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Date Created: 11/09/15
PENTESTING 1 Penetration Testing Brian Page American Military University PENTESTING 2 Introduction Network Scanning is a crucial component of penetration testing that must be conducted in order for the penetration tester (PT) to determine the needs of the organization. Discovery of the devices that are on the network will allow the PT to see what devices are on the network and find out if there are any vulnerabilities in the software or hardware that can be exploited. For the purposes of this assignment, Kali or Backtrack Linux will be used as the penetration testing software, using nmap to discover devices and determine if they can be exploited. Kali Linux: NMAP The reasoning behind using nmap as the network scanner is it can also, in most cases determine what operating system the devices on the network are operating on, users credentials, active or listening ports and services that are running on the systems. Because we are scanning inside the company’s network, there is no need to use the –sS option, which is a stealth scan. The default option is sufficient. Whether another type of scan needs to be conducted will depend on the displayed results. Pictured above is a typical NMAP return from a network. As you can see, ports 21,23, and 80 are open and listening. Conducting multiple scans of the network using different switches in the PENTESTING 3 NMAP prompt could result in more information about the network. After the initial scan, running the same command with the –packet_trace option will return results ICMP echo requests. Using the list scan option withing NMAP is another form of host discovery that could be useful in this situation. The command used is “nmap –sL –vv IP Address”. If more detail is needed you can also use the packet trace option at the end of the command. NetDiscover Another tool that I use in network discovery that is built into Kali Linux is called NetDiscover. This tool monitors all network traffic not unlike a sniffer and fingerprints any devices that it finds. It is a passive reconnaissance tool, so you are able to use it virtually undetected. The image above displays a typical result using NetDiscover in Kali Linux. As you can see, it can give the PT more information about the devices that are on the network. PENTESTING 4 Counter Attack There are many countermeasures that can be put into place to prevent the enumeration of data on a network. Firewalls are a huge mitigation factor. Most firewalls now have Intrusion Detection (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention (IPS) systems built into them. IDS firewalls basically detect intrusions and do not prevent them, whereas IPS firewalls have functionality to where attacks are prevented. Intrusion Prevention systems are usually software based and used in line with hardware. Most times prevention measures are tailored to the vulnerabilities that are detected within the network segment that is being analyzed. PENTESTING 5 References Cited Abusing DNS. (2010). In Ethical Hacking: Penetration Testing for Professionals Official Lab Manual. Reliable Network Recon. (2010). In Ethical Hacking: Penetration Testing for Professionals Official Lab Manual. Stealthy Network Recon. (2010). In Ethical Hacking: Penetration Testing for Professionals Official Lab Manual.
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