Life Cycle Development Study Guide Exam 3
Life Cycle Development Study Guide Exam 3 PSYC 2310
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cristina Saiz on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Memory Related Abilities: Childhood 1) Infantile amnesia age of offset about 3.5 years old, the inability to remember events from first 6months, 18 months, maybe even 2.5 years of life 2) Rehearsal: increases use beginning about age 7, important strategy for memory 3) Content of rehearsal changes between childhood and adolescence (including more content) 4) Rehearsal strategy becomes more flexible with age 5) Organization of material increases between ages 5 & 12 Potential Mechanisms Underlying Infantile Amnesia: -Retrieval failure unable to retrieve information even if it’s there -Inadequate Storage not storing information correctly -Disrupted storage possible traumatic event disrupting storage -Autobiographical Self Not Present sense of self is fragile so it may be hard to process to memory -Hippocampus Not Fully Myelinated not until age 3 so access to those memories is limited (the amygdala, however, processes emotional memories and myelinates sooner) Adolescence and Young Adulthood G Stanley Hall: emerging researcher in the late 1800s/early 1900s proposed that adolescents were filled with storm and stress** Ana Freud: said that adolescents have unconscious impulses they are trying to repress -she studied/worked with adolescents as a psychoanalyst -she said that upholding of a steady equilibrium during the adolescent process is in itself abnormal because it’s a period filled with stress, emotions, and hormones Brain Development Age -Birth 25% of adult brain weight -6 months 50% -2.5 years 75% -5 years 90% -10 years 95% Brain Development in Adolescence: Longitudinal Study -145 boy-girls, ranging from ages 4-20 years -did MRIs and found that white matter increased with age -gray matter in frontal cortex increased until age 11 in girls and then decreased* -gray matter in frontal cortex increased until age 12 in boys and then decreased* -similar patterns in parietal and temporal areas of the brain -white matter is myelinated* (this was on one of the quizzes) Another study: -people ages 10-32 -pictures of people displaying fearful expressions -16 people were ages 10-18; the other 18 people ranged from age 18-32 -Found that adolescents looking at the pictures (especially the younger adolescents) display frenetic brain activity in the amygdala by comparison; older adolescents and adults showed most activity in the frontal lobe -Results suggest adults use frontal lobe for emotion regulation -teens younger than 14 made more errors than adults saying the faces looked angry/confused -older teens made more correct responses Adolescent Maturity “Adolescents as a class are undoubtedly less mature, and therefore less culpable for their misconduct than adults, but at least some 17 year old murderers are sufficiently mature to deserve the death penalty in appropriate cases” Sandra Day O’Connor (quote he showed us in class) Pubertal Development Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis** (was on the last quiz) Hypothalamus Pituitary (gonadotropins) Gonads (ovaries & testes) sex steroids [testosterone & estradiolsecondary sex characteristics such as beard/mustache/breasts] Adolescence: Physical Changes -Puberty - Muscle Strength -Height -Heart Weight -Weight -Lung Capacity Typical Sequence of Pubertal Changes FEMALES: Beginning of breast development; Growth spurt; Menarche (first menstrual cycle)* MALES: Growth of penis; General growth spurt; Beard development -for external manifestations girls enter puberty between ages 10-11; boys enter puberty between ages 11-12 -Growth spurt -girls at age 10.5, peaks at age 12, and is completed by age 14; by age 10 girls are 84% of their adult height -boys at age 12, peaks at age 14, and is complete by age 16; by age 10 boys are 78% of their adult height -BOYS are taller than girls because their growth spurt closes later and it lasts longer -Weight -girls are 59% of their adult weight by age 10 -boys are 55% of their adult weight by age 10 Heart doubles in weight Age at menarche has declined in the past 150 years (in different countries) -the earlier menarche, the lower the risk of osteoporosis -the earlier menarche, the greater the risk of breast cancer Impact of Puberty -Hormonal -Pubertal Timing -Pubertal Stage (Tanner Stage) Hormonal changes**(was on the last quiz) -Testosterone levels increase 2 fold in females -Testosterone levels increase 18-20 times in males -Estradiol levels double in males -Estradiol levels increase 8 fold in females Brooks-Gunn Study Impact of estradiol on moods of adolescent girls -greatest impact on girls with fastest rising levels (greatest amount of depressive affect) -thus hormonal changes accounted for some variability in adolescent moods -but negative life events accounted for much more of the variability in adolescent moods (more than hormonal changes themselves) -as males move through pubertal stages they express increasing body satisfaction (the opposite is true for girls) -pubertal timing (compared to peers) Csikszentmihaly & Larsen -75 teens in Chicago -ecology of adolescent experiences and moods -experience sampling: they had the teens wear a beeper for a week and answer a two page survey each time it went off. Beeper went off randomly every 2 hours and people had to report their mood and what they were doing at the time it went off -*random sample of adolescent’s moods and experiences* -first time ever that we can look at adolescent minds -most surveys were filled out within 10 minutes of the beeper going off -semantic differential with words -there was a ratio of 10 negative comments to 1 positive comment FINDING: **they reported positive affective states 71% of the time that they were beeped, their moods were more positive than negative Conducted the same study including 10 different countries including the US of about 6000 teenagers -ages 13-15 were the young group -ages 16-19 were the older group -supports that teens aren’t so stressed as we may think and are happy almost 90% of the time Another Study: 107 adults ages 19-65 male/female very diverse sample -no differences between adolescents/adults in their cheerful/irritable and happy/sad moods -adults more actively engages in tasks than adolescents, except in structured activities (like sports, hobbies, music/band) Monitoring the Future -a survey that asks about 16000 high school seniors about alcohol/drug use and their home life A study done in 1944 & redone in 1972 assess personality and mood -most people don’t change very much and remember their teenage years being more stressful that they actually were -compare the old survey with the new one Smetana Study 102 teens and their parents from grades 5-12 Asked to go into separate rooms and gave them a deck of index cards, each card has a description of a behavior Moral items “stealing pocket money” “lying to parents” “hitting siblings” -with each of the index cards the teens are to decide if they have the authority over those items or if their parents do Conventional items “not doing chores” “calling parents by first names” “not cleaning after a party” Personal items “sleeping late on weekends” “talking on the phone” “watching MTV” -teens and their parents had to choose who of them had the authority over each group of items FINDING: there was no parent/teen difference when grouping authority for moral and conventional items, but parents/teens disagreed on who had the authority over personal items Piagetian Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor during infancy Pre-operational about age 2 Concrete operations age 6-8 Formal operations varies around age 12-15 Formal Operations (4 Characteristics) 1) Abstract Thought 2) Counter-Factual Thinking (run against facts) 3) Probabilistic Thought 4) Systematic Thought Adolescent Egocentrism: failure to distinguish your perspective from someone else’s perspective Imaginary audience: refers to imagining set of people in his/her mind. Example I dropped my spoon and now everyone is watching me Personal fable: teens believe they’re so unique that nothing bad is going to happen to them; may lead them to feel invincible Sleep less during middle school years (study) th th th th 2259 teens in 6 grade, longitudinal study from 6 7 and 8 grade, ages 11-14 Dependent variable: sleep, academic grades, depression, self-esteem Results -drop in sleep with age -less sleep associated with increased depression -less sleep associated with decreased self esteem Moral Reasoning Kohlberg -famous story about Heinz needing a new medication for his wife who has cancer, man made a new medication but is selling it for $2000 and Heinz was only able to come up with 1000 and can’t afford the treatment and considers stealing this medication from the man who made it. Should he steal it or not? -after giving the class time to think about it, Dr. Cohn changed the story and added that Heinz doesn’t love his wife. Should he still steal the medication? -Changes the story again and says someone ASKED HEINZ to steal the medication for their wife because this man could not get near the pharmacy that had it because they already knew what he looked like. Should he steal the medication? Kohlberg’s Theory of Morality Level 1: Preconventional stage 1: avoid punishment; stage 2: get what you want by trade off Level 2: Conventional stage 3: meet expectations of important people; stage 4: fulfilling duty, upholding laws Level 3: Postconventional stage 5: sense of democracy and relativity of rules; stage 6: self-selection of universal principles Adulthood 1985 12% of population over age 65 By 2030 1 in 5 over age 65 will have Alzheimer’s -1985, 17 million age 65-74, 8 times the growth; ages 75-84 11 times larger than last century; 85 or older 22 times more people living than there were last century -Developmental tasks: specific social accomplishments typically expected to occur at certain age Aging (from age 20-85) -during early 20s we’re at our peak Levinson’s Theory Male Development -Enter the adult world age 22-28 -Age 30 crisis 28-33 -Settling down and becoming one’s own man age 33-40 -Midlife transition age 40-45 (divorce, change job, affairs) -Mid Life age 45-50 -Transition and midlife culmination age 50-60 -Late adult Five Factor Model of Personality Neuroticism: adjectives that describe this worrier (vs. very calm), insecure (vs. secure), self-pitying (vs. self-satisfying) Extraversion: sociable (vs. reserved), fun-loving (vs. sober), affectionate (vs. reserved) Openness to experience: variety (vs. same routine), imaginative (vs. down to earth), independent (vs. conforming) Agreeableness: helpful (vs. uncooperative), trusting (vs. suspicious), soft hearted (vs. ruthless) Conscientiousness: careful (vs. careless), organized (vs. disorganized), discipline (vs. weak willed) -All groups: neuroticism doesn’t change over time between ages 35-84 **cross sectional study same variable over different age groups (not the same people in the same age groups)** [this may have introduced a bias by not also being a longitudinal study] -extraversion no change from age 35-84 (stable) -openness no change from age 35-84 (stable) **personality traits remain constant through adulthood**
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