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Exam 4 Study Guide

by: Hayley Lecker

Exam 4 Study Guide BIOL 1306/1106

Hayley Lecker
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Study Guide with flash cards and chapters summaries. Images to aid.
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
Study Guide
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 11/09/15
Metamorphosis Biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a Animal Tissues - Epithelial conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal’s body structure through cell growth and cells that line a body cavity, organ, or external surfaces providing barrier differentiation. and controlling material flow (ex skin). Animal Tissues- Nervous Animal Tissues- Connective cells that function to bind and support other tissues typically secreting a neurons and supporting cells that transmit and matrix (e.g blood, bone). receive impulses Germ Line A germ line is the sex cells (eggs or sperm) that are Secondary Sexual characteristics used by sexually reproducing organisms to pass on Properties of nonreproductive tissues and organs that are distinctive in genes from generation to generation. Egg and each sex; for example, facial hair and deep voice of human males. sperm cells are called germ cells, in contrast to other cells of the body that are called somatic cells. . Sex determination Animal Tissues- Muscle Sex is chromosomal (XY, X0, ZW) – non-genetic: temperature. Non-genetic: sequential hermaphroditism. long muscle cells that can contract to produce force Hermaphrodite Action potential An organism that has reproductive organs normally A brief all-or-none depolarization of a neuron’s plasma membrane associated with both male and female sexes. Examples resulting in a signal being conducted through an axon. See Image 25 for Nervous System Evolution of hermaphroditic animals include tunicates and many snails and slugs. Basal Metabolic Rate Homeostasis Metabolic rate of resting, fasting, and nonstressed Regulation of an organism’s body to maintain internal conditions that are endotherm at a comfortable temperature. stable and relatively constant. Homeotherm Poikilotherm An organism in which thermoregulation maintains a An organisms whose body temperature matches the ambient consistent body temperature (endotherm, warm- environment. blooded). (Ectotherm, cold blooded. Hibernation Estivation A state of inactivity and metabolic depression in Similar to hibernation, but during summer months. endotherms during winter months. Sensory Systems Animals need information about their external Photoreceptors environment to move, locate food, find mates, and Cone cells in vertebrate eyes have highly folded membranes with great avoid danger. They also need information regarding numbers of photoreceptor molecules. internal conditions such as partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in the blood and tension in contracting muscles. Mechanreceptors Behavior Mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical distortion of the cell membrane. Stretch receptor cells in muscles An action carried out by muscles under control of the nervous system. respond when the muscle contracts. Instinct A largely inheritable and unalterable tendency of an Learned Behavior organism to make a complex and specific response to A relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience environmental stimuli without involving reason. Also called innate behavior Play All motor activity performed postnatally that appears to be purposeless in which motor patterns from other contexts may often by used in modified forms and altered temporal sequencing If the activity is directed toward another living being, it is called social play. Torpor Circadian rhythm A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that persists even in the absence of Decreased activity in an animal accompanied by a external cues. substantial decline in body temperature. Ruminant Vitamin An organic compound and vital nutrient that an organism requires in Mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant- limited amounts. based food by fermenting it with the help of microbial symbionts in a specialized stomach prior to digestion. Dietary minerals Hemolymph Circulatory fluid analogous to blood found in insects’ open circulatory Chemical elements such as calcium phosphorus, and systems potassium that an organism requires for growth. Pulmonary circuit circulatory pathway in which blood is oxygenated (e.g Systemic circuit through the lungs). - circulatory pathway in which oxygen is supplied to the rest of the body. Nitrogenous wastes Nephron nitrogen-containing wastes produced by protein The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney that functions to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium metabolism that must be excreted by animals due to salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the their toxicity. Includes ammonia, urea, and uric acid. rest of as urine. Parthenogenesis Pheromone A type of asexual reproduction in which the offspring develops from secreted or excreted chemical compound that triggers unfertilized eggs. It is particularly common amongst arthropods and rotifers, and can also be found in some species of fish, amphibians, birds, and a social response in members of the same species. reptiles, but not mammals. . Chapter 23 Key takeaways:  Early development can characterize two major clades: triplobastic animals, the protostomes, and the deuterostomes.  Most animals have radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry (See Image 1)  Based on body cabity structures animals can be described as acoelomates, pseduocoelomates, coelomates.  All animals other than sponges, ctenophores, placezoans, and cnidarians belong to a large monophyletic group called the Bilateria. Eumetazoans which have tissues organized into distinct organs, include all animals other than sponges.  Sponges are simple, asymmetrical animals that lack differentiated cell layers and true organs. Sponges have skeletons made up of silicaceous or calcareous spicules. They create water currents and capture food with flagellated feeding cells called choanocytes. Choanocytes are an evolutionary link between the animals and the choanoflagellate protists.  Ctenophores move by beating comblike plates of cilia called ctenes.  The life cycle of most cnidarians has two distinct stages: a sessile polyp stage and motile medusa. A fertilized egg develops into a free-swimming larval planula, which settles to the bottom and develops into a polyp.  Protostomes which means mouth-first are bilaterally symmetrical animals that have an anterior brain surrounding the entrance to the digestive tract and a ventral nervous system. Protostomes comprise two major clades, the lophtrochozoans and the ecdysozoans.  Lophotrochozoans include a wide diversity of animals. Within this group evolved lophophores (a complex organ for food collection and gas exchange) and free-living trochophore larvae.  Lophophores wormlike body forms and external shells are each found in many distantly related groups of lophotrochozoans. The most species-rich groups of lophotrochozoans are the flatworms, annelids, and mollusks.  Annelids are a diverse group of segmented worms that live in moist terrestrial and aquatic enviroments.  Mollusks underwent a dramatic evolutionary radiation based on a body plan consisting of three major components: a foot, a mantle, and a visceral mass. (See Image 7)  Ecdysozoans have a cuticle covering their body which they must molt in order to grow. Some ecdysozoans notably the arthropods have a rigid cuticle reinforced with chitin that functions as an exoskeleton.  Nematodes or round worms have a thick multilayers cuticle  Many ecdysozoan groups are wormlike in form.  One major ecdysozoan clade, the arthropods, has evolved jointed paired appendages that have a wide diversity of functions.  Arthropods are the dominant animals on Earth in the number of described species, and among the most abundant in the number of individuals.  Deuterostomes vary greatly in adult form, but based on the distinctive patterns of early development they share and on phylogenetic analyses of gene structures, they represent a monophyletic group. There are far fewer species of deuterostomes than of protostomes, but many deuterostomes are large and ecologically important.  Echinoderms and hemichordates both have bilaterally symmetrical ciliated larvae.  Most adult echinoderms have pentaradial symmetry. Echinoderms have an internal skeleton of calcified plates and a unique water vascular system connected to extensions called tube feet.  Lungs and jointed appendages enabled one lineage of lobe-limbed vertebrates to colonize the land. This lineage gave rise to the tetrapods.  The major living reptile groups are the lepidosaurs (tuataras, lizards, snakes, and amphisbaenas), turtles, and archosaurs (crocodilians and birds).  See Image 2 through 7 for Ancestor Trees Chapter 29 Key takeaways:  Animals build new molecules and cells from ingested organic compounds. A growing animal adds new cells to its body, and all animals are constantly replacing worn-out molecules ad cells.  An animal’s metabolic rate is defined as its rate of energy consumption- the rate at which the animal uses chemical energy, turning it into heat. Metabolic rate can be quantified by measuring the rate of oxygen consumption or not common by measuring the rate of heat production.  Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of a resting, fasting individual in a comfortable thermal environment. When BMR is expressed per unit of body weight in grams it is called BMR/g.  Smaller mammals consistently have higher BMR/g than larger mammals do. This is an example of a scaling relationship. An animal with a high BMR/g must consume more food relative to its body weight than an animal with a lower BMR/g.  Homeostasis refers to the stability of an animals’ internal environment and the mechanisms that maintain this stability.  Homeotherms exhibit thermoregulation, maintaining a constant internal temperature by varying metabolic rate and insulation with external temperature. Above or below a specific temperature range called the thermoneutral zone (TNZ), metabolic rate increases to compensate for increasing heat input or to offset heat loss, respectively  Most animals are poikilotherms (Ectotherms) with body temperature that vary with and match external temperature. Metabolic rates decrease as temperature drops and increases as temperature rises.  Homeothermic heat-producing mechanisms used by mammals include shivering, the subtle contraction of the skeletal muscles to convert ATP to heat; and the nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in brown adipose tissue, which produces heat directly in the mitochondria by short-circuiting oxidative phosphorylation. Insects sometimes regulate their thoracic temperature using heat generated from ATP by flight muscles in their throax.  In hot environments, homeotheric animals increases their rate of heat loss by sweating or panting, processes that increase heat transfer to the environment by evaporation of water.  Cells, tissues, organs, and multi-organ systems represent ever-more-complex levels in the hierarchy of organization of the animal body.  Each cell must make its own ATP. Cells may use aerobic (with oxygen) or anaerobic (without oxygen) processes to produce ATP.  The four essential elements of a control system are controlled variable, sensors, effectors, and control mechanisms. The controlled variable is the property of characteristic of animal that is being controlled. Sensors detect the current level of the controlled variable. Effectors are tissues or organs that can change the level of the controlled variable. The control mechanism uses information from the sensors to determine which effectors to activate- and how intensely to modify the controlled variable.  A controlled mechanism may involve negative feedback, in which the control mechanism activates effectors in ways that reduce or negate any difference that exists between the controlled variable’s actual state and its set point. Negative feedback is stabilizing.  Positive feedback occurs when deviations of a controlled variable from its existing level are increases or amplified by the action of the control mechanism. Positive feedback is destabilizing but still can be advantageous. Chapter 30 Key takeaways:  There are three major types of food molecules: lipids-fats and oils, carbohydrates, and proteins. Lipids contain about twice as many calories per unit of weight as carbohydrates and proteins. Animals store extra energy as lipids and glycogen.  Food provides carbon skeletons, termed essential that animals cannot synthesize themselves.  Adult humans require eight essential amino acids and at least two essential fatty acids.  Vitamins are essential carbon molecules needed in tiny amounts. There are either water-soluble or lipid-soluble.  Essential minerals are chemical elements that are required in the diet in addition to carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.  Malnutrition results when any essential nutrient is lacking from the diet. Chronic malnutrition causes deficiency diseases.  Each digestive enzyme can break only specific types of chemical bonds in food molecules. For ex: the sugars trehalose and lactose are broken down by trehalase and lactase respectively.  The nutritional value of food depends on the ability of the animal’s digestive track to process the food in such a way that nutrients in the food can be absorbed.  The vertebrate digestive system consists of a tubular gut and several secretory organs- notably the liver and pancreas that aid in digestion.  The gut consists of an inner gut epithelium that secretes mucus, enzymes, and hormones and absorbs nutrients. A submucosa containing blood and lymph vessels and two layers of smooth muscle and a nerve network called the enteric nervous system which is part of the autonomic nervous system.  The vertebrate gut can be divided into several compartments with different functions. The foregut includes the mouth, esophagus, and the stomach. The midgut is the principle site of digestion and absorption. The hindgut stores waste between defecations and reabsorbs water and salts from the feces.  Animals alternate between an absorptive state (food in the gut) and postabsorptive state (no food in the gut).  The actions of the stomach and small intestine are controlled by formones such as gastrin, secretin, and cholecystokinin (CCK). Chapter 31 Key takeaways:  Most cells require a constant supply of O2 and continuous removal of CO2. These respiratory gases are exchanged between an animal’s cells and the animal’s environment by a combination of diffusion and bulk flow.  A gas diffuses from where its partial pressure is high to where its partial pressure is low. The law of diffusion for gases show how various physical factors influence the diffusion rate of gases. Adaptation to maximize respiratory gas exchange influence one or more variables in the law of diffusion for gases (Fick’s Law).  Cocurrent gas exchange occurs when perfusion flows in the same direction as ventilation; flows in opposite directions result in countercurrent gas exchange. The most efficient transfer of gases is achieved by countercurrent systems such as those found in fish.  Internal partitioning of the lungs is greater in mammals than in nonavian reptiles like lizards and greater in these reptiles than in amphibians. Ventilations in all these groups is tidal.  The breathing system of birds includes air sacs that are filled and emptied tidally and act as bellows to ventilate the lungs. Air flows unidirectionally and continuously through the parabronchi of the birds lungs.  Insects distribute air throughout their bodies in a system of tracheae and tracheoles. The circulatory system is not involved in gas exchange because all cells are supplied directly by the tracheal system.  In mammalian lungs, the gas exchange surface area provided by the millions of alveoli is enormous, and the diffusion path length is short.  The tidal volume is the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs per breath. The respiratory minute volume is the total volume of air that is inhaled and exhaled per minute. Chapter 32 Key takeaways:  In closeds circulatory systems found in vertebrates, annelid worms, squid, and octopuses, the blood never leaves a system of vessels. In open systems found in arthropods and most mollusks the blood leaves vessels and bathes tissue cells directly. Closed have an advantage that they can direct blood selectively to specific tissues.  In closed the blood flows from the heart, through arteries to the microscopic vessels of the microcirculation which consists of arterioles, capillaries, and venules. Veins then carry blood back to the heart.  In open systems the heart typically pumps blood into arteries that carry the blood for at least a short distance. These vessels then end and the blood flows out into the animals tissues. The blood makes its way back to the heart through channels between the tissue cells called sinuses and lacunae.  In open systems there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid.  Vertebrate hearts are multi-chambered and myogenic: heartbeats are initiated by specialized muscle cells within the heart.  The simplest vertebrate heart found in fish is two-chambered, it has an atrium that receives blood from the body and ventricle that pumps blood out of the heart. Amphibians and non-avian reptiles have a three-chambered heart with two atria and one partially divided ventricle.  The heart of mammals and birds has four chambers- two atria and two ventricles with valves to prevent backflow. Blood flows from the right atrium and ventricle to the lungs then to the left atrium and ventricle and then to the rest of the body.  Arteries are composed of muscle fibers and elastic fibers that enable them to dampen the surge in pressure when the heart beasts and store their stretched state some of the energy imparted to the blood by the heart. Veins have thinner walls and have a high capacity for storing blood.  In vertebrates, blood consists of a liquid plasma and cellular components. Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. Hemoglobin the respiratory pigment in red blood cells binds O2 reversibly. Each hemoglobin molecule can carry a maximum of four o2 molecules.  Hemoglobin binds O2 when the partial pressure of O2 is high and releases it when the partial pressure is low.  Hemocyanin is the respiratory pigment in mollusks and arthopods. Chapter 33 Key takeaways:  Skeletal muscle consists of bundles of muscle fibers. Each skeletal muscle fiber is a large, elongaged cell containing multiple nuclei.  A skeletal muscle fiber contains numerous myofibrils, which contain bundles of actin and myosin filaments. The regular overlapping arrangement of the actin and myosin filaments into sarcomeres gives skeletal muscle its striated appearance. (See Image 8)  Contraction is the development of force by a muscle. The molecular mechanism of contraction is described by the sliding-filament theory and involves the binding of the globular heads of myosin molecules to actin molecules to form cross-bridges. Upon binding to actin, a myosin head changes its conformation, causing the two filaments to move past each other. Release of the myosin heads from actin and their return to their original conformation requires ATP.  Skeletal systems provide structures against which skeletal muscles can pull to produce useful movements. Endoskeletons are internal systems of rigid supports, consisting of bone and cartilage to which muscle are attached. (See Image 9)  Exoskeletons are skeletons that enclose the animal, notably the hardened outer surfaces of arthropods. In arthropods muscles attach to apodemes, internal projections at the joints of the exoskeleton.  A hydrostatic skeleton is said to exist if an animal’s body or part of its body becomes stiff and skeleton-like because of high fluid pressure inside.  Slow oxidative muscle cells have cellular properties ( e.g abundant mitochondria) that facilitate extended aerobic work, fast glycolytic muscle cells generate great forces for short periods of time. In vertebrates, slow oxidative cells contain the hemoglobin-like compounds myoglobin, making the cells red.  Skeletal muscles contain varying proportions of slow oxidative cells and fast glycolytic cells, depending on genetic controls during muscle development and the demands placed on the muscles.  Cardiac muscle cells are striated, uninucleate, and electrically connected by gap junctions, so that action potentials spread rapidly throughout masses of cardiac muscle and causes coordinated contractions. In vertebrates some modified cardiac muscle cells serve as the pacemaker cells for rhythmic beating of the heart.  Smooth muscle provides contractile force for internal organs such as the gut, blood vessels, and reproductive ducts. Some smooth muscle tissue (e.g. in the digestive tract) consists of sheets of cells that are electrically coupled through gap junctions, helping coordinate the contracts of adjacent cells.  Some insects drive flapping of their wings with asynchronous muscles, which unlike most muscles undergo multiple contractions with each excitation.  Catch muscles, such as the adductor muscles of clams and scallops can sustain strong contractions for long periods with little ATP.  The electric organs of nearly all electric fish evolved from skeletal muscle and consist of modified noncontractile muscle cells. Chapter 34 Key takeaways:  A neuron(nerve cell) is excitable; it is specially adapted to generate and propagate electric signals, typically in the form of action potentials. Neurons make functions relevant control with other cells at synapses.  Neurons usually have four anatomical regions: a set of dendrites, a cell body, an axon, and a set of presynaptic axon terminals. (See Image 10)  An action potential, or nerve impulse is a rapid reversal in membrane potential across a portion of the cell membrane resulting from the opening and closing of voltage-gated Na+ channels and K+ channels. The voltage-gated Na+ channels open when the cell membrane depolarizes to the voltage threshold.  A synapse is a cell-to-cell contact point specialized for signal transmission from one cell to another. Most synapses are chemical synapses (with neurotransmitters). Some are electrical synapses.  At a chemical synapse, which an action potential reaches the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron, it causes the release of neurotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds rotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on the cell membrane of the postsynaptic cell. The postsynaptic cell is usually another neuron or a muscle cell. (See Image 11)  Sensory receptor cells transduce information about an animal’s external and internal environment into action potentials.  Sensory receptor cells have sensory receptor proteins that respond to sensory input, causing a graded change of membrane potential called a receptor potential.  Mechanoreceptors are cells that respond specifically to mechanical distortion of their cell membrane and are typically ionotropic. Stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors. (See Image 12)  Chemoreceptors are metabotropic receptor cells that respond to the presence or absence of specific chemicals. The sense of smell depends on chemoreceptors.  Photoreceptors are sensory receptor cells that are sensitive to light. The photosensitivity of photoreceptor cells involved in vision depends on the absorption of photons of light by sensory receptor proteins called rhodopsins. Vertebrates have two types of visual photoreceptor cells, rods and cones. Color vision in humans arises from three types of cones cells with different spectral absorption properties.  Nerve nets are the simplest nervous systems. As nervous systems evolved further, they followed two major trends: centralization- the clustering neurons into centralized integrating organs and cephalization- the concentration of major integrating centers at the anterior end of the animal’s body.  The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). Neurons that extend or reside outside of the brain and spinal cord make up the peripheral nervous system (PNS).  Neurons are classed as interneurons, sensory neurons, or motor neurons.  In vertebrates, the central nervous system is positioned in the dorsal part of the body. In arthropods, such as insects and crayfish, the CNS is the primarily positioned in the ventral part of the body.  The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system (both CNS, PNS) that controls involuntary functions. Its enteric, sympathetic, and parasympathetic division differ in anatomy, neurotransmitters, and the effects of target tissues. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions usually exert opposite effects on an organ.  The vertebrate brain consists of a forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain. During the course of vertebrate evolution, some parts of the brain (e.g. the medulla oblongata) have remained relatively unchanged, whereas other parts (ex the cerebral hemispheres) have changed dramatically. Chapter 35 Key takeaways:  Nerve and endocrine cells control and coordinate the functions of the body by releasing chemical signals that travel to another cell, called the target cell. (See Image 13)  Animals use chemical signaling over a very broad range of spatial scales. Autocrines and paracrines act on, respectively, the cells producing the signals and on their immediate neighbors. Neurotransmitters and hormones work at intermediate distances. Pheromones are released into the environment and can affect targets hundreds of meters away.  Animals have two types of secretory glands: exocrine glands, which have ducts to carry away their secretions, and endocrine glands which do not have ducts. Endocrine cells secret chemical signals into the blood.  A hormone is a chemical substance that is secreted into the blood by endocrine cells and that regulates the function of other cells that it reaches by blood circulation.  Some endocrine cells are neurosecretory cells; they propagate action potentials and secrete hormones into the blood from their axon terminals. Other endocrine cells are nonneural endocrine cells: they are non-excitable cells that are typically stimulated to secrete their hormones by other hormones. (See Image 14)  Most hormones are peptide hormones (polypeptides or proteins), steroid hormones, or amine hormones. Peptide hormones and some amine hormones are water-soluble; steroids and some amine hormones are lipid-soluble.  Hormones causes different responses in different target cells, depending on each target cell’s type of receptor and the processes activated inside the cell by binding of hormone to that receptor.  The pituitary gland has two parts- the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary- which have different developmental origins and function in different ways. Both parts of the pituitary have close functional links with the brain.  The posterior pituitary is a neurohemal organ where hormones produced by hypothalamic neurosecretory cells are released into the blood. In mammals it secretes two peptide hormones: antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. (See Image 15)  The anterior pituitary is an nonneural endocrine gland that secretes four tropic hormones as well as growth hormones (GH), prolactin, and a few other hormones. It is controlled by releasing hormones (RHs) and inhibiting hormones (His; also called release-inhibiting hormones) produced by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus.  The thyroid gland is controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and secretes the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which control cellular metabolism. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and can lead to impaired mental development in children and to goiter in adults. (See Image 16 and 17)  Two hormones, prothoracicotropic hormones (PTTH) and ecdysone control molting in sects. A third hormone, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents maturation. When an insect stops producing juvenile hormone, it molts into an adult. Chapter 36 Key takeaways:  Kidneys are organs composed of tubular structures that produce urine- an aqueous solution derived from the blood plasma- for excretion. The primary function of the kidneys is to regulate the composition and volume of the blood plasma by means of controlled removal of solutes and water from the plasma.  Kidney function can be expressed in terms of the composition of the urine as a ratio of the composition of the blood plasma. Such ration is called a urine/plasma ration. If the urine is less concentrated in total solutes than the plasma, the kidneys are making the plasma become more concentrated. If the urine is more concentrated than the plasma, the kidneys are making the plasma become more dilute.  Metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids produces toxic nitrogenous wastes, which must be eliminated from the body. (See Image 18)  Ammonotelic animals produce ammonia as their primary nitrogenous waste. They are typically water-breathing aquatic animals that eliminate ammonia by diffusion across their gills or other permeable body surfaces.  Ureotelic animals detoxify ammonia by converting it mostly to urea before excretion. These animals include mammals and most anphibians.  Uricotelic animals convert ammonia mostly to uric acid or other compounds closely related to uric acid. They include insects, spiders, and birds and some other reptiles. Uric acid and the compounds related to it can be excreted in precipitated form, resulting in little loss of water.  Osmolarity is a measure of the overall solute concentration (osmotic pressure) of a fluid. An animal may have body fluids that have the same osmotic pressure as the animal’s environment (isosmotic) or that have a higher (hyperosomotic) or lower (hyposmotic) osmotic pressure than the animal’s body.  Humidic terrestrial animals have outer body coverings (i.e skin, exoskeleton, or the like) that are highly permeable to water. Such as animals lose water so rapidly by dehydration that they can tolerate only limited exposure to dehydrating conditions.  Xeric terrestrial animals have outer body covering that highly limit evaporation of their body fluids. These animals can therefore spend indefinite periods in the open air. The low water permeability of their body coverings results from the presence of lipids  Vertebrate kidneys consist of many tubules called nephrons.  The fluid first introduced into a nephron is the primary urine. This fluid is modified as it flows through the nephron by processes of reabsorption and secretion. The fluid that is excreted into the outside environment is the definitive urine.  Urine formation in a vertebrate nephron beings at the closed end of the nephron, which consists of a Bowman’s capsule that surrounds a glomerulus. The primary urine is formed by ultrafiltration, during which fluid moves out of the blood plasma in the glomerulus and into the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule driven by the force of blood pressure. The primary urine is similar in composition to the blood plasma in most ways except for lacking blood cells and proteins. (See Image 19)  Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the functions of the late kidney tubules: the distal convoluted tubules in amphibians and the collecting ducts in mammals. When the ADH concentration is high, aquaporin molecules are inserted in the cell membranes of the epithelial cells of the late tubules, making the cells water permeable. Chapter 37 Key takeaways:  In Sexual reproduction the parents produce gametes that have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the body. The gametes of the female parent are relatively large and nonmotile cells called eggs or ova. Those of the male are small cells that swim, typically using flagella and are called spermatozoa or sperm. The gametes fuse to produce a single-celled zygote that has a full set of chromosomes and develops into a sexually produced offspring (See Image 20)  Gametes are produced by meiosis and therefore are diversified in their chromosomes and genes by independent assortment and crossing over. The new individual that is formed when gametes fuse is not genetically identical to either parent.  In asexual reproduction offspring are produced by mitosis and are genetically identical to their parent and to one another. Asexual reproduction produces no genetic diversity but has the advantages of maintaining favorable combinations of genes.  Somatic cells in the gonads produce steroid sex hormones. The principal sex steroid in males is testosterone, which is secreted by the interstitial cells in the testes. In females, the somatic cells of the ovarian follicles secrete feminizing steroids called estrogens. After ovulation, the follicular somatic cells remaining in the ovary reorganize to form a corpus luteum, which secretes another type of female sex steroid, progesterone which is involved principally in coordinating processes associated with pregnancy.  Ova mature in the female’s ovaries, and after release (ovulation), they enter the oviducts (fallopian tubes). Sperm deposited in the vagina during copulation move through the cervix and uterus into the oviducts where fertilization occurs. (See Image 21/22)  In most species of mammals that display spontaneous ovulation, a female ovulates in cycles. In primates these cycles are called menstrual cycles, in recognition of the fact that menstruation the sloughing off of part of the endometrium occurs in each cycle that does not result in pregnancy.  Mammals other than primates do not menstruate.  The uterus requires progesterone to support a pregnancy.  The male reproductive organs produce and deliver semen. Semen consists of sperm suspended in a fluid that nourishes the sperm and facilitates fertilization. The fluid is produced by accessory reproductive glands, such as the prostate gland. (See Image 23)  Some animals are semelparous: each individual is physiologically programmed to reproduce only once in its lifetime. Examples include octopuses and Pacific salmon.  Most animal species are iteroparous, meaning that individuals are physiologically capable of two or more separate periods of reproductive activity during their lives. In iteroparous animals that live in environments with regular seasonal cycles, the reproductive cycle is nearly always timed to coordinate with the environmental seasonal cycle. Chapter 40 Key takeaways:  Changes in behavior are an important way for animals to respond to changes in their environment.  An animal’s behavior are activated and coordinated by the animal’s nervous system.  Animal behavior has a genetic basis and is subject to natural and artificial selection. Behavior therefore evolves.  Behavioral imprinting is a process by which an animal learns to respond to a specific set of stimuli during a limited period early in postnatal life and thereafter the behavioral responses are fixed.  Early experiences can affect the behavior of an animal for the remainder of its life. Some of these effects are consequences of epigenetic effects on gene expression  Animals find their way in the environment by navigation (moving toward a particular destination or along a particular course) and orientation (Adopting a position or trajectory relative to an environmental cue).  Animals may sense direction by using information on the sun, magnetic fields, landmarks, and atmospheric polarization patterns. A sun compass involves not only observing the sun’s position but also knowing the time of day, information that can be provided by a circadian biological clock. Animals often have multiple redundant mechanisms of orientation. (See Image 24)  Individuals in a society can be of equal status- as in a school of fish- or of unequal status- as in a group of impala antelopes. In some cases of single male dominates the other males in a group; this usually confers a reproductive advantage on the dominant male.  An extreme form of unequal status as seen in cases of eusociality in which some individuals in the group are infertile and assist the reproductive of fertile individuals, usually their mother and a few male siblings. Eusocial animals include the social insects (e.g honey bees) and naked mole rats.  An individual within a population often restricts its movements to a limited portion of the area occupied by the population as a whole. The smaller area is known as territory if the individual actively keeps out other individuals of the same species or as a home range if other individuals are not excluded Image 1 Image 2 Image 3 Image 4 Image 5 Image 6 Image 7 Image 8 Part I Image 8 Part 2 Image 9 Image 10 Image 11 Image 12 Image 13 Image 14 Image 15 Image 16 Image 17 Image 18 Image 19 Image 20 Image 21 Image 22 Image 23 Image 24 Image 25 Image 26 Image 27


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