EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE CRJ 3800
Popular in Criminology Theories
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Bynum on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CRJ 3800 at Wayne State University taught by Charles F. Klahm in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Criminology Theories in Criminal Justice at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
I Effects of technology a Affects parenting b Lower GPA c High anxiety d Lower life satisfaction ll Early childhood language a Postnatal care b Parents who talk to their children helped them develop a wide vocabulary and help them read a young age i In uences IQ and school performance ii Higher SES 174 words 18 months 442 words 24 months iii Lower SES 107 words 18 months 288 words 24 months iv 6 month gap v 30 Million Words project lll Exposure to toxins a Prenatal care b Causes de ciencies IV Sampson amp laubes study a 3 hypotheses i structural conditions impede development of social bonds ii antisocial behavior plays out across all domains iii Desistance is possible at any point in ones life course b Continuity is exaggerated c What explains i Onset of juvenile delinquency 1 Structural and social ii Continuity exists from childhood and adulthood iii Desistance 1 Social capital positive relationships used for support a KEY lS IMPORTANT Relationships have to be valued V Moffitts study 1993 Developmental Taxonomy a Trajectories behavioral patterns antisocial behavior b Onset what point does the behavior begin c 2 types of antisocial people i Demonstrates continuity ii children who are antisocial in spurts of Adolescence b Assessed key variables every 2 years until 1st neuropsychological test 13th birthday i 23 rated highly antisocial at one or 2 ages but not across the entire study period ii Group of boys whose antisocial behavior was above average at each assessment 1 Consistency across assessors 2 About 5 met this criteria iii Small group of antisocial children stayed antisocial into adulthood lifecourse persistent iv Adolescense were only antisocial during adolescence Adolescence limited v Neuropsychological de ciencies lead to serious issues with antisocial behavior temperament impulse control cognitive ability c Severe vs subtle neuropsychological de cits i IQ of subclinical neuropsychological deicits weren t that much lower than the average person ii Enviromental context 1 Live with antisocial parents adverse home environment iii Individual traits environment interact iv 600 boys experiment Adverse home neuropsychological de ciency 4x more aggressive than the average box 75 boys out of 600 14 v Life course persistent lifestyle is cemented by the age of 18 risk factors emerge early in life they will remain this way for the rest of life vi Majority of delinquents are AL 1 Charcteristics of AL a No history of early childhood antisocial behavior b Recovers from their period of criminality and goes back to being prosocial 2 What explains onset a Mimicry b Social approval c Behaving this way may seem useful to offenders d Learning it from LCP 3 What is desistance a Process of maturation b Go back to prosocial roles c Don t have chronic history of being a bad kid Vll David Farrington 1983 age amp crime a By 205 crime with former delinquents decreases b Age 28 it decreases even more vast majority of criminal activity stops c Q peak in teenage years re ect a peak in the of different offenders or of offenses of each types by each offender d England i Males 1983 peak 15 1961 peak 14 1938 peak 13 ii Females 1983 peak 14 1961 peak 14 1938 peak 19 e US i Males Violent peak 16 Nonviolent peak 17 ii Females Violent peak 16 Nonviolent peak 20 f Re ects of people involved in antisocial behavior not temporary acceleration in the offense rates of individuals g This peak represents increase in of people not offenses VIII Wolfgang study a Delinquency in a birth cohort retrospective i Male in Philly 19451972 ii Delinquency is mostly males iii Board of Education Military records Juvenile Aid Division data ages 717 iv Kids were tracked from 1018 v Onset de ned age when child was 1st taken into police custody and labeled delinquent by police vi Of 10k boys found 6 of offenders accounted for more than 12 of crimes committed by sample small of chronic offenders 8020 rule vii Offending peaks in late adolescent years viii Moffitt didn t agree with onset of Wolfgangs study amp Moffitts was PROSPECTIVE NOT RETROSPECTIVE IX Developmental vs sociological perspectives a Traditional sociological focused on a single point in ones life while Developmental focuses on all Adolescence Early Adulthood Adulthood b Sociological was retrospective Developmental is prospective c Allows to see how developments in uence people d Sociological perspectives didn t look how child was raised behavioral patterns wont change e Sociological Static Psychological Dynamic X Mercy bookings a Police did bookings to get mental health patients off the streets b Find the smallest thing to charge them with so they can bring them in XI BJ39S studies a Level of drug use prior to prison b 83 of prisoners have used drugs once in their life c 72 were using a month before Violent offense drug use 40 Property offense drug use 64 Public order offenses drug use 49 166 of prisoners who committed offense to get money for drugs Drug dependenceabuse State 53 Federal 45 30k in 2011 Over criminalized cities k 30 days 240 vs 3000 XII PTSD XIII Adam II a Federally initiated study b 2011 annual report c 10 cities studied who were arrested 60 tested positive for at least one drug fr enrbe XVI Retro and prospective views of criminality a Retrospective looking back from the adulthood to adolescence b Prospective looking forward from adolescence to adu hood XVII Crosssectional vs longitudinal studies a Cross sectional just studying 8th graders b Longitudinallong term cohort of 8th graders XVIII
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