Study Guide Biol 120-101
Popular in Principles of Biology
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Scanlon on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 120-101 at Towson University taught by Lauren Kuta in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 229 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biological Sciences at Towson University.
Reviews for Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/09/15
Study Guide for Evolution 11/04/2015 ▯ Vocabulary: Homologous Structure: are those that are similar in form but not in function. Vestigial Structure: those that exist in modern organisms but no longer have a valid modern use (whale pelvis, appendix). Analogous Structure: structures are those that are functionally similar (i.e. they have the same “job”) but structurally very different. Eukaryotic Cells: a cell with a true nucleus; a cell with a nuclear membrane and organelles; more complex cells; plants, fungi, protista and animals. Prokaryotic Cells: a cell lacking a true membranebound nucleus; simple cells; bacteria. Absolute Dating: is the process of determining an age on a specified time scale in archaeology and geology. Reproductive Isolation: refers to the situation where different species may live in the same area, but properties of individuals prevent them from interbreeding. The things which stop species or groups of organisms reproducing sexually are called isolating mechanisms. Relative Dating: is the science of determining the relative order of past events (i.e., the age of an object in comparison to another), without necessarily determining their absolute age, (i.e. estimated age). Mutation: the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations, caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the deletion, insertion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes. Speciation: the formation of new and distinct species; occurs when three conditions are met: 1) separation of gene pool. 2) Genetic divergence by microevolution . 3)Development of a mechanism for reproductive isolation. Both the 1 and 2 nd rd conditions occur without a new species forming; the 3 always forms a new species. Natural Selection: the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution. Adaption: a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment. H.M.S. Beagle: was a Cherokeeclass 10gun brigsloop of the Royal Navy, one of more than 100 ships of this class. It was as launched on 11 May 1820 from the Woolwich Dockyard on the River Thames. On the second survey voyage the young naturalist Charles Darwin was on board, and his work made Beagle one of the most famous ships in history. Microevolution: Change in gene frequency of a population over time; peppered moth scenario, color pattern in mice in American Southwest. ▯ 1. Who was Charles Darwin? What role did he play in establishing evolutionary theory? What areas did he visit while developing his theory? Charles Darwin became a naturalist at a point in the history of evolutionary thought when theories of Transmutation were being developed to explain discrepancies in the established faith based explanations of species. He considered these problems at first hand during the Beagle survey. On its return in 1836 his ideas developed rapidly. His collections and writings established him as an eminent geologist and collector. Darwin sailed across the Atlantic to the South American coast. He stopped briefly in the Galapagos and went back to Britain by way of New Zealand. ▯ 2. What is natural selection? Why does is occur? How does it change an organism? Natural selection is the idea Dawin came up with based on his observations, which states that the organism that is best adapted to the environment is more likely to survive and reproduce and when it does it will pass its adaptions on to its offspring. An organism that is born with a random mutation that helps it to survive is going to pass that trait to its offspring and said trait will increase in the population. Organisms that are born with negative traits are less likely to survive and those traits will not be passed on. ▯ 3. What are adaptions? How do they help organisms to survive? Adaptation is a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment. Some examples include white fur on polar bears, opposable thumbs on primates, Scales on fish, Waxy coating on cactus. This helps organisms survive by allowing them to fit in better with their environment. Helps them to hide from predators etc. ▯ 4. What evidence has been accumulated over the years to show that evolution does occur? What role did the H.M.S. Beagle play in collecting this evidence? There are six types of evidence that scientists have complied that shows how organisms change over time : o Fossils o Comparative Anatomy o Comparative Embryology o Biogeography o Molecular Biology o Convergence The H.M.S. Beagle was the ship that took Darwin to find all the evidence he did, adding evidence to the theory of evolution. ▯ 5. How has modern technology improved our ability to gather evidence that supports evolutionary theory? The laboratory techniques of DNA cloning and sequencing have provided a new and powerful means of investigating evolution at the molecular level. Major research efforts such as the Human Genome Project further improved the technology for obtaining long DNA sequences rapidly and inexpensively. ▯ 6. How can embryos be used to prove evolution occurs? How can DNA be used to prove evolution occurs? The embryos of related species appear very similar in early development and have similar features and parts. Similarities in DNA structure can also reveal evolutionary relationships, we can examine the DNA directly or look at which DNA creates amino acids sequences and proteins, if similarities exist in proteins and amino acid sequences , they also exist in the DNA of that organism. The more similarities there are the closer related the two species are. ▯ 7. How did the following organisms provide more evidence in support of evolutionary theory? Peppered Moths o Since the light moths are best adapted to light trees, they were most likely to survive and reproduce and were most common, yet after the English industrial revolutionary, soot build up covered the tree bark and the dark phase slowly became more prominent because its color pattern was the better adaption. Peppered moths live on birch trees in England and occur in light(peppered) and dark phase. Tortoises o Galapagos tortoises have two very different shapes, each adapted for different feeding habits needed on low, arid islands versus high, lusher islands. o Saddleback Tortoises Some tortoises, including Lonesome George, have shells that rise in front, like a saddle. This adaptation makes it easier for them to lift their heads high to eat tree cactus and to resolve disputes over limited food resources, which they do through raising their heads as high as possible during social interactions. o Domeshaped Tortoises Tortoises with domeshaped shells live on islands where there is an abundance of vegetation close to the ground, making it less necessary for the animals to raise their heads to feed. o Notched shells allows neck to stretch Finches o Whilst studying wildlife on the Galapagos Islands [Darwin] noticed that the Galapagos finches showed wide variations eg in beak shape and size from island to island. Darwin deduced that these differences made the finches better adapted to take advantage of the food in their particular local environment thin, sharp beaks prevailing where the birds' main food was insects and grubs, and large clawshaped beaks where their diet was buds, fruit and nuts. In each locality the finch population had somehow developed beaks which were suitable for that particular environment. o Beak shapes correspond to feeding habits ▯ 8. What role does the fossil record play in providing evidence for evolution? How are fossils aged? What is the difference between relative dating and absolute dating? How can absolute dating be used to get an exact age of a fossil? Fossils allow us to see the physical structures from longdead organisms. By looking at fossils and assessing their age, we can begin to complete the family tree of modern creatures. This is a very subjective process that changes often as new information is added. Fossils are aged by relative or absolute dating. The difference between relative dating and absolute dating is that relative dating is a method of sequencing events in the order in which they happened. Absolute dating is a method of estimating the age of a rock sample in years via radiometric techniques. The term relative dating is distinguished from absolute dating to make it clear that one does not get a specific estimate of the age of an object from relative dating, but one does get such an estimate of true age from absolute dating. There are several techniques employed in both sets of methods. Radiometric dating is one type of absolute dating. Absolute dating can get us an actual year by measuring the amount of radioactive atoms that is left in a sample. ▯ 9. What is the difference between the punctuated equilibrium theory of evolutionary change and gradualism? If it changed slowly and steadily over time this is called gradualism If the population changes rapidly in spurts separated by periods of little change, this is called punctuated equilibrium. The idea of punctuated equilibrium originated long after the idea of gradualism. Darwin saw evolution as being "steady, slow, and continuous". Later, scientists were studying fossils and they found that some species have their evolution almost "mapped out" in fossils. For others they found a few, very different species along the evolutionary course, but very few or no fossils of "in between" organisms. Also, when dating the fossils, scientists saw that in some species change was very slow, but in others, it must have occurred rapidly to be able to produce such change over such a short amount of time. The scientists reasoned that there had to be another way that evolution could have happened that was quicker and had fewer intermediate species, so the idea of punctuated equilibrium was formed. ▯ 10. How do new species evolve? What three things have to happen in order for a new species to emerge? Separate groups of organisms belonging to the same species may adapt in different ways to better exploit diverse environments or resources. They also may evolve varied characteristics for attracting mates. That is, different groups evolve in different directions. Over time, these groups or populations may become so different that they can no longer breed togetherseparate species are formed. the formation of new and distinct species; occurs when three conditions are met: 1) separation of gene pool. 2) Genetic divergence by microevolution. 3)Development of a mechanism for reproductive isolation. Both the 1 and 2 conditions occur without rd a new species forming; the 3 always forms a new species ▯ 11. What is the difference between natural and artificial selection? The only difference between natural selection and artificial selection is whether the difference in reproductive success is driven by naturally occurring processes, or whether the selection is imposed by humans. Artificial selection: Breeding for a small dog such as a Chihuahua. Natural selection: Bird whose beak after a generation or more changes so it can feed on the food available to survive. ▯ 12. How are organisms in today’s world categorized? (K P C OFGS) Kingdom(animal) *Kings* Phylum(phylum chordate& the subphylum vertebrata) *Play* Class(mammalia) *Crazy* Order(carnivora) *Odd* Family(canidae) *Football* Genus(canis) *Games* Species(common household dog) *Sometimes* o Classification implies common ancestry ▯ 13. What basic characteristics are shared by each of the major domains—eukarya and archaea? What basic characteristics are shared by the major kingdoms ? Eukarya: Protista, Fungi, Plantae Animalia Archaea: Domain: Archaea Kingdom: Archaebacteria Cell Type: Prokaryote Cell Structures: Cell walls WITHOUT peptidoglycans Number of Cells: Unicellular Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph Example: Methanogens, Halophiles Eubacteria modern bacteria o Domain: Bacteria Kingdom: Eubacteria Cell Type: Prokaryote Cell Structures: Cell walls WITH peptidoglycans Number of Cells: unicellular Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph Example: Strep or E. coli Protista the single celled heterotrophs o Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Protista Cell Type: Eukaryote Cell Structures: Cell walls of CELLULOSE: some have chloroplasts Number of Cells: Most unicellular, some colonial or multicellular Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph or heterotroph Example: AMOEBA, PARAMECIUM, MOLDS, GIANT KELP Fungi fungus and mushrooms o Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Fungi Cell Type: Eukaryote Cell Structures: Cell walls of CHITIN Number of Cells: some unicellular,,MOST MULTICELLULAR Mode of Nutrition: Heterotroph Example: MUSHROOMS AND YEAST Plantae plants, trees, etc o Domain: Eukaryote Kingdom: Plantae Cell Type: Eukaryote Cell Structures: Cell walls with CELLULOSE; chloroplasts Number of Cells: MULTICELLULAR Mode of Nutrition: Autotroph Example: Moss, ferns, and flowering plants Animalia animals o Domain: Eukaryotes Kingdom: Animalia Cell Type: Eukaryotes Cell Structures: NO Cell walls and NO CHLOROPLASTS Number of Cells: Multicellular Mode of Nutrition: Heterotroph Example: Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals ▯ ▯ ▯
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'