Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide ENVD 3114
Popular in History and Theory of ENVD: Buildings
Popular in Environmental Science
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Asia Peters on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENVD 3114 at University of Colorado taught by Lindsay,Georgia Lucille in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see History and Theory of ENVD: Buildings in Environmental Science at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
Saturday, December 26, y Exam 3 History of Buildings Neoclassicism picturesque an aesthetic quality characterized by irregularity, asymmetry, ruggedness, and a variety of texture and form folly a structure, such as a tower or fake ruin, built in a garden or park to complement a view Unbuilt (paper) arch architecture which exists only on paper or which has visionary qualities; theoretical speculation Neoclassicism Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome Environmental Determinism (climatic determinism or geographical determinism): the belief that the physical environment predisposes human social development towards particular trajectories. Laugier (17131769), a French Jesuit priest, outlined his theory about architecture in the 1753 Essai sur l’architecture; all architecture derives from these three essential, primitive elements: the column, the entablature, and the pediment; The Primitive Hut Piranesi (4 October 1720 – 9 November 1778) an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" Ledoux (21 March 1736 – 18 November 1806) one of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture; He 1 Saturday, December 26, y used his knowledge of architectural theory to design not only domestic architecture but also town planning; as a consequence of his visionary plan for the Ideal City of Chaux, he became known as a utopian. Boullee (February 12, 1728 – February 4, 1799) a visionary French neoclassical architect whose work greatly influenced contemporary architects; author of Architecture, essai sur l'art ("Essay on the Art of Architecture); created designs for public buildings on a wholly impractical grand scale Strawberry Hill (Twickenham, London, 1749) Gothic Revival villa built by Horace Walpole; the type example of the "Strawberry Hill Gothic" style of architecture; prefigured the nineteenth century Gothic revival; added gothic features such as towers and battlements outside and elaborate decoration inside to create "gloomth" SteGenevieve (Paris, 17571792) (Pantheon) built by Soufflot, the most important commission of the age, central structural principles of great buildings of the past, gothic lightness, Corinthian columns on templefront mimic Temple of Venus, plan resembling St. Mark’s in Venice, high central dome, side domes over four arms, Greek cross 2 Saturday, December 26, y Cenotaph for Newton unbuilt funerary monument, a 150m (500ft) tall sphere encompassed by two large barriers circled by hundreds of cypress trees; the design of the memorial creates the effect of day and night Panopticon a type of institutional building designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century. The concept of the design is to allow all (pan) inmates of an institution to be observed (opticon) by a single watchman without the inmates being able to tell whether or not they are being watched 3 Saturday, December 26, y 1800s temple front a building facade or porch, with columns and a pediment, that resembles an end of a classical temple gothic revival quotation of the earlier Gothic style, not a continuation, that tended to remain on the surface as a symbolic gesture to supplement the drive toward modernity nationalism the devotion for one's own nation's interests over those of all other nations ferrovitreous a type of structure of the industrial age made with iron and glass for lightness and translucency reinforced concrete concrete strengthened with a web of iron rebars suspension bridge a bridge that uses two pylons, from the top of which are hung cables from which smaller vertical cables reach down to support the deck steel (1850s), William Kelly in the United States and Henry Bessemer in England each discovered a new way to make steel. The Bessemer process enabled steel makers to produce strong steel at a lower cost, railroads began to lay steel rails. train stations began operation 1820s, 1830s–1860s: Enormous railway building booms in the United States (steel happens), Railroads replace canals as a primary mode of transportation, 1850s 1860s: Rail roads begin using the electric telegraph to control train movements through the use of train orders reducing train collisions and im proves efficiency. Durand (17601834) provided theoretical foundation for creating buildings with the same sense of universality as the Napoleonic Code; emphasized solidity, utility, and beauty; assistant to Boullee, took similar rational, utilitarian approach AWN Pugin (18121852) tireless propoganda initiator; from a French Huguenot family, but converted to Catholicism, convinced of moral superiority of the society that built preReformation medieval churches 4 Saturday, December 26, y John Ruskin (18191900) influential art critic who admired all Saints, believed the votive nature of Gothic ornament strengthened community; wrote The Seven Lamps of Architecture; popularized northern Italian Gothic and proposed a Gothic revival as a program of social reform Altes Museum (Berlin, 1822) by Schinkel, ionic portico, facing royal palace, plan of long galleries framing a central Pantheonlike rotunda, but not strict to square grid or perfect symmetry Monticello (Virginia, 17681809) Thomas Jefferson’s house, designed by himself, built on an agricultural estate; twostory Palladian templefront entry porch, rear garden, service functions in ground level wings, octagonal dome; became primordial American house, represents stability and creativity, respect of European traditions, yet insistent on comfort and effort saving inventions Library of Ste. Genevieve (Paris, 18431850) designed by Labrouste; exterior recalled inscribed facades by Boullee and Durand, no relation to gothic; oblong box, flattened, partially blind arcades, names of 810 authors, 5 Saturday, December 26, y castiron frames with masonry piers and arches, barrel vaults, arches; structural rationalism Crystal Palace (London, 1851) the most innovative ferrovitreous structure of the century; designed to house the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry if All Nations of 1851; one of largest structures ever built, utilitarian, without masonry, almost exclusively of standardized components or iron and glass; demonstrated division of labor Brooklyn Bridge (New York, 1869) open joist system for the deck with suspension system hung from two monumental masonry towers, nearly 1.3 miles long, central span of 486 feet, stone towers have lancet arches which resemble medieval European cathedrals, but steel which emphasizes modern technology 6 Saturday, December 26, y Gare du Nord (France, 1864 or 1889) BeauxArts style train station, (most populated in Europe) stone facade, steel and glass train shed Houses of Parliament (London, 1840s) Neogothic style or perpendicular gothic style, by Pugin, rational (Durandlike) gridded plan, 3 asymmetrical vertical towers atelier Late 1800s parti a studio for teaching art or architecture in the French BeauxArts System, the basic design layout for a building or group of buildings eclecticism the combination of elements from a variety of architectural styles, especially in latenineteenth century European and American architecture Chicago School teachings about building skyscrapers in which Sullivan eliminated all excess surfaces, protected grid of steel structure with terracotta cladding and Chicago windows with large central pane flanked by smaller, more operable bays, more glass than wall, bottom two floors lavished with ornate castiron filigree Apartment housing (Europe, 18th century) 5 to 6 story structure with several family dwellings on each floor, first appeared as units within a subdivided palace, later as vertically stacked alternative to row 7 Saturday, December 26, y houses, increased the potential density of urban sites to become dominant building type Skyscrapers (Chicago system) L’Opera (Paris, 1875) featured by Napoleon in place of a church , palace, or arch as triumph, diamond shaped plan, all facades with pilasters, structure as decoration, iron frame concealed with polychromatic stone cladding, paired columns, huge porticos, copperclad dome, addresses spectacle of attendance more than stage action Reliance Building (Chicago, 1893) 15 story, steelframed building by Burnham & Root, thin exterior walls, broad Chicago windows, white terracotta spandrel panels, pointloaded system, broad eaves, box profile 8 Saturday, December 26, y Wainwright Building (St. Louis, 1894) Adler and Sullivan, ten story tower clad in red terracotta panels, contradictory structural bays, non structural mullions Ecole des BeauxArts (France, 1819) resuscitated the atelier system, began with concept of parti, committed to compositional order and creation of appropriate style and decoration 9 Saturday, December 26, y Boston Public Library (Boston, 1888) Richardson’s first major public project, clearly showed familiarity with Paris, on Copley square across from Trinity Church, quickened the pace of evolution of historic styles, from neomedieval to NeoRenaissance, used parti of St. Genevieve and expanded into cubic palace with arcaded courtyard based on Cancelleria in Rome, exposed castiron structure, barrel vault, classical cofers, marblelined stairway White City (Chicago, 1893) Daniel Burnham, master plan following a campus design by Frederick Law Olmsted, domes and gilded statues, imperical, fantasy, ancient splendor, cheap wood, veneer, etc painted white, interior exposed wroughtiron frames, “white” referred to buildings and people 10 Saturday, December 26, y William Morris (18341896) part of Arts and Crafts movement of 1860s, declared “Art is mankind’s expression of his joy in labor,” lived communally, campaigned for socialism, described co operative alternative to the metropolis in “News from Nowere,” which included gardens and greenfields, little wants or belongings, and the study of arts and enjoyment Ebenezer Howard (18501928) imagined a lowdensity urban pattern for habitation based on linear rail transportation, proposed Garden City, moved in same socialist circles as Morris, and proposed “social city” as a means of controlling urban growth and maintaining human dignity, wrote “Tomorrow, a Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898) Garden City idea of more efficient land use through selfsufficient network of small cities separated by greenswards for forests and agriculture, society convened in early 20th century in to en lightened cities: Lever Soap Company’s Port Sunlight and Cadbury Chocolate’s Bournville (both built in 1890s) Art Nouveau (end of 19th century) emerged in rebellion to academic approaches in design, from members of Arts and Crafts movement & avantgarde, theories attempted to break cleanly from the past to find a formal language appropriate to modernity, exposed structure, whiplash lines AEG Turbine Hall (Berlin, 1908) by Behrens, who sought a coherent industrial aesthetic derived from essentials, often described as the temple of industry, immense open interior lined with tapering steel girders tied to pin joints at the bases, parallel tracks ran length of hall to carry mobile gantry, central bay of steel, concept: beehive 11 Saturday, December 26, y Larkin Building (Buffalo, 1904) Larkin Company Administration Building, Wright’s first large scale work, had direct connection to Craftsman magazine by Gustav Stickley, revolutionized the office type, non oppressive work environment with rich cultural stimuli, circulation and bathrooms in the corner towers (like medieval fortresses), offices in side wings had parapets overlooking central atrium, organ, influenced many practices of today: openplan office, built in file cabinets, radiant floor heating, airconditioning, steel furniture, and wallhung toilets 12 Saturday, December 26, y Robie House (Hyde Park, Chicago, 19061909) Frank Llyod Wright, done in Prarie Style, characterized by horizontal volumes and low pitched roofs with deep eaves, on a platform and sheltered with inordinately wide projecting eaves to protect it from the street, “light screens” instead of windows, central social space, asymmetrical Metro station (Paris, 1900) Art Nouveau, exposed metal structure, botanic imagery Casa Mila (Barcelona, 1905) Gaudi, 8 apartments, no right angles, undulating surface, stone exterior, no two rooms with same shape, like a clif with caves, anthropomorphic chimneys, balustrades 13 Saturday, December 26, y 14
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