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Ch.8 & Ch.9 exam study guide

by: Kahlia Baines

Ch.8 & Ch.9 exam study guide NTR 213-04

Kahlia Baines

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Water & minerals and energy balance/weight management notes for the official exam for both chapters
Introductory Nutrition
Laurie Allen
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kahlia Baines on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 213-04 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Laurie Allen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introductory Nutrition in Natural Sciences at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


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Date Created: 11/08/15
Exam 4 Study Guide  Functions of water- Water does not provide energy, but it is essential to life. Functions: participant in metabolic reactions, helps regulate acid-base balance, transports nutrients and wastes, provides protection, and helps regulate body temperature. It’s a solvent; glucose, amino acids, minerals, proteins, and many other molecules dissolve in water.  Osmosis- The unassisted diffusion of water across the cell membrane. Causes water to move into and out of the cells in response to the concentration of dissolved substances inside and outside the cell. High pressureat the end of the capillariesforces blood into the tissues. Low blood pressure & differences in solute concentrationat the venus end of capillarydraw water back into the capillaries by osmosis.  How does thirst mechanism work? The blood volume decreases and the solute concentration increases. The brain signals=stimulates thirst. Saliva secretion decrease= dry mouth. THIRST. Motivation to drink. As you drink: Blood volume increases & Solute concentration decreases=RESTORED WATER BALANCE! What does ADH do? Antidiuretic hormones signal the kidneys to reabsorb water, reducing the amount lost in the urine. Kidneys=excrete. *  What is dehydration, symptoms? Dehydration is a state that occurs when not enough water is present to meet the body’s needs. Symptoms: thirst, headache, fatigue, loss of appetite, dry eyes and mouth, dark urine. As dehydration worsens: nausea, difficulty concentrating, confusion and disorientation.  What is hyponatremia; when does it occur? Hyponatremia is when there is too much water relative to the amount of sodium in the body, the concentration of sodium in the blood drops. Caused by: water intoxication or (over hydration). This occurs: when water moves out of the blood vessels and into the tissues by osmosis, causing them to swell.  Minerals are needed to provide structure and to regulate biochemical reactions, often as cofactors.  Difference between major mineral and trace mineral: Major mineral- A mineral required in the diet in an amount greater than 100 mg/day or present in the body in an amount greater than 0.01% of body weight. Includes sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur. Trace mineral- A mineral required in the diet in an amount of 100 mg or less per day or present in the body in an amount of 0.01% of body weight or less. Includes Iron, copper, zinc, selenium, iodine, chromium, fluoride, manganese, molybdenum, and others.  Factors that affect mineral bioavailability: Bioavailability- Inhibited by substances in plants, other minerals, or amount in body. Factors that affect it food source of the mineral, the body’s need, and interactions with other minerals, vitamins and dietary components such as fiber, phytates, oxalates, and tannins.  Functions of the nutrients discussed in class (don’t need to know food sources or toxicity symptoms): body functioning, contribute to body structure, regulate body processes, water balance, and energy metabolism, affect growth and development through their role in the expression of certain genes, and act as cofactors, needed for enzyme activity.  What are electrolytes? A positively or negatively charged ion that conducts an electrical current in solution. Refers to Sodium(+), Potassium(+), & Chloride(-). Electrolytes help regulate fluid balance.  Cofactor- An inorganic ion or coenzyme that is required for enzyme activity.  What is hypertension, what are the health effects, how can you treat it? Hypertension is the health problem associated with electrolyte imbalance, which is also known as high blood pressure. Hypertension=Blood pressure that is consistently elevated to 140/90 mm mercury or greater. Electrolyte deficiencyHigh blood pressure(“the silent killer”)Health effects: atherosclerosis, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and early death. It is caused by an increase in blood volume or narrowing of the blood vessels. It can be treated by: dieting, exercising, and medication.  Osteoporosis: What is it, factors that affect your risk, how you can prevent or treat it. Osteoporosis is a bone disorder characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility. The factors that affect your risk: gender, age, race, family history, body size, smoking, exercise, alcohol abuse, and diet. Women are at risk more because they have less bone than men and lose it faster as they age. Preventing & treating: Achieving a high peak bone mass and slowing the rate of bone lossexerciseCalcium & vitamin D, zinc, magnesium, potassium, fiber, vitamin k (ADEQUATE Amounts), limiting smoking and drinking alcohol. Estrogen, calcium and vitamin d supplements, other hormones and drugs called Bisphosphonates (treatment).  What is iron deficiency anemia? Causes, Symptoms: It is the final stage of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency anemia is an iron deficiency disease that occurs when the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is decreased because there is insufficient iron to make hemoglobin. Symptoms: fatigue, weakness, headache, decreased work capacity, inability to maintain body temperature in the cold, changes in environment, changes in behavior, decreased resistance to infection, impaired development in infants, and increased risk in lead poisoning in children.  What components make up Daily energy expenditure- 15–30% of total energy expenditure (physical activity) & Energy required for the digestion, absorption, storage and/or disposal of ingested food (5-10 % of total energy expenditure).  Techniques for measuring Energy Expenditure - Estimation using Equations, Direct Calorimetry, and Indirect Calorimetry (oxygen & carbon dioxide).  What is NEAT? Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT): energy expended for everything that is not sleeping, eating, or sports-like exercise.  What is BMI (Range for normal BMI) – A measure of body weight relative to height that is used to compare body size with a standard. (BODY MASS INDEX). Range for normal BMI: between 18.5 and 24.9 kg/m 2 [adults].  Techniques for measuring body composition (body fat percentage)- Techniques: Skinfold thickness, underwater weighing, air displacement, bioelectric impedance, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DXA). Body fat %: Women= between 21 and 32% & Men= between 8-19%. Subcutaneous vs Visceral fat- Both are locations of body fat. Subcutaneous [hips and lower body] = Adipose tissue located under the skin, does not increase health risks as much as does the excess visceral fat. Visceral [metabolically active] fat= Adipose tissue located 2 around the organs in the abdomen. In men a BMI of 25 to 34.9 kg/m & a waist circumference >40 in. indicates fat storage. In women a BMI of 25 to 34.9 kg/m and a waist circumference >35 inches indicates visceral fat storage. Visceral (apple shape) &b Subcutaneous (pear shape). Visceral is more common in men than women until after women meet menopause and it increases.  Terms: Appetite, Hunger, Satiety- Appetite= a desire to consume specific foods that is independent of hunger (triggered after sight or smell of food). Hunger= a desire to consume food that is triggered by internal physiological signals. Satiety= the feeling of fullness and satisfaction caused by food consumption that eliminates the desire to eat.  Hormones: Leptin, Peptide YY, and Ghrelin- Leptin= secreted from adipocytes in proportion to their size to regulate energy intake and expenditure. Peptide YY= released by the gastrointestinal tract after a meal in proportion to the number of calories consumed to reduce appetite. Ghrelin= released by the stomach to stimulate the desire to eat at usual mealtimes.


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