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Chapter 23: Respiratory PART 1: ANATOMY

by: Aja

Chapter 23: Respiratory PART 1: ANATOMY

Marketplace > Edison State College, Naples FL > > Chapter 23 Respiratory PART 1 ANATOMY
Edison State College, Naples FL
GPA 3.15

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aja on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to at Edison State College, Naples FL taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.

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Date Created: 11/09/15
Chapter 23: The Respiratory System Part 1: ANATOMY The respiratory system has two parts: 1. upper respiratory system • nose • pharynx ( throat 2. lower respiratory system • larynx ( voice box) • trachea ( wind pipe) • lungs • bronchi There are two zones: 1. conducting zone • series of interconnecting tubes in and out of the lungs • conduct, filter and moisten the air, making it easier for gas exchange [ nose—-> nasal cavity—-> pharynx—->larynx—->trachea—->bronchi—- >bronchioles—->terminal bronchioles] 2. respiratory zone • main site of gas exchange [ respiratory bronchioles—-> alveolar ducts—-> alveoli sacs—-> alveoli] The nose has two sections: 1. external • external nares ( nostrils)- warm, moisten, and filter incoming air a. detecting olfactory stimuli b. modify speech vibrations as they pass through hollow chambers • nasal cavity 2. internal • internal nares- behind nasal cavity a. parasinal sinuses- resonating chambers for sound • ethmoid bone- forms roof of mouth • respiratory epithelium- larger region a. contains cilia and numerous goblet cells • olfactory epithelium- smaller region a. contains cilia but NO goblet cells • superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae- shelves • superior, middle, and inferior nasal meatuses- groove like air passageways The pharynx can be divided into three regions: 1. nasopharynx • superior portion- allows air in • soft palate ( roof of mouth) • eustachian tubes ( auditory tube)- goes to the middle ear • pharyngeal tonsils 2. oropharynx • middle section- both respiratory and digestive • palatine and lingual tonsils 3. laryngopharynx • inferior portion- both respiratory and digestive • esophagus ( food tube) • larynx ( voice box) The larynx consists cartilage that is either single or in pairs: 1. single cartilage • epiglottis (stem)- moveable cartilage on top • thyroid cartilage-adams apple” triangular shaped above the thyroid gland • cricoid cartilage- full ring that goes around the entire larynx 2. cartilage pairs • arytenoid cartilage- triangular piece located at back of cricoid cartilage a. influence changes in tension and position of vocal cords • corniculate cartilage- horn shaped piece located on top of each arytenoid • cuneiform cartilage- club shaped piece located above the corniculate a. support vocal cords and lateral parts of epiglottis The mucous membrane of the larynx forms 2 pairs of folds: 1. vestibular folds (false vocal cords)- the thicker ones on top • used for holding your breath 2. vocal folds (true vocal cords)- the thinner ones on the bottom • vibrations used to produce sound (guitar strings) • pitch is controlled by the tension on the vocal cords a. the more rapid the vibration is , the higher the pitch b. the slower the vibration is , the lower the pitch is ( men have thicker cords , slow vibration, and low pitch in their voices) c. during whispering, the vocal cords do NOT vibrate The trachea divides into two main bronchus: 1. Right primary bronchus • vertical but shorter, because of the liver right underneath • more capacity 2. Left primary bronchus • longer but not as wide, because of the aortic arch that houses the heart • 10% smaller because of the aortic arch 3. at the center before the division is the carina- cough reflex The main branch each divide into smaller Lobar bronchi: 1. Right Lung • Superior, Middle, and Inferior lobar bronchi a. segmental bronchi • bronchioles - terminal bronchioles 2. Left Lung • Superior and Inferior lobar bronchi a. segmental bronchi • bronchioles terminal bronchioles ( act like stem cells) - The bronchial tree: [Trachea——>Main bronchi——> Lobar bronchi——> Segmental bronchi—— >Bronchioles——>Terminal bronchioles] The structure changes as it moves down the bronchial tree. Thick epithelium with cilia gradually becomes simple squamous ( flat cells) with no cilia, while the cartilages disappears and is replaced with smooth muscle. The Lungs are enclosed each by a double layered membrane called the pleural membrane that has three sections: • parietal pleura lines the wall of the thoracic cavity • visceral pleura covers the lungs themselves • pleural cavity space full of fluid between the pleural a. surface tension- allows for pleura to stick to one another and move around Each lung is divided by fissures: 1. Right lung • horizontal fissure a. divides superior and middle • oblique fissure a. divides middle and inferior 2. Left lung • oblique fissure a. divides superior and inferior Terminal bronchioles branch out into lobules, which are divided into microscopic sections: 1. respiratory bronchioles • the respiratory zone begins here 2. alveolar ducts • simple squamous epithelium ( flat cells) 3. alveolar sacs • 2 or more alveoli that share a common opening 4. alveoli [Respiratory bronchioles——> alveolar ducts——> alveolar sacs——> alveoli] Alveoli are cup shaped pouches lined by simple squamous epithelium and supported by a basement membrane. Type I alveolar cells- simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the whole wall Type II alveolar cells- rounded epithelial cells that are in between type 1 cells • fewer in number with microvilli • keep surface between cells moist • produce surfactants: lowers surface tension of alveolar fluid


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