Exam 2 Reading Notes SOC 325
Exam 2 Reading Notes SOC 325 SOC 325
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 325 at Michigan State University taught by Toby A. Ten Eyck in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 212 views. For similar materials see Play, Games, and Sports in Sociology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
SOC 325 reading notes exam 2 november 12th 1013 J iwani Nisara and HYPERLINK quothttp journalshumankineticscomproxy2clmsuedujournalauthorsjournalauthors Genevi eveRailquot Genevi eve Rail 2010 Islam Hijab and Young Shia Muslim Canadian Women s Discursive Constructions of Physical Activity Sociology of Sport Journal 273 251267 Within physical activity muslim girls face more challenges than muslim boys due to religious and cultural traditions that assign men and women particular roles and institute dress codes that restrict access to or movement within physical education classes Lack of appropriate facilities for women and negative associations with the Hij ab have been shown to constitute barriers to the point that many Muslim women tend to restrict their participation in physical activity or to restrict it to spaces exclusive to their cultural and religious groups Greek and British Muslim women hold positive views toward physical activity but are restricted in their participation due to their communities requirements in terms of dress codes gender segregation and fast ing during the month of Ramadan The word Islam itself means peace and to Muslims it may be understood as such However in Western context Islam is coupled with fear Jihad and terrorism Feminist postcolonialism allows us to understand the mechanics of women s oppression through the hierarchy of gender and the strength of colonialism and provides us with the concept of the Other the exotic the unknown the oppressed the marginalized women Study involved informal conversations with 10 Shia Muslim Canadian women between the ages of 20 26 years To the young women physical activity means in order of importance in the narratives a being physically active b feeling good 0 losing weight and 1 being involved in a chore narratives most often suggest that being physically active can be equated with moving tness going to the gym and working out Young South Asian Canadian women participants equated notions of health with looking great and feeling sexy Shia Muslim Canadian a physical activity places are not very present within Shia Muslim communities b when physical activity places are provided within Shia Muslim communities physical activity is rarely the main purpose and c proper physical activity places are rarely present within the larger Canadian community a religion s precedence over physical activity b physical activity as a means to become a better Muslim and c the dif cult combination of physical activity and the Hij ab Shia Muslim Canadian women choose religion over sports 9 half of the participants state that the Hijab is not a barrier to physical activity in general but recognize that wearing it decreases their physical activity options and makes physical activity dif cult for a number of reasons including getting hot and uncomfortable feeling discomfort from the stares and feeling discriminated against Islam gt A majority feel that neither the Islamic religion nor wearing the Hijab are barriers to participating in physical activity and some actually feel that participating in physical activity makes them better Muslims 1015 Reviewed Work Souled out How Blacks Are Winning and Losing in Sports by Shaun Powell Review by Royce A Singleton Jr Teaching Sociology V01 36 N0 4 Oct 2008 pp 399401 Modern day American black athlete the burden he carries the racism he gets and the racism he imagines the image he gives the image media gives him his triumphs and failures his friends and enemies and why he s the only one dancing in the end zone Powell describes patterns Title has many meanings Black athletes have lost soul because they have no concept of history or the athletes who paved the way for them Critical of prominent of black athletes who rarely use platforms to voice concerns about the plight of the black community and racism Analyzes black athletes poor performance in classrooms popularity of the NBA decline of African American interest in baseball impact of Tiger Woods traces unsportsmanlike showmanship to Muhammad Ali street credibility images black women athletes pressured to play basketball or run track challenges concepts that black athletes are naturally gifted 1020 Curtis James Philip White and Barry McPherson 2000 Age and Physical Activity among Canadian Men and Women Findings from longitudinal national survey data Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 8119 Study gt With the partial exception of young adults Canadians of all age and gender subgroups increased their levels of leisure time physical activity between 1981 and 1988 Women showed the greatest increase in participation from 1981 to 1988 Younger and older women were also more involved over time Chogahara and Yamaguchi propose we apply the idea of rescoailization to older people basic and often rapid change in behavior in response to an altered social situation In terms of physical activity people are resocialized when they have a fundamental change in beliefs attitudes and circumstances causing them to adopt a program of physical activity or increase their activity level Resocialization to activity varies by age and gender 1022 Vincent John and Francis D Glamser quotGender differences in the relative age effect among US Olympic Development Program youth soccer playersquot Journal of sports sciences 244 2006 405413 Students who enter school at age 6 score better on achieve ment tests in that grade and in the fourth grade compared with students who began school at age 5 Having a birth day soon after the selection date for entry into school is thus an advantage while a birthday just before the selection date is a disadvantage Relative age effect for male athletes simply in terms of the physical maturation advantage that those athletes who are born early in the selection year have over their younger cohorts The study provides empirical evidence that in comparison to their male peers the relative age effect is weaker for 16 and 17 year old elite female youth soccer players it is suggested that this could be the result of the interaction of biological and maturational differences with socialization in uences Before puberty differences in gross motor skill performance between girls and boys are minimal Puberty for males signals a host of biological factors including neurological maturity body size anatomical structure and physiological functioning that are positively correlated with athletic performance During puberty increased production of testosterone tends to provide the males with greater lean body mass less adipose tissue and improved cardiopulmonary capacity which assists them in performing gross motor skills that require strength power speed and endurance The onset of puberty for females heralds a host of physiological factors that constrain their athletic performance compared with their male peers Post pubescent females generally have shorter legs and develop wider hips which are disadvantageous in performing motor skills such as jumping and running Additionally female anaerobic and aerobic characteristics running speed and physical tness performance plateau at about the age of 12 or 13 which is much earlier than for their male peers The gender differences in the relative age effect of 17 year old elite female and male soccer players could be eXplained by a compleX and dynamic interaction of biological maturational and socialization issues 1027 King et al 2014 When is a Drug Not a Drug Troubling silences and unsettling painkillers in the National Football League Sociology of Sport Journal 31249266 Cutler s toughness and commitment make the status of painkillers as a conduit for the public performance of masculinity appear natural and self evident our analysis of Favre s 1996 admission identi es a cultural moment in which the relationship between painkillers and a notion of manning up was carefully constructed around a safe likeable and heroic gure We are cognizant of the ways in which pain an entirely subjective phenomenon has become vulnerable to relentless medical objecti cation which renders it emptied of meaning and merely buzzing mindlessly along the nerves Sports such as football which is popularly acknowledged to be hyperphysical draw our attention toward the physical dimensions of pain and act as a medium through which neurophysiological science manages the meanings ascribed to embodied experiences of suffering the uidity of drugs and the multiple uses to which they are put helps move our conceptualizations away from rigid categorizations that work as vehicles for moral regulation and toward more complex renderings that acknowledge the limits of knowingness and the productivity of ignorance 1029 Caron et al 2013 Effects of Multiple Concussions 0n Retired National Hockey League Players Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology 35168179 Challenges Bruce encountered whether his inability to recollect details such as names and phone numbers resulted from concussions or a natural aging process Bruce rmly believed these troubles stemmed from his concussions and style of play which has occasionally affected him in his current occupation Gary suffered major concussions that involved loss of consciousness which he described as unfortunate because he felt medical personnel were more cautious returning him to play after each subsequent collision Gary was thankful he did not receive medical clearance to play after suffering what turned out to be his nal concussion Physical Symptoms headaches sleep patterns dizziness and loss of peripheral vision Emotionally feels like loosing mind Social In uences Do whatever you need to do I am here versus Just go out and score some more goals Isolation and withdrawal as the players admission of being alone and feeling that no one understood their situations The athletes said they felt isolated because they were unable to socialize with their teammates Further complicating their feelings of isolation participants felt their coaches and general managers speci cally encouraged this alienation during their recuperation or at least did nothing to stop it from occurring 113 Smith Garry J 1990 Pools Parlays and Point Spreads A sociological consideration of the legalization of sports gambling Sociology of Sport Journal 7271286 Newman 1975 noted how gambling was routinely included in lists of social problems by academicsjournalists and politicians Within all accepted standards of de nition gambling can t validly be said to constitute a social problem in objective terms Growing public and legislative approval of gambling provides further proof that gambling is loosing negative connotation Gambling in Great Britain individuals have the right to gamble while the government tries to protect this right by mitigating the social damage that may accrue Citizens have generally responded responsibly to these liberal gambling laws Cultural factors include the elimination of the moral stigma associated with gambling the sheer ubiquity of sports gambling and the inability of sports gambling critics to explain why betting on a sports event is wrong when horse racing lotteries and bingos are acceptable The recent expansion of gambling opportunities has introduced neophyte gamblers to nonskilled games such as lotteries and bingo As these gamblers gain sophistication they realize the heavy odds against them If they continue gambling they may seek out games that are fairer and that offer more mental challenge In the near future there may be a public clamor for sports gambling to offset the perceived unfairness of lotteries bingos and horse racing 115 Frey James H 1984 Gambling and College Sports Views of coaches and athletic directors Sociology of Sport Journal 13645 Americans lost 220 billion in 1974 through gambling The Impact of Legalization study discovered a how much of a problem illegal gambling presented for college sport b how colleges and universities dealt With gambling problems and c the attitudes of respondents toward policy options particularly the legalization of betting on college sport Fewer Cinderella teams it takes a more established team With a systematic offense and defense to Win championships For players the game is more cerebral than instinctive The odds are more even than ever before the uncertainty of outcomes greater and the challenges of betting even more attractive Betting on sports also permits combining mainline capitalistic values eg hard work and discipline With privately held values of chance coldness and risk taking Without jeopardizing social status or reputation
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