colonial powers R. Catholic—France, Belgium, Spain, Portugal Presbyterian—British (Scots) Methodist—British (English) Lutheran—German Anglican—British o Islam Military conquest (hierarchical diffusion) o Top-down imposition o Religious freedom—but if paid a tax th Conquered Axum, Nubia, 11 century Islamic Front described extent of Islamic majority o Cultural effects Islam—Arabization Christianity—“goes native” …of the Slave Trade o Commerce (business trade) 10 o Complete cooperation of Africans o 90% captured and held, then sold for other goods o The Nature of the Trade African rulers sanctioned trade and acquired slaves African, Arab, and European middlemen bought and sold slaves Simple exchange—people for “stuff” o Cycle: warslavesmunitionsmore warmore slaves o Effect: Population changed, but power dynamics changed more o Increased level of violence and slave trade because trafficking of humans Nigeria Population o 152 million: largest country in Africa population wise o 8 largest in world o 70% below poverty line o Life expectancy—47 years o Fertility—4.8/woman: very high because that is the female’s job and there are no contraceptives. Many children die as infants or as young children, so they have a lot of children o Very diverse Yellow in north is where Sharia law is proclaimed (strict Muslim government) Ethnicity o Tribal Hausa Yoruba: core area with most development (technology, schools, etc) Ibo o Religion Muslim 50%: Northern Nigeria Christian 40%: southern Nigeria Islamic front in center of Nigeria Literacy—68% Well developed: oil resources with trade and the USA Government—Federation o 36 states o 1 Federal Capital Territory Central Africa Congo (democratic republic) (Zaire, 1971 – 1997) (Note: There are two Congos: Brazzaville and Kinshasa) 11 Colonial period (1884 – 1960) Congo Free State Belgium Congo Independence (1960) Congo Crisis (1960 – 1965) Issue with Sharia Islam Many factions o Ethnic & regional (e.g., Assoc. des Bakongo; Jos. Kasavubu) o School alumni o Urban associations (e.g., Stanleyville/Kisangani; Patrice Lumumba) Factionalization o South Kasai declares autonomy (w/ Soviet support) o Antoine Gizenga—Orientale province (Elizabethville) (Soviet support) o Katanga declares independence (Moise Tshombe) Chaos o President fires PM: PM declares President deposed o UN troops try to restore order o CIA-assisted coup puts Joseph Mobutu in charge—1 nation, 4 gov’ts o Dag Hammerskjöld & staff killed in air crash (Sept 1961) o Belgian Army (w/ USAF air support) restores order (1964) Jos. Mobutu takes power in 1965 coup (w/ CIA support), rules 30 years o 1991—Cold War ends, world no longer needs Mobutu Sese-Seko o 1996—deposed in military rebellion First Congo Civil War (1996 – 1997) o Triggered by Rwandan refugee crisis after genocide o Laurent-Desire Kabila takes over; as corrupt as Mobutu Second Congo Civil War (1998 – 2003 & beyond) o Angola to Zimbabwe—everybody involved o Issues: succession, tribal loyalties, border issues, foreign intervention, installation of different governments, old loyalties turn on each other o Splitting of provinces: frictions between tribes, schools, and commercial o Context—rape as weapon, child soldiers, looting, cannibalism (Pygmies) o Deaths—5.5 million and counting o Large soviet influence and large west influence Ethiopia In horn of Africa on the east side 12 Place where everyone stops for food and water during travel, which creates lots of foreign influence Last colony in Africa to be decolonized Somalia-Somaliland Failed state because most thriving business is piracy (oil tankers and marine ships) Used to be about fishing Dozen ships and crew members held hostage Government in Mogadishu but others are run by tribes Somaliland proclaimed independence o But in order to be a state, you need to have others accept you as a state/recognize you o No one has officially done this, but some do under secrecy and do not tell the general public (called Sub Rosa) o It is a failed state because the government tries to run everything, but doesn’t because some want to be independent Location o Horn of Africa o Bordering, N to S, o Djibouti o Ethiopia o Kenya Recent origin British Somaliland o Italian Somaliland o Decolonized, 1960 o United to become Somalia Population o ~9.4M (4.4%/year; 7.0 children/woman) o Life expectancy: ~46 years o Ethnically Somali o Languages: Somali + Arabic, Italian, English o Religion: Sunni Muslim (+ some Christian, being forcibly evicted) Government o Type: Transitional—where it exists o Capital: Mogadishu o Central government—little power o Corruption index—off the scale o Tribal warlords hold power o Insurgency: Islamic Court Union (UIC) on south (primarily o Republic of Somaliland Former British Somaliland Hybrid government 13 Central presidency Tribal councils Not recognized by anybody Sub rosa recognition by numerous countries (including EU) o State of Punt Seeking federated status, not full indepe4ndence Economy Per capita GNP: No accurate figures Some farming Fishing depleted (foreign competitors outclass the locals) Population generally destitute—rely on foreign aid Economic outlook—see growth rate (above) for clues Piracy—best organized portion of the economy 12+ ships 200+ hostages 14
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'