Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide HIST 1010 - 001
Popular in World History I
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Date Created: 11/09/15
October 1216 Notes The European Renaissance Background While the Middle Ages were falling apart the Renaissance meaning rebirthrevival was emerging This was the revival of classical heritage Romans and Greeks I Italian Humanism Humanism in this context means studying the classics Italy charged ahead during this time In the 14th century Italian scholars were in contact with the Arab world through trade and received sources of classical texts that the Arabs were so intent on preserving The Roman sources were in Latin One famous man named Petrarch was blown away by the Latin context and believed it was far superior to Latin from the Middle Ages even calling the Middle Ages the Dark Ages because of this He wanted to revive Roman Latin Petrarch was named the Father of the Renaissance Him and his colleagues physically went out and ransacked libraries including monastery libraries They were seeking Western culture and heritage by reading texts and becoming experts on the way they wrote as they taught themselves and others A Philology Historical linguistics Through this they could even date texts by the use of grammar and speech The people studying the texts were very critical and could identify individual authors Since there were no printing of books they were all handwritten Mistakes were bound to happen and then these would continue building up as more copies were made from other copies They wanted to clean the texts up These errors were known as textual errors corruption Lorenzo Valla in the 15th century unearthed a very amazing historical document called the Donation of Constantine which was showing how Constantine gave land to the papacy and the bishops Valla showed that this text was a fake written in the 7th century Vemacular is the language people actually speak In this case most of these humanists were Italian so their vernacular would be Italian Naturally these humanists began to experiment with writing in their own vernacular such as with poetry dramas etc Examples include Decameron a collection of stories by Giovani Boccaccio about the plague striking and Shakespeare English vernacular II Humanist Philosophy In the 15th century all things were Greek Revival of Plato Plato was the classic philosopher who claimed that ideas exist in a separate reality with one that is perfect Marsilio Ficino was the man who revived Plato by nding bulk Platonic texts and neoplatonic texts He was an independent freelance scholar who was studying under a wealthy family as many of these humanist would do because the wealthy families were capable of having a collection of books This idea of collecting and keeping books was a status symbol Cosimo de Medici was the man who Ficino relied on Cosimo was from a banker family and his library was known as the Platonic Academy Ficino believed humans were very special because of their dignity and their ability to use their intellect to link the idea of the miserable reality and Plato s concept of perfectness Fincino s understudy was Pico della Mirandola who wrote the Oration on the Dignity of Man about how humans were special due to their dignity and the freewill to rise or descend that was Godgiven He said this was partially through mysticism prayer and meditation Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling with stories of the bible one in particular known as the Creation of Adam He also had a sculpture called David which was inspired to be the perfect human This was a celebration of human kind III Northern Humanism The idea of Humanism started spreading north and the surrounding areas such as Germany and Spain Instead of mainly Latin being studied people were also looking into ancient Greek and Hebrew However the main focus became classical Christian sources For example even the bible was studied and known to have textual errors from being copied by hand The vulgate was known as the official bible in the Church and was in Latin They wanted to make the bible clearer and better The result was the Polyglot Bible It took decades to compile and was lead by a man named Ximenes de Cisneros Poly means many so Polyglot meant that this bible contained multiple languages There was a Latin column as well as a column with the original language Therefore the original language of the Old Testament was in Hebrew and the New Testament was in Greek This showed a very distinct difference and evolution of language Erasmus of Roderdam was a humanist theologian who claimed that a lot of the importance of the church had become stale and they needed to revitalize Christianity He said it needed to be more focused on the interior than the exterior practices It was very important that people go back to the original message of Christ and live by his word An important tool for this would be the bible SIGNIFICANCE gt Humanism was very important because it was the way in which we have preserved classical in uences and texts even today in the present world The interest these people had in these texts caused a deeper understanding of the classical culture and gave meaning to understanding linguistics more as a general concept gt Humanist philosophy was essential in understanding Plato and for grasping a deeper understanding of how his logic can connect with their present ideas of this time known as the Renaissance This as well as artists works such as Michelangelo s affected the people s attitudes of this time Their ideas of how reality was and how human kind is very special gave a generally optimistic outlook gt The significance of the study of Christian sources opened a great amount of doors up to the study and revived appreciation for the Christian religion through philology Religious reformers were happy with this revival of people to rely more on their interior beliefs than their exterior practices October 1923 European Reformations I 11 Church Before Luther The church had fallen on hard times with crisis on leadership Avignon Papacy as well as the Great Schism Many bishops were not in their role for spiritual reasons because their position had been bought for a social status Priests were often illiterate and not well trained The religion of the people had strains as well They did not all have consistent access to the church due because in villages priests may only visit every two or three months Many people were outwardly Catholic and inwardly Pagan such as following many superstitions This may occur because when people were converting Germanics they would just accommodate certain beliefs of the Germanics On Saint s Days people were encouraged to not work and keep the day holy These were special and when these inwardly Pagan people would hear this they would jump on the chance of any special effectiveness of medicinal herbs etc lndulgence Controversy The church believed that souls go to purgatory to be cleansed before they can ascend into heaven This evolved with a rise of an indulgence remission of pardon of time a soul had to spend in purgatory through recognition of your good works through your lifetime So the church would offer a indulgence if the people did good works such as giving to the poor and to the church or to traveling to a saint s shrine This was suppose to be a very spiritual idea but it did become corrupted Pope Leo X inherited debt so he decided to use these indulgences as a type of leverage to get money into the church Yohan Tetzel was a Germanic person who sold indulgences on street comers People even bought these for deceased family members The falter with this was that there was no counseling or deep spirituality connected with the indulgences In response Martin Luther tacked 96 Theses written in Latin onto the door of a church in Wittenberg He was a priest and a teacher who wanted to provoke a debate among intellectuals However this spread rapidly once it was written in German and given out Martin Luther Within Luther s early life he was a German born into an upwardly mobile family through his father s investment in him His father was a peasant who worked in mines but put a large emphasis on Luther s education Luther was very bright and was studying law when he was returning back to school after a vacation and was literally struck by lightning He prayed to Saint Ann saying that if he lived he would devote his life to the church He then went into the Augustinian order which was a very serious order devoted to education He had trouble with feeling accepted by his family once he decided to join the order He was a very great monk who practiced distraction from the physical and focus on the spiritual However soon Luther encountered a spiritual crisis He had doubts about his own salvation He was very xated on perfection and felt like God had no reason to save a sinner like himself He III felt like good works were not enough for salvation Luther was just ordained and going to celebrate communion for the first time Catholicism believed in transubstantiation where the priest takes the bread and wine and transforms it into the blood and body of Christ We know what happened next because Luther kept very detailed journals of his thoughts and feelings He was so worried about his own personal sin that he choked and couldn t go through with this miracle Erik Erikson a famous psychologist thought that he may have applied his feeling of inadequacy to his worldly father to his heavenly father Because of this Luther was sent to go through more schooling He read Paul s words in the book of Romans which reads the just shall live by faith and he was inspired to a spiritual revolution Theology Justification by faith Salvation cannot be earned humans cannot attain perfection and salvation is a gift to believers People questioned him why would they try to be good then He said being relieved of anxiety over worrying of this is good He said grace is a gift from God which allow you to want to do good Scripture The bible is the only source of beliefs and history is no longer a source Sacraments There were seven but he lowered it to two baptism and communion because those are the only two expressed in the bible Luther knew communion was not only a symbol he still believed in a miracle This was called consubstantiation where it was believed that Christ coexists physically with the bread and wine by the faith of the believer Spread of Protestantism The reason why Luther posted the 95 Theses in 1517 was because he was upset from parishioners stopping coming to church because they bought indulgences The document was conservative and focused on indulgences but Luther had to become public and start to defend his views The printing press created by Yohan Gutenberg in 1452 became the information highway Northem Humanism was the climate of the criticism of the church because Erasmus and others wanted the people to focus on their daily lived in an interior manner than exterior Political In central Europe there were 300 principalities loosely held together by the Holy Roman emperor Charles V was not the current emperor but was up for election Habsburg was the local ruling family of Austria and others were use to electing from Luther was asked to be questioned during this time and he said he would answer anything on German soil and not in Rome Prince Frederick ruled the area Luther was from but Pope Leo X was preoccupied with this political issue instead He and others did not want Charles V to gain all of the Habsburg dominions and the German empire because that would have been too much power Out of the 300 states which had princes only seven were deemed electors Frederick Elector of Saxony was one This had continued for two years and when Charles V grandfather f1nally passed away there was no good alternative besides Charles V so he was ultimately elected anyway In turn the protestant ideas had been spreading all the while and Luther was mainly left alone Though Charles V was a devout Catholic he was preoccupied with other things Habsburg vs Valois French Wars and the Ottoman Turks The Ottoman empire contained Greece Baghdad Jerusalem parts of IV North Africa etc They were seeking out obtaining the Danu basin which included Vienna but it was a very important part of Charles s V empire It took a lot of Charles to get rid of them Therefore this Muslim threat was a lot more immediate and diverted his attention from the Protestant movement Varieties of Protestantism Anabaptist This was a catch all term There was a series of independent denominations under this idea There were a few main identi ers of the Anabaptists Community of Saints It was believed that you were a member of the church that you personally chose to be a part of and that you should stand up and say that you have been spiritually regenerated internally This meant that you had been savedbom again and then they would be baptized Antiinfant baptism The also rebaptized those who were originally baptized as a baby Biblical literalist This had the potential to be extreme The old Catholic church believed that the bible should be read symbolically but Luther claimed it should be read with face value This was a fundamentalist view claiming that you should live according to it These extreme fundamentalist believed in a primitive form of communism where they lived together and were also pacifist This was not a norm in their time and place so many of them ed to the Netherlands and certain parts of England This gave rise to the Baptist denomination Zwingli Zurich was a Swiss city in which Zwingli had a Catholic Church in which he was a priest in He became protestant and converts the church and the city The way in which he differed in beliefs was the idea of communion Zwingli said there was no miracle even though Christ was present People started to panic so Zwingli and Luther had a meeting Meeting at Marburg but they could not meet a compromise Calvinism John Calvin was a very important theologian He was French and was unhappy with studying theology so he went to study law instead He found humanism and became critical of the church It is important to note that many humanists never converted to protestants because they wanted to see a change in their religion and were very hopeful of this Calvin decided upon a different strain of theology Majesty of God focused on the allpowerful omnipotent and all knowing God This was not a new idea but Calvin kept a very large emphasis on this Predestination who shall be savedwho goes to hell and determined that the individual had no say in it The elect were the ones going to heaven People questioned why bother leading a good Christian life Calvin said that you never know if you are among the elect or not but God deserves good so it is your duty to do good Good works among the people led to the idea of signs that they were elect and this doing good gave hope to people Scotland parts of France and Europe became Calvinists Protestant work ethic People worked energetically which was a way to glorify God This was a part of culture changing even though Catholics held this as important as well This led to economic results as well VI English Reformation This occurred because of the government and not due to religion Henry VIII was trying to divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon princess of Spain Mary was their daughter but Henry was getting antsy since he had not had a son heir He though God was punishing him for marrying Catherine for political reasons since they did not marry for love and the fact that Catherine was married to Henry s older brother before he had passed away Anne Boleyn was who Henry wanted to marry The embassy was sent to the pope to discuss this issue but the pope said that it was not allowed since Henry s marriage had been approved by the church Therefore Henry decide to create his own church the Church of England He decided to seek Parliament to allow for the divorce and to show the people that it was done as the will of the people Thomas Cromwell was his righthand man throughout this The church doesn t change much under Henry Henrican Catholicism because he didn t want to change the theology he just didn t want the pope telling him what to do Henry had siX wives total Anne was executed His third wife finally gave him a son Edward VI but he didn t reign long as he passed away early in his life Thomas Crammer was in a high political position He became Lutheran and used that to reform doctrines to protestant ideas Mary Tudor was another of Henry s daughters who came to power after Edward She was a very strong Catholic and tried to reverse the reform She went to Parliament to change laws back so that woman could reign etc Clergy who went against her wishes were martyred including Thomas Crammer This actually caused the protestant religion to spread more She realized that she hadn t really reformed anything back to it s original position because too much change had occurred She died with no children but her halfsister Anne s daughter reigned Queen Elizabeth She never acted rashly and considered an issue very thoroughly She decided that the religious issue could be settled with a compromise She personally believed like her father She believed in Catholic ways but did not want the pope to rule over the monarchy She loved the physical beauty of the Catholic church as well as the liturgy collection of prayers and responsive readings of churches Her compromise was that she would impose Protestant ideas and doctrines with an exterior Catholic sense with Catholic artwork liturgy vestments of priests and the hierarchy of bishops episcopal governed structure of bishops vs Presbyterian committee of member s structure Catholic Reformation This started before the Luther and was occurring during the Protestant reformation Northern Humanism wanted clergy s internal motivation caliber to raise example Polyglot bible New Monastic Orders Monastic clergy was not designed to be living out in the world among the people and work with them Many of them would target speci c populations such as the poor or woman specifically Jesuits founder Spanish nobleman Ignatius Loyola He was injured in battle and was stuck in bed so he read everything he could Lives of Saints was one in which he read where he and his close friends decided to devote his life to the Church Paul III was the first pope to recognize the Jesuits They were very carefully screened They had to be smart and young to physically stand up to the tasks of working among others Training was very rigorous They were seen as a type of special forces elite group Mission To serve as priests to men and woman in a missionary manner and go where priest generally weren t permanently at They were also suppose to go out and act as teachers Education was very important to Catholics which was known as catechism Catechism can be found in Protestants religions too not specifically the Catholic religion Papal reform Paul III appointed a committee to investigate problems within the church and wanted advice if there was any way to impose better ideascorrections He called a church council called Council of Trent They did make some changes such as there was now a specific age one had to be to become a priest Paul wanted the church to compare with Luther s doctrine to see if there were any possible compromises The outcome was conservative and they concluded that there would be no changescompromises He wanted to recharge the batteries of the clergy There were efforts by the Catholic Church to make religion more meaningful to individuals One such change was that confession went from public and formulaic to private with a partition to allow for a freer confession This was meant to allow for an internal spiritual movement The church regained lost ground as many people who converted to Protestant converted back to the Catholic church It was triumphant in its changes and imposed new healthy changes SIGNIFICANCE Paired with hard times in the church it s response was inappropriate when indulgences began to be sold These have true spiritual meaning behind them but selling them was a very negative impact to the church It caused a reform to occur and Luther was one key factor in this His 95 issues with the selling of indulgences spread in a way he was not ready for and caused a lot of changes in turn Luther was a very important leader of the Protestant reformation and he opened the minds of many people through his deep understanding of the scripture and faith The spread of Protestantism was affected in a very positive way since the political issues were overwhelming the internal idea of this spread Therefore the issues with elections as well as the Muslims led to a larger spread of protestant ideas The protestant beliefs differed slightly and historians are very understanding of the fact that this split was bound to happen and happened in many various manners Certain beliefs may differ but they still have the same basic necessary beliefs The English reformation was brought on by unreligious ideas but it did cause big changes in the religious ideas of battling old Catholic ideas and new Protestant ones The Catholic reformation was done so that people would nd a new spiritual internal rebirth for their spirituality The Catholic church was successful in this October 2630 Wars of Religion 11 Explanations for Religious Violence Protestant vs Catholics Why did they think killing was justi ed Catholic ideas They focused on the idea of collective salvation by believing salvation was through community and believed the Protestant threat deviated that goal They were afraid theirs and everyone else s salvation was at risk This was not an of cial doctrine but did turn into popular religion Martyrs The concept of martyrdom was embraced because it was striking that one would die for their beliefs This formed community There were martyrs on both sides The Protestants believed that this was a sig of the elect among Calvinists Pattems of Violence After Catholics killed they would continue to mutilate the corpse because they believed that torment would save the soul from as long as a time in purgatory Protestants tried to destroy icons which was called iconoclasm This was because they were worried the Catholics were worshipping them as idols The Great Europeans WitchHunt Especially common around 1560 both Protestants and Catholics were being accused of witchcraft Witchcraft was commonly tied to the idea of working with the devil so some believed they were planning to overthrow Christianity as a whole Witch hunts were where hundreds of thousands of people were tried and many executed mostly women The areas that had the most common outbreaks included the Holy Roman Empire Switzerland and parts of France Ideas traveled across the Atlantic and caused trials such as the famous area of Salem in Massachusetts French Wars of Religion France was overwhelmingly Catholic Huguenot movement This was a movement of Calvinism mostly in southern France Calvin himself was French There was a royal policy which made the violence worse The King and the monarchy was catholic and were considered sacred in nature Henry II persecuted Protestants during the Protestant reformation Persecution edicts were put into place to allow Protestant persecution so they would in turn go underground in secret They believed war was inevitable so they formed underground armies The monarchies attempted to mediate between religions but that never helped One example of this was the policy of moderation where the Catholics hated that the Protestants could exist and allowed the Protestants to become bolder Within nobility family vassals etc some were Catholic Guise family and some were Protestant Bourbons family 15 60 The Guise familyvassals were riding through their land and noticed a village that had converted to Protestant This caused a massacre of the village people Two years later the son of Henry Charles and his mother Catherine de Medici wanted these groups to get along So Catherine married her daughter to a Protestant from the Bourbon family known as Henry of Navarre After she was married her mother realized she had made a large mistake and had given the Protestants the upperhand so she persuaded Charles into starting a massacre St Bartholomew s Massacre was started through a message sent out to the people that the king wanted the Catholics to kill the Protestants of Paris Henry wanted to live so he converted to Catholicism but later converted back He became a Protestant king of France but later reconverted to Catholicism This makes one question his personal sincerity to what his beliefs were Edicts of Nantes In 1598 this did not totally solve the issue but allowed for toleration saying the Protestants may live and work in certain parts of the area SIGNIFICANCE gt These religious wars continued the major rivalry between Catholics and Protestants and had many political in uences showing that political and religious powers often aligned or battled one another Though no issues were solved at this point France did come to a type of toleration for Protestants The Americas I Societies of the Americas Ancient people adapted to their environment Mesoamerica was the designate the area of present day Mexico and Central America Khipu is the term used to identify a system of knotted and colored strings which was used by Andean culture to store information such as the census and tax records Nixtamalization was boiling maze in water and lime to break down the kernels to increase their nutrition value The Olmecs was in the coastal lowlands of Mexico and the oldest of the Mesoamerican civilizations They used a Long Count solar calender with 365 days to a year Moche was a group of people along Peru s coast which contained citystates and was wellknown for its pottery The Inca empire was a dynasty of rulers across the Andes on western South America with a peak around 1500 Quechua was the first official language of the Incas under Pachacuti The Mayan civilization was highly developed on the Yucatan Peninsula They had a very intricate writing system One monumental citystate that dominated in trade was known as Teotihuacan in the Mayan civilization Another important civilization was the Aztecs in Mexico The people were known as Mexica people who were concerned mostly with war and religion The Toltecs and Aztecs spoke the language Nahutl An important prosperous city of the Aztecs was known as Tenochitilan SIGNIFICANCE gt Americas contained many important groups of native people and cultures in the area known as Mesoamerica These cultures shaped the later in uences of settlements such as when the Spanish entered the area Many important advances came from these people European Exploration and Colonization II Background The Noirs were Scandinavian Vikings who around 1000 AD went into Newfoundland and Canada They had ships without sails which had to be rowed Erikson was the name of one of their leaders They called the natives scourlands Therefore the Europeans were not actually the rst to expand into the Americas This is proven through archaeological digs and northern sagas of epic poems about unsuccessful settlements However the Europeans did not know about this because there was not yet a printing press There are reasons why historians believe Europeans wouldn t have explored or colonized the Americas at that time That included Feudalism kept Europe weak and divided backward economy static and self suf cient ex 3 eld system the Age of Faith their internal beliefs were not good for boldness because they were introspective and obsessed with the idea of heaven and not worried about worldly ideas and nally they had technological backwardness little knowledge of math and science Factors that did lead to European Exploration and Colonization Renaissance more dynamic outward looking open to technology map making material world Crusades 1095 Council of Clairmont Catholics wanted to take back their hold lands from the Muslims an appetite for spices and silks developed which was an incentive for trade technological advances compass navigational device printing press Bubonic plague 1 3 of the population was killed so it reduced the food competition and gave more resources to those left creation of nationstates status and wealth for successful explorer new source of goods and lands new merchants and nally merchant efforts went out ex Vasco de Gama Early European Exploration In the Mediterranean and Atlantic This was at the Atlantic fridges of the Asorbs Canaries and Madeira areas They reached out again and then that caused permanent settlement The system of the sugar plantations get carried over to the Americas The Gual people on the Canaries were the natives and were used for slave labor The Vivaldi brothers in 1291 discovered a route around Africa to India They were from Genova in Italy as well as Christopher Columbus this was where he got his idea Portugal had structural advantages because it was a nationstate of Europe that was not a very large frontier and was easy to control It was a maritime nation on the Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean that was prepared for colonization They were wanting a speedy route to the east to be able to pay less for goods They extended to the African coast Cape Verdes Sao Tome and Principe Consequences Slavery was present died out in Europe reintroduced sailing techniques Volta do Mar if sailing across the ocean a straight line may not be the fasted because it was more important to follow the winds instead of going against them Lanteen sails triangle sails that allowed wind from the sides too instead of just the back and Prince Henry the navigator research and development to Portugal to see how it could best be done III Columbus and Spain By 1490 he was very knowledgeable and accomplished He claimed there had to have been an easierfaster way to India He tried to nd someone to fund him which took him to Spain Ferdinand and Isabella They saw this to be a fairly low risk with a high reward In 1492 Columbus made it to the Americas present day Dominican by accident and waited to create a settlement He thought he was close to India so he called the natives Indians They were actually Tainos people who were hit terribly by disease and Spanish labor Consequences Columbian Exchange was a catchall term for all of the goods and ideas from discoveries diseases possible the cause for takeover Europe contributed as well corn horses hogs and honeybees and the question of who would get to occupy the land 1493 Pope created the Doctrine of Discovery to Spain 1494 Pope created the Treaty of Tordesillas which gave Portugal a chunk of the Atlantic and Brazil and gave Spain most of the Americas This was believed to be fair because they didn t know how vast the Americas were IV Exploring the Pacific Ferdinand Magellan sailed down the coast of South America and was able to achieve circumnavigation James Cook made three trips but was killed by indigenous people of the Pacific V Trade and Southeast Asia Portugal had no permanent colonies The English and Dutch built a trading post jointstock companies which diversif1ed risk These were known as the British United Company and the Dutch United Company Spain took the Philippians and were turned into a very Catholic society The consolidation of the Russian nation was where Siberia took over land from West to East very large SIGNIFICANCE gt European exploration was entirely signif1cant on its own which would go on to lead to the major finding of the Americas into what the Americas are today Colonial Latin America I Amerindian Society The arrival of the Europeans forever altered the lives of the Indians The population had also lost all of its people in areas such as the Caribbean In the further north areas it went from 25 million2 million and it went from 10 million to 115 million in Peru This was the result of disease brutality and overwork especially in mines Diseases that were introduced included smallpox in uenza and measles Some historians believe that they practiced biological warfare where they would send in people infected to weaken the native society II III The Spanish tried early on to gather as much wealth as possible from the Americans The extraction of labor was known as Encomienda where the Spanish were able to force the natives into work Cortez one of the rst explorers came and had these rights to around 20000 slaves The wealthy majorly had these systems however they slowed this to assure a highly aristocratic society did not emerge They also extracted taxes from the natives Spanish America Aristocracy did emerge from Spain The Europeans would come over to claim large chunks of land and form a plantationlike system known as the Haciendas They also played a large role in government of the Americas There was a council back in Spain and then the government in Spain included four carved viceroys where there were different roles of people This would grow and become an even more substantial form of government through time The church was also a very important part The Jesuits Dominicans and Franciscans would come over as missionaries to convert the natives It was seen as a type of government because they occupied America since the Pope granted authority of this The clergy become agents of the government Ethnicity of the Americans Castas refers to people of mixed ancestry As soon as the Europeans arrived this began to occur Soldiers forced themselves to Amerindian women and some took them as wives Mestizos were people of European and Indian heritage European men would do the same to African women People of European and African ancestry were known as Mulattoes Over time there were more and more of these groups and the racial complexity grew as they would have children among another In turn of this ethnicity complexity a form of hierarchy evolved The Europeans were on top and the natives were farther down There even was something known as the Castas Painting where they of cially recognized the different degrees of ethnicity where the color you are determines your ranking within society It is important to note that even within each group were separate groups Creoles were known as the whiteSpanishEuropean families who had been in the Americans for generations and had never lived in their place of ancestry The Peninsulares were known as the people who had been directly from Spain and generally looked down on the creoles who had not been educated in Spain etc Enlightenment and Bourbon Reforms Enlightenment an intellectual movement in the West which started in FranceEurope It included an intellectual reform movement that wanted to create a better world They would apply reason to everything instead of simply custom and tradition Therefore many changes were going to be imposed to the government economy etc These reforms were known as the Bourbon Reforms which did lead to American soil The Spanish creoles who had been there were not pleased with this because they didn t want to change However the Peninsulares were prochange This led to independence movements of the creoles from the Spanish control The first independence movement started in what is present day Haiti a French colony SIGNIFICANCE gt The Europeans forever altered the native population of the Americas Their impact on the population in numbers as well as the ethnicity was drastic The difference in the people and the hierarchical in uences would then lead to further reforms November 26 French Absolution Absolutism complete control all laying in the hand of one person and is not shared the divine right of God usually is what allows this monarchies were not absolute in their powers developsevolves over the course of three reigns in France II Henry IV He was the first of the Bourbon monarchs Protestant who came to the throne during the middle of the religious civil wars By ending the wars and restoring order he begins to build a more powerful state After time he realized that he needed to become Catholic to rule in his position The edict allowed religious toleration for the Protestants The reforms didn t occur after the end of the war His righthand man Sully was the man who helped control the economic part of France He set about trying to balance the budget since they were in debt from war He gave Henry an allowance to spend only a certain amount Additionally he decided that tax collection was an issue as well because many of the thirty provinces had different ways of controlling taxes Often times the southern providences were paying less than the northern providences His plan was to have a uniform system throughout France He knew he had to go about this gently and one province at a time He started with two provinces where Henry was popular He introduced tax collectors to two southern provinces and conform it to the rest of France However they didn t get the chance to continue this because Henry IV was assassinated in Paris France by someone who was still angered by the edict Louis XIII The issue was that Henry s son was nine Louis XIII so they had to establish a regency which was where someone ruled in place of the heir until the rightful heir could take the throne Henry s wife took the throne Her name was Marie Medici This in itself was a setback to the revolution of absolutism Though Sully had balanced the budget well she squandered it because the throne was very shaky under her being a regency She basically undoes everything Sully and Henry had contributed Louis did not have a great relationship with his mother so he eventually cast her out of control He then forms a close relationship with a man named Richelieu Together they decided to address the issue of the Protestants The Protestants had been rebelling again because Marie was ruling with a very large Catholic and Spanish bias They decided to end the Protestant threat permanently At the city of La Rochelle a Protestant see port city soldiers were called to defeat and slaughter the Protestants They also decided to change the Edict of Nantes They sent out Indendants appointed by Richelieu whose job III was the spy and tell him what s going on all around France to know about possible rebellion They came to be known as the thirty tyrants of France Richelieu died and then so did Louis Another regency occurred ve year olds mother became the monarchial ruler named Anne of Austria Louis XIV Anne of Austria ruled with a right hand man and lover named Mazarin Fronde Civil war started by the nobility of France who resented absolutism and having the intendants spying This was also supported by peasants who resented the tax burden This ended after ve years This does two things for absolutism 1 It scared the people into submission and many people came to believe is the alternative to anarchy is a strong central government 2 It also shaped the perceptions of Louis XIV because he decided that never again would this corruption and uncontrolled under the throne be present Louis decided on personal rule When Mazarin died he decided that he would have ministers but there would not be a speci c righthand man and that he would make all of the important decisions Reforms 1 He decided that the nobility was the biggest issue to the throne He builds a famous palace in Versailles as a gilded cage which could house about ten thousand people He told the people if they wanted to be a noble they needed to live there This took them away from their normal places where they were largely accepted He made a system of manners and protocol and if you did something wrong you would become out of favor of your family and the king They always were sizing up their ranks to others in the room to make sure they were acting appropriately Also he made proximately to him a competition This is how he kept nobles under control It was very ingenious 2 He also reform his armies He wanted a large standing ef cient loyal army He creates this and reforms it to assure that every commander in the army had a leader above him who would spy and keep order He also made uniforms throughout the whole army that would assure what side they were on as well as instilling loyalty He created the rst veteran s hospital These wars were successful until the end 3 There was still a minority group on nonconformists He revoked the Edict of Nantes He took away toleration to gain complete control Many ed France to go the England Netherlands etc SIGNIFICANCE Henry s reforms were done for the health of the monarchy and his works with Sully were done quite well If he hadn t of been assassinated a absolute monarchy probably would have appeared quicker A reform to absolutism was pushed back because of the regency but Louis XIII was pushing it into that direction majorly by sending out intendants This created a spy for the nobles who may have been plotting against the throne Louis XIV was very ingenious in his endeavors to form a more controlled monarchy By distracting the noblemen he could control them Additionally by lifting the Edict he caused many Protestants to ee because they were no longer tolerated in any way This was the basic foundation of the society of absolution Constitutionalism in England England and the low countries saw the government of constitutional monarchylimited monarchy instead of going after a absolute monarch A constitutional monarchy is where the monarchy still has power but has limits such as a representative assembly ex Parliament 1 II 111 James I The crown passed from the Tutors went to James I who was King of Scotland at the time The Tutor family had worked well with Parliament during the time of reformation The would actively seek out this relationship because they recognized this was important for the government James I created bad issues because he was trying to rule like he was in Scotland Issue of royal prerogative This was the idea of James that he had the Divine right to rule but England did not completely agree with this He believed that he was better than everyone and did not need any connection to Parliament In the past Parliament would only come together when the king would call it Parliament practically controlled taxation and James needed the money from taxes Therefore he is forced to call Parliament due to money issues Another important issue was religion Most of England is Anglican and Church of England James was fine with this however he did not like the growing group of people called the Puritans They were people who took the bible very strictly and had strict customs They were extreme Calvinists who were part of the Church of England They wanted to get rid of all of the Catholic aspects of the church such as the imagery By his opposition James I was building a bad image yet again Charles 1 He was James son who made the situation even worse He was forced to call Parliament for taxes Then he goes eleven years without calling Parliament known as the eleven year tyranny which gave no voice for the people He formed nonparliamentary means of taxation For example he had ship money if England were attached which he could collect under emergency or crisis Charles decided to use it whether he was under crisis or not Also Charles hated the Puritans even more than his father His right hand man was named Laud who was at the top of his clergy They basically decided to make life miserable for the Puritans He decided to get rid of them where he could Charles was the King of Scotland at the time as well The Church of Calvin Presbyterian was the major religion However Charles wanted them to be Church of England The Scottish rebelled against their own king and went to war in turn Scotland even invaded northern England In turn he is forced to call Parliament because of the expensive of war with Scotland Long Parliament They knew he needed them for money so their stay in session for thirteen years straight English Revolution Parliament said that they would give the king the money he wanted but they said that they were going to make a few changes They created the Triannial Act which was a guarantee that every three years Parliament would meet whether the king would put it to session or not This automatically limited and checked the king s power The abolished IV the royal prerogative courts which were used by the Stuarts which was used against their political opposers They were special courts used to punish powerful people who went against the king The King decided that they were going to far Therefore he sent military to Parliament and arrested many of the major gures This created a civil war in England over the power of Parliament and the king The Cavaliers were the supporters of the kingroyalists They were hostile to Puritans and proChurch of England The Roundheads were supporters of Parliament They were sympathetic to the Purists The king had better commanders etc so he began to get ahead but Parliament knew how to tax so this gave them the upper hand Oliver Cromwell was a Purist military commander and Parliament defeat the king The question is what do you do with your win Therefore they declare England a republic and behead the king because they do not want his line to continue Since Cromwell was such an important figure and much of Parliament was Puritan Puritan ways are dominated and imposed as well For example theatre and literature were censored Cromwell was supported by his military etc and was essentially a type of ruler of the time He died and England drifted into chaos So Parliament invites back the successor of the king they beheaded Charles II and the Restoration He said he would rule under Parliament s terms There was a period of peace when he came back He was called the merry monarch because he enjoyed a party more than anything However he runs short on cash even though Parliament gave him a specific allowance Therefore since he agreed he wouldn t tax on his own Louis from France decided to help him out Louis asked Charles and his brother heir to become Catholic He wanted him to reCatholicized England People in Parliament freaked the freak out When Charles died England did not want his brother to succeed Charles never openly became Catholic and tried to convert anyone but James did and because of this and the religious hysteria forming Parliament didn t know if they should allow him to become king Glorious Revolution James became king even though he was Catholic because his heirs were two daughters Mary and Ann who were both Protestants He does things very proCatholic an d absolutists in nature l688 James wife number two an Italian princess gives birth to a boy Boys trump girls in the line of succession Parliament and England freak The same year Parliament takes him off of the throne This is known as the bloodless revolution James believed that Louis would help him out but he didn t He thought about fighting back but he just ends up being exiled A bill of right was passed that guaranteed that Parliament would have rights such as passing laws etc that would allow Parliament to rise above the king They invite in James daughter Mary and also her husband William who was Dutch With time this underwhelming of the king would continue on SIGNIFICANCE gt Constitutionalism is a very important idea in English government It mainly sprouted from the issue of Parliament having very limited control under the king Once Parliament made clear that they had a large political stance in the English government there was a newlyfound balance between the power of the king and Parliament Transatlantic Slave Trade I Africa before the Slave Trade The arrival of Islam in Africa was immensely important This was not spread throughout the entire continent but it it starts spreading from Mahdia and Alexandria and then further south and down the eastern border They converted freely and willingly Arab merchants were commonly the ones who went over and converted the Africans mainly on the borders Impact of Islam Africa was brought into a larger network of trade becoming part of a global Arab trading world They would buy from west Africa good such as salt and gold and also slaves This also made many kingdoms in Africa very wealthy The rate of literacy also rose due to the rise of Islam They would establish schools to be able to read the Qur an This was still predominantly elites of Africa Timbuktu was a city in the middle of west Africa which was legendary due to its intellectual aspect Ibn Battuta was an Islam who would keep a travel journal of Africa He was amazed by the rate of literature in Timbuktu Statebuilding is occurring in Africa Due to the rising rates of literacy there was a pull of educated talent to draw upon Early on the monarchies of Africa would rule in a feudal manner Literacy enabled them to shift from feudal to bureaucratic This was a good change because he feudal form of governing was not always good with passing generation due to a lack of loyalty over time This change allowed for political cohesion more control and an idea of centralized government Three west African kingdoms Sudanese included The kingdom of Ghana oldest 11th century which was based upon its wealth It would eventually be consumed by the kingdom of Mali founded by Sundiata 14th century which was even bigger Sundiata was seen as essential for Mali Mansu Musa was an administrator who expanded and created very modemlike government Musa and Sundiata was seen as extremely wealthy by the Europeans Mansu Musa was traveling to Mecca and it was known that when he went to visit his presence nearly devastated the economy of Cairo because he spent so much and caused in ation Then Songhai consumed Mali Songhai was created militarily like the others Its greatest leader was Askia the Great He is so important of all the leaders because he was known as a great patron of learning and literature He was one reason that Timbuktu gained its intellectual role The kingdom of the Kongo it was not as strong or wealthy as the other west African kingdoms However it was large had a good economy and the monarch had a lot of power II III The Great Zimbabwe was another area that was believed to have been a very powerful city within an empire It disappeared in the fteenth century before the Europeans came One idea was that there was an environmental disaster which caused its demise The Arabs settled and became part of the local economies and societies This was known as the Zanj It was a collection of citystates which became a permanent outpost The Arabs intermarried with the African populations It became a very mixed society When the Europeans arrived Africa was very sufficient and powerful which buffered Africa from much of their colonization Africa and the Slave Trade Slavery in World History Why did Europeans decide to go to Africa for slavery The biggest resource of slavery was always war prisoners of war Europe was full of this resource and it would have been believed to be cheaper as well However they reached out to Africa Insider vs Outsider Historically people have intended not to enslave their own people However how does one interpret the idea of insider This was very broad according to Europe because it included the entire continent Also because slavery already existed in Africa the notion of insider was more specific to one s immediate geographical areakingdom and tribal relationships Slave Trade in Africa Slaves would be used for domestic agricultural and military needs Many Muslims transporter slaves from west Africa to other parts of Africa as well as Europe etc Woman were often more popular in the MuslimArab slave trade When the Europeans arrived Portugal Angola was an established colony was the country who dominated the slave trade In the eighteenth century Britain took over One of their systems was that they would go and establish themselves in an area and create a fort which they would gather and hold slaves at However they felt stuck and because the center of gravity of the slave trade would shift over time Therefore they worked ships along the shore to follow where the slave market presided There were governments who made a lot of money simply taxing the slave trade Many areas did not want to be involved at least initially such as the Kongo The slave trade between Africa Europe and the West Indies of the Americas created the Triangular Atlantic Slave Trade Many of these good included manufactured goods slaves guns and raw materials such as sugar cotton and tobacco At times the enemies of areas who would resist would receive guns and resources and then the area resisting would get defeated and then sold into slavery Europeans used weapons to encourage those resisting Demographically men were more important to be sold to do hard work instead of woman Ultimately around twelve million people were transported to America diaspora forced dispersal of people beyond their homeland five million were transferred across the Sahara in the Muslim slave trade Many people would die in transport across the Atlantic This was incredibly inhumane and it overtook many of the people due to diseases and lth IV Impact on Africa Economically the impact was not widespread Not many people benef1tted economically In the long run it was not very substantial The few who did become wealthy did not spread it out throughout the lands Also there was not really a technological impact either Politically due to African kingdomscommunities went against each other there were major longterm impacts This intensi ed the rivalries between groups and created new rivalries The amount of warfare was highly increased Additionally many families were torn apart Africans in the Americans This shaped the foundations of the American society The three major traditions identified were the natives the Europeans and the slaves who were brought it Many slaves would bring their traditions and also alter their own by the European culture In turn their culture would impact the Americans Their culture was also a culture of resistance This included slave rebellion and small and large forms of resistance Slave insurrections were a way of life in plantation society When the work was the most intense there was usually the largest resistance efforts For example sugar cane cultivation was known as horrible work in Haiti and there was such a history there that insurrections would occur This would then carry to where these slaves went and word would spread Ultimately the independence of Haiti started with a slave insurrection Toussaint L Ouverture was born a slave and then became the military leader of the insurrection SIGNIFICANCE The slave trade is a very common topic studied by historians The reason for this is because it had such an important impact not only on Africa but also on the MuslimArab world as well as Europe and the newly found Americas Mainly negative impacts resulted but some groups definitely gained from the slave trade
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