Muscular/ Neurophysiology Biol2220
Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Popular in Biological Sciences
80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cam Sartory on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol2220 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
Reviews for Muscular/ Neurophysiology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/09/15
Lecture Objectives Neural Integration Define synapse, and contrast a chemical synapse from an electrical synapse. the space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another Electrical don’t use neurotransmitters have a gap junction fast synapses not common in areas where we synchronize activity portions of brain where all need to function at once common in embryos Chemical use neurotransmitters presynaptic neuron contains synaptic vesicles that contain neurotransmitters neurotransmitters released through exocytosis Differentiate continuous, saltatorial and synaptic conduction of an action potential. Continuous action potential is transferred along entire length of unmyelinated axon Saltatorial impulse jumps from Node of Ranvier to Node of Ranvier in myelinated axon Synaptic Conduction from one neuron to another across a synapse no direct connection action potential reached axon terminal. Calcium moves to axon terminal calcium binds with synaptotagmin NT is released through exocytosis, cross synaptic cleft, and binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane postsynaptic membrane changes permeability, and a graded potential results Define the absolute and relative refractory periods. Absolute the period of time after an action potential when a second stimulus does not result in an action potential during depolarization Relative during repolarization if a stimulus is really strong, a second action potential can occur if enough Na+ (above +30) Identify the factors that affect the speed of impulse conduction. Temperature higher the temperature, the faster the impulse Axon Diameter larger the diameter of an axon, the faster the nerve impulse Degree of Myelination myelinated uses saltatorial conduction (faster) unmyelinated uses continuous conduction (slower) NOT Stimulus strength all or nothing response Compare the classifications of nerve fibers. Group A fibers largest in diameter myelinated 130 meters per second conduction time (very fast) seen in large sensory nerves, skeletal muscle nerves Group B fibers medium size in diameter myelinated 10 meters per second predominately sensory neurons that connect skin, or visceral organs to CNS Group C fibers smallest in diameter unmyelinated 1/2 meter per second connection from skin or sensory organs to CNS Identify the types of synaptic junctions. axodendritic axon of presynaptic neuron with dendrite of posy synaptic neuron axosomatic axon of pre with soma of post axoaxionic axon with pre axon of post fastest along entire axon dendrodendritic dendrites of pre with dendrites of post etc. Describe the types of postsynaptic potentials, including what causes them and how they are summated by the postsynaptic cell. Excitatory Synapses depolarization of postsynaptic membrane called excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) could get to threshold Inhibitory Synapses hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane calcium inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) will never get to threshold Contrast the actions of the different types of neurotransmitter receptors. channellinked receptors direct method Gprotein linked receptors indirect method Discuss the actions of the functional classifications of neurotransmitters. excitatory causes a depolarization of the post synaptic membrane effect NT has is dependent on the receptor ACh is always excitatory Inhibitory NT causes hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane Direct NT binds to receptor and opens a gated channel if channel allows positively charged ions in=excitatory if channel allows positively charged ions out=inhibitory Indirect NT binds to receptor but doesn’t open channel, instead it activates an integral protein, which then opens a channel Describe neuronal pools and their functions. neuronal pool in CNS neurons of similar functions that tend to cluster together discharge zone in the center of the pool always send a signal when there is a signal provided facilitated edges of pool if a stimulus is really strong, it will send signals to farther parts of the body ex: signal telling leg to run. Strong signal says run fast, causes other muscle to contract as well making you run faster. Name the various types of circuits. Diverging a single presynaptic neuron stimulates an ever increasing number of post synaptic neurons ex: autonomic nervous system (fight or flight) Converging many presynaptic neurons synapsing a single postsynaptic neuron if something interrupts one path, there are back ups allows for spatial summation different neuron signals coming in can either be excitatory or inhibitory Reverberating a single impulse sets into motion a chain of events positive feedback tells us to keep breathing Parallel afterdischarge combination of divergent and convergent circuits working together stimulus is spread over many different parts of the body, and the information comes back and ensures the response keeps going
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'