New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Muscular/ Neurophysiology

by: Cam Sartory

Muscular/ Neurophysiology Biol2220

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biological Sciences > Biol2220 > Muscular Neurophysiology
Cam Sartory

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes and Study Guides for lectures on the muscular system and neurophysiology
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
John R Cummings
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cam Sartory on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol2220 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


Reviews for Muscular/ Neurophysiology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/09/15
Lecture Objectives Neural Integration  Define synapse, and contrast a chemical synapse from an electrical synapse. ­the space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another ­Electrical ­don’t use neurotransmitters ­have a gap junction ­fast synapses ­not common ­in areas where we synchronize activity ­portions of brain where all need to function at once ­common in embryos ­Chemical ­use neurotransmitters ­presynaptic neuron contains synaptic vesicles that contain  neurotransmitters ­neurotransmitters released through exocytosis  Differentiate continuous, saltatorial and synaptic conduction of an action  potential. ­Continuous ­action potential is transferred along entire length of unmyelinated axon ­Saltatorial ­impulse jumps from Node of Ranvier to Node of Ranvier in myelinated  axon ­Synaptic Conduction ­from one neuron to another ­across a synapse ­no direct connection ­action potential reached axon terminal. Calcium moves to axon terminal ­calcium binds with synaptotagmin ­NT is released through exocytosis, cross synaptic cleft, and binds to  receptors on postsynaptic membrane ­postsynaptic membrane changes permeability, and a graded potential  results  Define the absolute and relative refractory periods. ­Absolute ­the period of time after an action potential when a second stimulus does  not result in an action potential ­during depolarization ­Relative ­during repolarization ­if a stimulus is really strong, a second action potential can occur if  enough Na+ (above +30)  Identify the factors that affect the speed of impulse conduction. ­Temperature ­higher the temperature, the faster the impulse ­Axon Diameter ­larger the diameter of an axon, the faster the nerve impulse ­Degree of Myelination ­myelinated uses saltatorial conduction (faster) ­unmyelinated uses continuous conduction (slower) ­NOT Stimulus strength ­all or nothing response  Compare the classifications of nerve fibers. ­Group A fibers ­largest in diameter ­myelinated ­130 meters per second­ conduction time (very fast) ­seen in large sensory nerves, skeletal muscle nerves ­Group B fibers ­medium size in diameter ­myelinated ­10 meters per second ­predominately sensory neurons that connect skin, or visceral organs to  CNS ­Group C fibers ­smallest in diameter ­unmyelinated ­1/2 meter per second ­connection from skin or sensory organs to CNS  Identify the types of synaptic junctions. ­axodendritic ­axon of presynaptic neuron with dendrite of posy synaptic neuron ­axosomatic ­axon of pre with soma of post ­axoaxionic ­axon with pre axon of post ­fastest along entire axon ­dendrodendritic ­dendrites of pre with dendrites of post ­etc.  Describe the types of postsynaptic potentials, including what causes them and  how they are summated by the postsynaptic cell. ­Excitatory Synapses ­depolarization of postsynaptic membrane ­called excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) ­could get to threshold  ­Inhibitory Synapses ­hyperpolarization of postsynaptic membrane ­calcium inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) ­will never get to threshold    Contrast the actions of the different types of neurotransmitter receptors. ­channel­linked receptors ­direct method ­G­protein linked receptors ­indirect method  Discuss the actions of the functional classifications of neurotransmitters. ­excitatory ­causes a depolarization of the post synaptic membrane ­effect NT has is dependent on the receptor ­ACh is always excitatory ­Inhibitory ­NT causes hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane  ­Direct ­NT binds to receptor and opens a gated channel ­if channel allows positively charged ions in=excitatory ­if channel allows positively charged ions out=inhibitory ­Indirect ­NT binds to receptor but doesn’t open channel, instead it activates an  integral protein, which then opens a channel  Describe neuronal pools and their functions. ­neuronal pool in CNS  ­neurons of similar functions that tend to cluster together ­discharge zone ­in the center of the pool ­always send a signal when there is a signal provided ­facilitated  ­edges of pool ­if a stimulus is really strong, it will send signals to farther parts of the body ­ex: signal telling leg to run. Strong signal says run fast, causes other  muscle to contract as well making you run faster.  Name the various types of circuits. ­Diverging ­ a single presynaptic neuron stimulates an ever increasing number of post  synaptic neurons ­ex: autonomic nervous system (fight or flight) ­Converging ­many presynaptic neurons synapsing a single postsynaptic neuron ­if something interrupts one path, there are back ups ­allows for spatial summation ­ different neuron signals coming in can either be excitatory or inhibitory ­Reverberating ­a single impulse sets into motion a chain of events ­positive feedback ­tells us to keep breathing ­Parallel after­discharge ­combination of divergent and convergent circuits working together ­stimulus is spread over many different parts of the body, and the  information comes back and ensures the response keeps going


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.