Chapter 23: Respiratory PART 1: ANATOMY
Chapter 23: Respiratory PART 1: ANATOMY
Edison State College, Naples FL
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Date Created: 11/09/15
Chapter 23: The Respiratory System Part 1: ANATOMY The respiratory system has two parts: 1. upper respiratory system • nose • pharynx ( throat 2. lower respiratory system • larynx ( voice box) • trachea ( wind pipe) • lungs • bronchi There are two zones: 1. conducting zone • series of interconnecting tubes in and out of the lungs • conduct, filter and moisten the air, making it easier for gas exchange [ nose—-> nasal cavity—-> pharynx—->larynx—->trachea—->bronchi—- >bronchioles—->terminal bronchioles] 2. respiratory zone • main site of gas exchange [ respiratory bronchioles—-> alveolar ducts—-> alveoli sacs—-> alveoli] The nose has two sections: 1. external • external nares ( nostrils)- warm, moisten, and filter incoming air a. detecting olfactory stimuli b. modify speech vibrations as they pass through hollow chambers • nasal cavity 2. internal • internal nares- behind nasal cavity a. parasinal sinuses- resonating chambers for sound • ethmoid bone- forms roof of mouth • respiratory epithelium- larger region a. contains cilia and numerous goblet cells • olfactory epithelium- smaller region a. contains cilia but NO goblet cells • superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae- shelves • superior, middle, and inferior nasal meatuses- groove like air passageways The pharynx can be divided into three regions: 1. nasopharynx • superior portion- allows air in • soft palate ( roof of mouth) • eustachian tubes ( auditory tube)- goes to the middle ear • pharyngeal tonsils 2. oropharynx • middle section- both respiratory and digestive • palatine and lingual tonsils 3. laryngopharynx • inferior portion- both respiratory and digestive • esophagus ( food tube) • larynx ( voice box) The larynx consists cartilage that is either single or in pairs: 1. single cartilage • epiglottis (stem)- moveable cartilage on top • thyroid cartilage-adams apple” triangular shaped above the thyroid gland • cricoid cartilage- full ring that goes around the entire larynx 2. cartilage pairs • arytenoid cartilage- triangular piece located at back of cricoid cartilage a. influence changes in tension and position of vocal cords • corniculate cartilage- horn shaped piece located on top of each arytenoid • cuneiform cartilage- club shaped piece located above the corniculate a. support vocal cords and lateral parts of epiglottis The mucous membrane of the larynx forms 2 pairs of folds: 1. vestibular folds (false vocal cords)- the thicker ones on top • used for holding your breath 2. vocal folds (true vocal cords)- the thinner ones on the bottom • vibrations used to produce sound (guitar strings) • pitch is controlled by the tension on the vocal cords a. the more rapid the vibration is , the higher the pitch b. the slower the vibration is , the lower the pitch is ( men have thicker cords , slow vibration, and low pitch in their voices) c. during whispering, the vocal cords do NOT vibrate The trachea divides into two main bronchus: 1. Right primary bronchus • vertical but shorter, because of the liver right underneath • more capacity 2. Left primary bronchus • longer but not as wide, because of the aortic arch that houses the heart • 10% smaller because of the aortic arch 3. at the center before the division is the carina- cough reflex The main branch each divide into smaller Lobar bronchi: 1. Right Lung • Superior, Middle, and Inferior lobar bronchi a. segmental bronchi • bronchioles - terminal bronchioles 2. Left Lung • Superior and Inferior lobar bronchi a. segmental bronchi • bronchioles terminal bronchioles ( act like stem cells) - The bronchial tree: [Trachea——>Main bronchi——> Lobar bronchi——> Segmental bronchi—— >Bronchioles——>Terminal bronchioles] The structure changes as it moves down the bronchial tree. Thick epithelium with cilia gradually becomes simple squamous ( flat cells) with no cilia, while the cartilages disappears and is replaced with smooth muscle. The Lungs are enclosed each by a double layered membrane called the pleural membrane that has three sections: • parietal pleura lines the wall of the thoracic cavity • visceral pleura covers the lungs themselves • pleural cavity space full of fluid between the pleural a. surface tension- allows for pleura to stick to one another and move around Each lung is divided by fissures: 1. Right lung • horizontal fissure a. divides superior and middle • oblique fissure a. divides middle and inferior 2. Left lung • oblique fissure a. divides superior and inferior Terminal bronchioles branch out into lobules, which are divided into microscopic sections: 1. respiratory bronchioles • the respiratory zone begins here 2. alveolar ducts • simple squamous epithelium ( flat cells) 3. alveolar sacs • 2 or more alveoli that share a common opening 4. alveoli [Respiratory bronchioles——> alveolar ducts——> alveolar sacs——> alveoli] Alveoli are cup shaped pouches lined by simple squamous epithelium and supported by a basement membrane. Type I alveolar cells- simple squamous epithelial cells that lines the whole wall Type II alveolar cells- rounded epithelial cells that are in between type 1 cells • fewer in number with microvilli • keep surface between cells moist • produce surfactants: lowers surface tension of alveolar fluid
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