Unit 3 Study Guide
Unit 3 Study Guide EBIO 1040-01
Popular in Evolutionary Biology: Diversity of Life
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Popular in Biology
This page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha R on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1040-01 at Tulane University taught by Michael Doosey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 271 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology: Diversity of Life in Biology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
m E 3 Overview surrounding Monophyletic Group Morghology o o consist of tangled I Hyphae by growing through the hyphae and digesting its substrate I Hyphae also 39 Hyphae that may or not o kar otic I Nucleus 39karyotic I Nuclei M Nuclei from individuals 0 karyotic Nuclei are to each other 0 Made of 0 Cell Structure 0 Usually an between adjacent cells Allows for M Reproduction I Asexual amp Sexual I Spores are most common means of production I Abnormal Mitosis o Fungi is typically 1quot 0 Only theisZn o Diploid zygote divides by 9 o Spores ge I SEXUAL Reproduction 0 Fusion of 2 haploid hyphae of compatible mating types In BEFORE PARENTAL nuclei from diploid nucleus 0 May form mushrooms or puffballs dikaryutic comiplitrnien Kingdom phyla Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Basidiomycota Ascomycota Glomeromycota Chytrids Bread Molds Club Fungi Sac Fungi Mycorrhizae 77 ll rer 39i rll illl Common Habitat l m tw39iill ll elrlr i39i rl filll El illlll El alllll s1 ll ilrlr i39i rl all T H will 2 Mr u l u lii39ii quotlNM WMHQ HawtiWlej iimemmUm quotNH53 grew common Types 3 fi lliimlumtilll gill i quotMill i39 lli lillvatlllll39l llatiluli l39l iati39li Jilly thugll Wruiilll u ugtj ell 3 Eli ll ll lll llll i Mi l2llflmnl nwra nl n 39w fill lfwlm l elm llml lllllllllllrm when Jig Lower Classifications 0quot ill ll I r quotNV 0 v 3 lr r39llilldl 1 r r 2 39i t n r r 1 r Unique Reproductive 5 LillireinMy gmell j ml lll39lllzx Structure A 39 quotfl l quot H f lpnll39tiil lllllig39ii m mylrlll1llrlll l zll392 iw l Willi Q Milli H i 39 in W l lll allpll39u ll aw u vlprznlr i39 39lp o lr i39 agi39ilrmmlllm all l owlll 1 J 39 J L Reproduction 9391 ViiLilli 2l llnml lll 53le quotl llnml lll 39ml lrllmmwllll ilU IllE gnarl 3 5 Li 3 quotgm quotl Irl g 17 V rill 727quot 2 l m a F1 Fl is lrllfLlflfll lxwl Lrl lf ll lfhl r l lquot quotygl a f 2 3 StructuresTraits quot 39 r wa l e H M if Ll lllllll ril39 illlll llatlll39 air l39latiiill zhln 39 l 7 Hr pr 39 77 lll ell ll elm l HM will lulllw war Ill ii39 llf ll llatill i i ii u am i39mmll w lllgll lmgl l lrll le My a Mil alllll39i l 39 lmnllvll u vll39 Miscellaneous 1 131 quot if 39 rrci 1L7 W 1 39 le 39 ll39 lllllll ixlll i ll lVlequot quotn fillilllll llllllli llfwllll If llllln 7 0 Lack true rootshoot system 0 Roots are tiny Rhizoids A few epidermal cells that anchor the plant into the soil a am 1 Leaves Elanmphyte 0 Dominant gametophyte stage 0 Sporophyte o Grows out of gametophyte o Dependent on parent a Maimjg o Asexual Reproduction Fragmentation via gemmae limit Glade Bryophytes Lack Vascular Tissue phyl a Bryophyta Hepaticophyta Anthocerophyta Mosses Liverworts Hornworts E mcl phytc Lower Classifications H He i m m milcazgijig m1 Location Of Antheridia 81 PM U mH l i H3 3 lilifvfi tjl LU r l iquot39 i lill39mlgll l ffs llwfis V l ll ll 39 ioim Writ g 7 77 77 r Amhegoma 7 it liltiigi i M U m liw1l lei it Mt HF H tin H H H M Unique Physical StructuresTraits Miscellaneous Bryophytes SEXUAL REPRODUCTION LIFE CYCLE 1 gametes are 2 o Sperm swims through thin film of water from the antheridium to the archegonium o Sperm fuses with egg 0 Forming Consists of a stalk with a small capsule on top 39 A small green stalk growing out of the top of the female plant 39 Stalk can photosynthesize but soon turns brown live off the parent plant tiny green threads P PWN l Spores 3quot Mature 9 sporophyte Gametophytes lt I Archegoma I V f Female 39 Germinatin spores 97 Rhizoids Zygote n MITOSIS Developing sporophyte in archegonium Sporangium Parent gametophyte Kingdom Plantae Clade Tracheophytes Vascular Tissue Clade Seedless Plants Ferns amp Allies Lycophyta Sphenophyta Psilophyta Pterophyta Club Moss amp Quillworts Horsetails Whisk Ferns Ferns Phyla Common Habitat Lower Classifications Leaves Unique Sorohte TraitsStructu res Unique Gametohte TraitsStructu res Unique StructuresTraits HeteroAutotroph Seedless Plants Produce via spores not seeds 0 Requires water to reproduce I Swimming Sperm Dominant Sporophyte stage 0 Sporangia attached to sporophylls Gametophytes o Prothallus Small autotrophic gametophyte I Lacks vascular tissue I FreeLiving o Monoecious Antheridia amp Archegonia on same plant I Archegonium amp Antheridium in upper surface I Except Lycophytes Rhizomes Modified underground stems attached Fern Pterophyta Life Cycle Amhegonium a 599 I 139 Gametophyte WSW mrosls Antheridium a t 3 A o e 0 a Spores 0 MEl08IS Zygote 2n l 2 MITOSIS Underside Mature 0 Ieat trond trend Adult Mature sperophyte speranglum 5 1 cluster M o sporangia lndusium Fiddlehead Rhizome K g 39 393 398 C39ade Pinescgglrtecrgsplggjars etc 35ng a Gtenophyta Gmkgophyta Anthophyta Common Habitat Unique Physical TraitsStructures Importance to Humans Lower Classifications w u n x a r a n n n u Plantae Tracheophyta Vascular Tissue Seed Plants Angiosperms Flowering Plant Phila Anthophyta Class Monocotyledonae Monocot Dicotyledonae Dicot 1 2 seedLeaf Multiples of Multiples of 3 4or5 of Cotledons seed leaves lntitially Form of Flower Parts of PoresFurrows on Pollen Po re Scattered throughout the pith Nicely organized as a ring of little ovals Vascular Bundles A Seed Plants 0 Fully terrestrial o Sperm no longer requires water 0 Sporophyte is dominant stage 0 Sporophytes bear sporangia in a strobilus pine cone flower 0 Sporangia produce haploid spores via meiosis microspore o Heterosporous o Spores develop from a spore mother cell Heterosporous I Microspores Develop in a megasporangia from a microspore mother cell 0 Male Gametophyte pollen grain Megaspores Develop in a megasporangia from a megaspore mother cell Sporophyte lt 0 Female Gametophyte o Produces egg Female Mc ms 30m gt 39gt E s 3 gamctophytc gg Male gamctophytc gt Sperm M icrosporc gt m o Embryo protected by integument I An extra layer or two of sporophyte tissue I Hardens into seed coat I Integument forms the micropyle Figur 31J crosssectionosanovuue 0 Contains food supply for embryo Nucellus Megaspore mother cell Integuments Stalk ol ovule luniculus b Gymnosperms quotNaked Seeds exposed Lack flowers amp fruits Ovule is exposed on a scale modified leaf Gyrmosperm Seeds 1mm otuc Angiosperms o Flowering Plants 0 Ovule enclosed in diploid tissue 0 Carpel modified leaf that covers seeds amp develops into fruit 0 3 Regions 5quotquotquotquot39 39 quot equot Squot quot 39 aquot 39 I m Swollen base containing ovules Am I Stigma Tip where pollen lands I Style NeckStalk ovary W3quot Ovule Stigma Style lament o Modified stem bearing modified leaves 0 Primordium Develops into a bud the end of a pedicel o Pedicel A stalk that expands at the tip to form a receptacle to which other parts attach 0 Flower Whorls 1 M Outermost Whorl 35 of them 2 PLals 2nd Whorl 0 These 2 are part of the reproductive system but they simply aid it does not actually transfer anything 3 Stamens 3rd Whorl I Pollen is the male gametophyte I Each stamen has a pollenbearing anther amp a filament stalk 4 Gynoecium nnermost Whorl I Consists of 1 carpels I Houses the female gametophyte Nucellus Megaspore Carpel mother cell lnteguments Microper Stalk ol ovule luniculus a b Look at Angiosperm notes for adaptations of seeds amp fruits Gymnosperm Reproduction Pine Life Cycle Mlcrospores Pollen o Air bladder coo Pollination Microspom mother cell 1 t Megaspore mother cell n 2n Ovulate seedbearing 15 months P5977 after pollination lama 39 I Zygote l MITOSIs Mt l OSls Section at seed second year Pine showing embryo embedded seed in megagametophyte Angiosperm Reproduction Phylum Anthophyta Mogaspore n Polar nuclei Gomtive cell Tube nucleus Ovule Q g O Megaspore t mother cell 2n Fagin quotbe Tube Formatlm ol nucleus pollen lube to th Micmspore mother cells 2n 2n Ovary Adult 5 l0 6 with mophyte 2n 239 0e f Q 6 2 Kingdom Fungi Ch32 Monday October 26 2015 954 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Know the characteristics that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes 0 Understand that fungi can be multinucleated amp have unique mitosis 0 Learn the phyla of fungi amp the life cycle of Zygomycota I Compare with Basidiomycota amp Ascomycota I Understand that the classification is partly based on morphology of reproductive structures 0 Understand the economic amp ecological importance of Fungi M 0 Overview 0 Mycologists believe there may be as many as 15 billion species 0 Single celled or multicellular O 0 Sexual or Asexual 0 Fungi isthe 0 Last shared a common ancestor 460 670 million years ago i 0 Morphology 0 Many fungi grow as single cells yeast including some basidiomycetes amp ascomycetes o The body of a fungus I Hyphae microscopic form Mycelium 11 9 Grows through amp digests its substrate I that are characteristic of different phyla O dimorphic 0 Cell Wall I Fungi have cell walls like plants bacteria amp some protists III In contrast the cell walls of plants amp protists are composed of cellulose III Chitin is also found in the hard shells exoskeletons of arthropods I Fungal 0 Unique Cell Structure I The cross walls septum of fungi are rarely complete fig 39 322 U I Usually an opening between adjacent cells quot ascomycetes basidiomycetes t K can J 491ng zygomycetes chytridiomycetes 0 M7 39 k III Cytoplasm can stream quickly back amp forth 39 A v carrying nutrients to the growing tips of the hyphae Sept cell walls are only complete when certain hyphae form reproductive structures hyphae sealed off at the tip 0 Each phylum of fungi has a characteristic reproductive structure 0 Hyphae may have 1 nuclei 0 O 0 Sometimes many nuclei intermingle in the common cytoplasm of the fungal mycelium O O 0 Fungi Have an Unusual Mitosis o Fungi 1n 0 Only the 2n 0 Diploid 0 Unit 3 Page 1 0 Cell is not a relevant unit of reproduction O I The spindle apparatus is formed within it Reproduction o Capable of sexual amp asexual reproduction 0 Sexual Reproduction I Fusion of 2 haploid hyphae of compatible mating types dikaryo c D In compartment D gt I May form mushrooms or puffballs O I Many form from sexual or asexual processes I Most are dispersed by wind Nutrition 0 I Usually I I Some are even 1 Fire tiny missiles at passing prey 2 Stun prey with toxic chemicals 3 Enter as tightly wound coil explosively expand to scramble the interior of host D Arthrobtrys can capture nematode worms in miniature lassos the little loops can clamp down 0 any emawdetrymg 3 escape exeretien elr igee we enwmee O A fungal quot e 39 Fungal strands 39 39 I nigeetiee enzymes degrade substrate digested We ebeer eel by hiylplh ee I Then absorb the organic molecules produced by this external digestion their digested food directly I Decompose wood I Some fungi are carnivorous PHYLUMS focus on just 5 ofthe 7 main phyla Phylum Chytridiomycota quotChytridsquot or quotChytridomycetesquot lt learya Have Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis causes chytridiomycosis I Responsible for worldwide decline in amphibian populations Phylum Zygomycota Fungi that produce zygotes O O O o Closely related to ancestral fungi O O Fungi Asaxual repcoducuon 5 e 39JrL Squot O 39 Sacrang im le r i Include i O O 0 Not monophyletic still under research 0 O Reproduction fig 3210 I Capable of asexual amp sexual reproduction e A than their sexual reproduction Spares Smcangmnme Matrig strain kI Sexual Reproduction y Germinahnq 0 A nh m39d 1 Fusion of gametangla gt zygosporangium l wwwangmm 944 2 Haploid nuclei fuse karyogamy to form diploid itquot I f 2n zygote nucleus 39 39 z WW 3 Developsinto Zygosporangium w Jlimmrhim M f I 39e Momma occurs A zygospore develops InSIde m 04 m cm n O The zygosporangium acts as a tough coating 39 quot 955 2quot so it can survive difficult conditions Figure 3230 Rhizopusl a zygomvtete m th t s 39m l ars Ii e 4 Menosrs occurs during germination of zygospore a 939 quot 539 p quotquot9 m quotquotquotm 39 ollvn mind In mmsl limul m llllll u llu39 lurk mwrm a Re39eases hapIOId Spores phmlnzl slum Inudm39lng xpurnnwuunun z h39 quot quot l Asexual Reproduction h39pll 1bllul l l INKill llu mollikr In luv 9 1 Sporangiophores have sporangia that release lilhlll lq lllt hill Iinspmdnuhrhhiriulrul m 39 limsupm lbwminimumxmnpiumnwdim g 39 Spores lllt 39 HII PIHJHKIJ 1 14114 H39n ilr nl MinHis 5 M 39 Phylum Glomeromycota liwlv mmllj Idrnunnmlmglxpvs o Smallgroup I 150 known species arhusculcs I i 7 e 7 e l l l mm q A 0 k 7 I cuncx I 39ql Unit 3 Page 2 III I Important for evolution of land plants 0 Arbuscular Mycorrhizae I Potentially capable of increasing crop yields with lower phosphate amp energy inputs I Occurs in 200000 species of plants Phylum Basidiomycota o Basidiomycetes are some of the most familiar fungi 0 Also Named for wall in life cycle The k 0 Life Cycle I Spore germination leads to the production of monokaryotic hyphae D Results in a monokaryotic mycelium or primary mycelium I Different mating types of monokaryotic hyphae may fuse III Results in a dikaryotic mycelium or secondary mycelium D Heterokaryotic mycelium D Basidiocarps mushrooms are formed entirely of secondary mycelium 0 OCTOBER 28th Phylum Ascomycota 0 Diversity 0 Specific Types III Cause of chestnut blight amp Dutch elm disease D Produces penicillin Named for O of life cycle 0 Life Cycle of Ascomycota I III Allow for rapid colonization of a new food source 0 Yeast Clade I Most reproduce I Yeast can III Break down glucose into ethanol amp C02 D Used to make bread beer amp wine I Yeast is a longstanding model system for genetic research B First eukaryotes to be manipulated extensively D Saccharomyces Cerevisiae first eukaryote to have a genome sequence Economic Importance 0 Many are some are delicious like truffles and shitake 0 Many fermented food products are made with fungi such as fermented tofu soy sauce kimchee and saki rice wine 0 Agriculturallyimportant I Many fungi are s like the rusts and smuts I Can also 0 Used in making many cheeses 0 Without fungi we39d have no bread win pizza or beer Medical Importance o Fungal diseases Unit 3 Page 3 nrhusc ulcs 39 I quot ll VA 4 a N 7 I grin I LUIA r rum 339 1 1394 39 A cpidcnnis CgtIclc cxtmmamcal ch urmdospum II phuu g gt GIIsInea Jz I x 39t 39hll human f I 39 Hquot A B 39 39 39 39 Sawum n o n KARYOGAIquot 2n quotIf 1 SIXXD39NJJY n quotV39cehhm 219 7 II39JIIJI NIIII u 10 9 I It T I BMICIIJquot 508 Figure 3211 Mairq 5mm l S Basidiomycetes 39 u It lllIlIIlil3911lull r Alarm amul Inmmrn 39in39I39irIu 39 lllzwt39 l Q I mislirmnw m Nuill39 r39hl m ih39TH39 WViIIW Ill1lllll l ll lIlllll ll b llI u l frquot quot quotquotI 3quot393 EAn avJI JSEUIe39 Slaw II i LIMUJIIIHLCKL Ill lumiium I IlnIIpludnimrIIIITII IV 5 Iquot Il H39I quot flquot II 39 anus tn nlamlng ll B aimspares I I III I 3quot HEELl5 Il l paraphysus II hymlnium l 39 I II H39J I 39 Ililllfg39lI quoti 39 I I med by a fungus not a worm o Fungal antibiotics I Streptomycin o Psychoactive drugs I Ergot I Amanita mushrooms fly agaric I Psiocybin mushrooms source of psilocybin O I Ecological Importance O III Only fungi can digest lignin substance that gives wood its stiffness III Releases carbon nitrogen amp phosphorus I Ecology of Fungi 0 Look back at ecological importance 0 Fungi Symbioses I o Interactions I I I Lichens Species but there are variations of this species in various phyla o Obligated Cyanobacteria green algae sometimes both 0 I Protect their partners from strong light amp desiccation III Striking colors play a role in protecting them 0 2015000 lichen species are 0 Have invaded the O I Glomeromycetes AKA Mycorrhizae O 0 Found on the roots of about 90 of all known vascular plant species 0 I Increase soil contact and absorption Unit 3 Page 4 Intro to Kingdom Plantae Ch30amp36 Wednesday October 28 2015 O o o O 9 1000 AM Learning Objectives 0 Understand the haplodiplontic life cycle and alternation of generations 0 Differentiate the sporophyte and gametophyte stages of plants 0 Understand the adaptations required for terrestrial life 0 Learn the basics of plant structure 6m m 5 Land plants BumMos Ginnip Gmnnlou Origin of Land Plants 0 All green algae amp the land plants shared a common ancestor about 1 billion years ago I Not all photoautotrophs are plants because red amp brown algae are excluded 0 A single species of freshwater green algae gave rise to the entire terrestrial plant lineage I It split into 2 major clades III III 0 Land Plants I Trend toward I Trend toward Classification of Plants 0 12 Major Phyla O Grouped under2 main criteria Ancestral alga Adaptations to Terrestrial Life 0 Protection from desiccation I Waxy cuticle amp stomata s stoma I Tracheophytes have tracheids III III 0 Dealing with Shift to a Haplodiplontic life cycle alternation of generations m O Multicellular diploid stage 5 quot b Scum I Produces haploid spores by meiosis A a I Diploid spore mother cells sporocytes undergo meiosis in sporangia quot sawq III Produces 4 haploid spores moss 39 D lst cells of gametophyte generation 0 Multicellular haploid stage I Spores divide by mitosis I Gametes fuse to form diploid zygote I lst cell of next sporophyte generation Alternation of Generations O 0 Relative sizes of generations vary 5500 mama III III Small dependent sporophyte Angiosperms III Small dependent gametophyte III In animals the gametes fuse fertilization directly into a zygote after a very brief freeliving existence In fungi the 39gametes39 nuclei never leave the hyphae linger for a while then fuse Having 2 distinct stages in your life cycle means natural selection can act differently on each stage like caterpillars amp butterflies O In many plants the sporophyte spore plant amp gametophyte gamete plant don39t resemble one another at all amp may live in different places 0 In I In very primitive plants ex Mosses the leafy green plant we see is the gametophyte III The sporophyte is the little brown stalk that sticks out of the top 0 In I In flowering plants the bushy green plant we see is a sporophyte D Gametophyte is reduced to a few cells 9 Female gametophyte is permanently buried in the tissues of the sporopl 9 Male gametophyte reduced to pollen grain in Plant Body Organization 3 0 i o A vascular plant conSIsts of 39 Unit 3 Page 5 V extras at Truchcomnes E uchvilopltvler SI ltIHII 1 I5 MN m m mn quotom Hwwm swampm warm z I 43 0 Plant Body Organization 0 A vascular plant consists of El El El El Evolved prior to root system o Tissues g 3 Basic Tissue Types L l quot I ww a El Stern ah El G59 I Tissues consist of 1 cell types Root Eggg I Tissue Systems Each of these tissue types extends through root amp shoot systems Ground tissue 0 Meristems Elaborate the Plant39s Body Vascular tissue do in animals 0 Located at tips of stems amp roots ltgt 39 ltgt Composed of delicate cells that 39 quot Iiid D shoot apical meristem l We gt s shoot apical meristem XYLEM 0 Vascular Tissue x39i39LEH PHLIJEH 313i fibre plate D Vessels pits 9 Continuous tubes of dead cylindrical cells arranged end to end perforation plates i ifinllm trashei as D um pm earrlipanipn CE r one another 0 Adapted for D sieve 9 Tend to be areas I D In addition to ground tissue cells are I llbih ili blmsse demunis V8538 included PHLOEM member D Contains 2 types of elongated cells O F d 3531 sieve element ltgt Hasbut ltgt Sieve cells are that spreads out through the entire plant 1996 Encgclppaedia Britannica Inc 9 ak hd gums SCH Flowering Plants F 39 il D LIIquot quot 9 The cytoplasm in sieve tube elements lack most of the structures necessary for cellular maintenance cm Shin 0 Roots 59mm Kquot 39 Zoneo ma uratlon I 4R In r mm nl r m2 1 eg 0 s a e co 0 y ecog ed Epmma39 El Root Cap Ground l i v 9 No equivalent structure in stems Vascular 9 Functions mainlyin behind it H all 39 3213quot s i I Zone of cell division El Zone of elongation 39 E Zone of maturation Man O Stems Apical meristem I for above ground structures 0mm I Also undergo growth from 39 amp intermittently D Develops into leaves other shoots amp even flow 0 Shoot Apex 0 Leaves I C Aquot I Expand by cell enlargement amp cell division D Growth stops at maturity I Different patterns adaptive in different environments I 2 Morphological Groups no leaf gap single vein leafgap branchingveins A 0 8 Megaphle Meso h ll 1 Thplpnf Microph II I Layers y Unit 3 Page 6 I Layers 1 The leaf produce energy Unit 3 Page 7 Microphyll Megaphle Mesophyll chloroplasts inside here Bundle sheath Vein Mesophyll the guard cells are yellow the is the black hole in between Bryophytes Ch30 Friday October 30 2015 1000 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Learn that Bryophytes are primitive land plants 0 Know the classification of Bryophytes 0 Understand alternation of generations amp the life cycle of Phylum Bryophyta TAXONOMY Kingdom Plantae o o I Phylum Bryophyta mosses I Phylum Hepaticophyta liverworts I Phylum Anthocerophyta hornworts Capsul t Elzomphyle Sum Primitive Traits of Bryophytes Leaves 0 Rely primarilyon o I Need water to reproduce III to the egg 39c mmphwquot 0 system I No quottruequot roots stems or leaves Main axis v scalelike sheets tiny Sporophytes are not freeliving I The leafy green plant we think of as quotmossquot is the gametophyte generation I The generation the tissues of the amp d o Bryophytes have a not tracheids I Not true vascular tissue much simpler than that of higher plants Bryophytes are 0 O FEATHERY PHYLUMS Phylum Bryophyta Mosses 0 16000 Species o 2 Growth Types I Cushiony Moss Erect stalks s I Feathery Moss Flattened mats lowlying 0 Separate Sexes dioecious 3 369 gametes are through thin film of water ii Sperm fuses with egg 3 Forming 4 Diploid zygote III O A small green stalk growing out of the top of the female plant 9 9 Squot39 o Mosses can also I Mosses can also grow plant that break off amp grow into a new Gemmae o Ecological Importance I Pioneer species on bare soil I See bed for higher plants I Pea bogs cover 1 of the earths land surface 12 the US Phylum Hepaticophyta Liverworts o Lobes suggested the shape of a liver 0 9000 Species I Marchantia I nnwAlln Unit 3 Page 8 f Spares Mature 39 2 1n 59 sporophyte o I Anthendia 0on Archegonta o1 Female 99 Rhizoids 2n MITOSIS Developing sporophyte In archegonium 4 Sporangium Parent gametophyte Archegonium Mature Sporophy1e 599 Sm Spore S Embtyo I H SPENT Spam rirclwgunm Sperm39 quotquot K Z a t 4 l A nllwrtdi v o I 0 9000 Species I IlIarchantia I PoreIa O O y uyvv V huvavvv Lobes suggested the shape of a liver Simplest bodies of any green plant I Looks like a flat scaly leaf with prominent lobes Liverworts not starch o I Same with other bryophytes 0 Life Cycle similar to mosses is the Phylum Anthocerophyta Hornworts o 100 Species I Anthoceros o Gametophytes look like liverworts but send up a tiny mosslike sporophyte o More closely related to mosses 39 Stomata Nostoc amp Anabaena which fix nitrogen for the hornwort sporophytes gam etophyte Unit 3 Page 9 Arc hwggunm Gemma Cup Manual rcp39ccomcnl Thallus Mle Gametophyte RhimIds Liverwon Life Cycle AJ IIHWYJIjiQ Antheridial head Thallus Intro to Tracheophytes amp Pterophytes Ch30 Monday November 2 2015 1000 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Know the classification of ferns amp fern allies 0 Learn the life cycle of Phylum Pterophyta 0 Understand that the gametophyte generation has a reduced size during evolution of tracheophytes Tracheoph es 0 Cooksonia lst vascular land plant 0 Appeared 420 million years ago 0 Only a few centimeters tall 0 No roots or leaves 0 Homosporous relative to the sporophyte during the evolution of tracheophytes 0 Similar has occurred as wequot 0 o grows in 0 grows in 0 Tracheophytes vascular plants completed the conquest of the earth begun by the primitive bryophytes The c The 279000 species of tracheophytes most are flowering plants 0 formed as a web of tissue stretched between small terminal branches 39 0 Evolution of euphylls was a gt I Big global when vascular plants evolved amp spread III C02 is a trace gas much was taken up by early plants to make glucose through photosynthesis Branchrng stems with vascular llSSUQ branching I that was present in very low concentration Fern amp Fern Allies Lycophyta Sphenophyta amp Psilophyta are often lumped together as quotfern alliesquot BryophytesampFerns o Similarities III Sperm must swim through water gt r v Amhellllu III No protection from desiccation 37 0 Differences talking about ferns Althegouia Strobllus III Very small III Spread b 0 hylum Lycoph a club moss quillworts 0 1500 Species Sister group to ferns amp other fern allies are mostly s grow in forest understory in small clusters club mosses have s I These fall to the ground when ripe amp release spores o Gametophytes OOOO species have have gametophytes 0 hylum Sphenoph a Horsetails o 25 Species O Closely related to ferns I fll II Unit 3 Page 10 srnglo planes quotwebsquot branches Euphyll Origins Branched vaswlar strands Photosynthetic trssue warns l lant Morphology Mm lalurc Sporunuium 39 Immalurr Sporanuium Sport s nations at 5 Rhimmc H wvuu Rllimids Psiom m I May be the o 0 Physical Characteristics amp Morphology o 0 Found in common weed in greenhouses o bright yellow gametopnytes Phylum Sphenophyta Horsetails o 25 Species o Closely related to ferns o Equisetum is the only surviving genus of this phylum III oneanh Stem is rough to the touch gametophyte I Phylum Psilophyta Whisk Ferns o 2 Living genre 0 Closely related to ferns Pterophyta Highly branched vegetative stalks looks like a horse39s tail o Gametophytes are tiny threadlike plants that lack chlorophyll Phylum Pterophyta Ferns O I Share a common ancestor with whisk ferns Psilophyta o Abundant amp Diverse o 1 cm 24 meters tall with 5 meter fronds O o Primarily o Spores are ejected by the sporangium like a catapult 0 Life Cycle differs from moss I Much greater development independence amp dominance of the fern39s sporophyte Archegonia amp antheridia in upper surface D Archegonia the notch of the heart III Antheridia near the rhizoids spreads out across to reach the egg curled frond gradually unfurls amp Unit 3 Page 11 amp develop into a tiny green Prothallus Anthnel39ldlun Archewnxum Rh lUldS quot rc m y A rvegan 1 Egg I v Barefootmg Sperm 0 MITOSIS A h 6 v N n39 39 lllm O 0 a 0 w z 1 Spores 9 MEIOSIS m Zygou 2n n I 2quot unoms LJDOC39KIIUC Mamquot i 0 IOJl from quotUFO quotno a wan poropwto Adult Mature spo39opwte Kl sporangium Embryo if It Cluslt u spovawgms S 39 xv ung l Indusium Gnmvlophyte Fiddlehead Hr nomg Intro to Seed Plants amp Gymnosperms Ch31 Wednesday November ll 2015 917 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Understand evolution of seed plants amp the function of the seed 0 Realize that the gametophyte generation is reduced to only a few cells 0 Know the distinguished features amp classification of the 4 gymnosperm phyla 0 Learn the life cycle of Phylum Coniferophyta Pines 0 Tracheophytes Has vascular tissue 0 Seed Plants I Gymnosperms naked seeds III Phylum Coniferophyta III Phylum Cycadophyta III Phylum Gnetophyta III Phylum Ginkgophyta I Angiosperms flowering plants III Phylum Anthophyta SEED PLANTS 0 Seed plants break the last link with the water plants I The entire 98 III Pollen grain is III No longer rely on flagellated sperm to reproduce 0 up ncmmpnmus 0 Seeds can be modified for dispersal a All adult sporophytes of seed plants pine cone flower f 5 mm med plants like those primitive plants a 39 v 0 Spores develop from a moves through the air to reach the naive UK up A Tiff l rv39 39 smaller than those of ferns amp fern allies Heterosporous 0 gametophytes 39 0 gametophytes Mcguspm c female 0 Seed plants are the final stage in the long transition in the long transition in alternation of Samcml l m generations Spomphyle lt O The in seed plants Microspnrc Hullquot gamemphytc of seed plants now reduced to a few cells but is still free living amp independent is reduced to a handful of cells 0 lst appeared 305 465 million years ago 0 Evolved from spore bearing plants known as 0 Success attributed to O Allows the quotclock to be stoppedquot to O these are seeds enhanced dispersal Seed 0 I An extra layer or two of sporophyte tissue I Hardens into seed coat 0 Contains ll 1 Produce 2 kinds of gametophytes 0 Figure 311 Crosssettion of an ovule I I Dispersed by wind or a pollinator I No need for water 0 e PHYLUMS table 311 or 3 0 Gymnosperms 0 Plants with exposed 0 Have 4 Living groups 0 o 0 Phylum Coniferoph a O 600 species 50 genre 0 and others I Coastal redwood Tallest living vascular plant 100 meters tall I Bristlecone pine Oldest living tree 4900 years 0 Found in of the world Unit 3 Page 12 o and others I Coastal redwood Tallest living vascular plant 100 meters tall I Bristecone pine Oldest living tree 4900 years Found in ofthe world 0 Conifers are sources of important products I Timber paper resin amp taxol anticancer O Pines I 100 Species I In Northern Hemisphere unrll ru quot LCCH oi cb 39m O III Have I Have choscores Poleo O CYCIe y g Ar timer I Male gametophytes pollen grains 035pm Palmmm I HOWE C8 39 I Female gametophytes III Pine cones from III amp have woody scales 0 3 5 5 Woman390 Scale Fallen um p pollen lube 06 5 532quot 4 9 Megawatts rrolhe39 cell I During lst spring Zn F oIIen I P beamg D Scales close We I O ulala Uimed39tmnrmgp I I A year later female gametophyte matures mm HS mmns Q B after mllmahmu quot light III J I 15 months after pollination pollen tube reaches archegonium and discharges khk39l m39 I contents El ngwopIr n z I MITDSIS r MITOSIS Sec n 039 be a ISAan a 39 r c e r ye 39 39 Cycadophyta Seedmg k pme swowng erroryo emoteGoad d In megagamerochyie 100 specres 9 genre we Greek kyos palm gym nosperms of tropical amp subtropical regions Female Cycad Female cones can weigh 45 kg Palmlikeshrubsandwnh OOOOOOO Cycads are I Male Cycad I Female Cycad 0 Leaves are incredibly well defended Phylum Gnetophyta 70 Species 3 Genre Ephedra Gnetum Welwitschia Odd little group of xerophytes plants adapted to including neurotoxins amp carcinogens Welwitschia Ephedra Gnetum OOOOO Ephedra I Like wisk fern I Is a III I Common in deserts of Western US amp Mexico III Grows everywhere except Australia I Medical Importance III Source of the 9 One of the oldest medicinal plants in use for 5000 years III Pseudoephedrine now has sales restrictions since 2006 because it can be used to make methamphetamine 9 Need your ID when you purchase it Phylum Ginkgophyta o emkgo tarlobar I Male amp female reproductive structures form on different trees 0 Sole surviving species cultivated for centuries by the Chinese amp Japanese I May no longer exist in the Wild 0 speciesnamecomesfrom O Ginkos amp Cycads show transitional stage in seed plant evolution I Ginkgos and cycads have I Ginko Sperm 9 Largest in the plant kingdom 40000 flagella 0 Seeds covered with a fleshy coat 0 Incredible odor when ripe butyric acid 0 Economic Importance I Seeds used in herbal medicine by ancient Chinese Unit 3 Page 13 III Currently very popular I Attractive shade trees III Up to 100 feet tall III resistant to air pollution and insects I One male tree in front of Richardson Memorial III Female tree was cut down this year in front of Gibson Unit 3 Page 14 Angiosperms Ch31amp36 Friday November 62015 1000 AM 0 Learning Objectives 0 Understand evolution of flowering plants amp their defining characteristics 0 Know that angiosperms coevolved with animals 0 Know how seeds amp fruit help ensure survival amp dispersal of offspring o Tracheophytes Vascular tissue 0 Seed plants I Gymnosperms I Angiosperms El Phylum Anthophyta I v92th ANGIOSPERMS Flowering plants 39 39 0 Flower Morphology o Modified stem bearing modified leaves 0 F 0 Flower parts are organized in circles called I Flower Whorls El El El These 2 are part of the reproductive system but they simply aid it does not actually transfer anything a Pollen is the male gametophyte Filament 4 Aniher Rim rum re 391 shi39vu39n Ovule Ovary wall I gt neckstalk Phylum Anthophyta o 300000 Species 300 families Flowering plants evolved sometime during the late Jurassic or early Cretaceous 39 to evolve o s although gymnosperms 39u39 continue to rule cold dry or sandy habitats o Specific Species o Oldest known angiosperm is Archaefructus I May be the sister clade to all other angiosperms 0 Most primitive living angiosperm is amborella I Grows as a shrubsmall tree on the South Pacific island of New Caledonia Flowering plants are superior competitors 0 Able to O o Widerbore vessels to conduct water mem W O U 0 i7 Pow Animal can easily take it amp spread the seeds within it far from the g quot m parent 90 I E 0 van 9 I Can survive as small scattered populations OW I Whereas windpollinated species need dense populations yoga 0 More quotmquot m Polpr m I Gymnosperms are woody perennials Angiosperms can be perennials or annuals Anznwh y 39 SYHJNIA r I Leaves are thin blades diverse shapes I Woody tissues are more complex amp highly specialized o All angiosperms have Anibcr an imcvcrsaoie ri39uiiimr rlx Iquotr I Flowers are reproductive structures that are formed from four sets of 0 y 2quot modified leaves mm spa plryie I Amazing diversity of floral structure Mquot WW 3 V o contaner Q Yulquotu 0 Not lyIng naked on the scales of a strobllus like gymnosperms quotx39i39quotvyln an Cotyecdms V on moor o The to helpseed dlspersal a 3 quot 0 quot g mfn yhf39u A L x 95 Fru11pI39m S ru gt0v lf39n 1l 9 I w 1 1 quot 3 V 3 E o 0339 8339 I Flowering plants show 2 great examples of evolution 1 Tm 3 5 v u 39 a El Evolution of fruit dispersal El Evolution of animal pollination Unit 3 Page 15 A7 Nucellus Sim ti ilt l 4 uupw I wall quot O tlllv Genetame cel Tube radtau Nico mm Seern r Tubc f nllv l i Si rc 0 Tiny hooks amp spines to burs 0 Also I Flowers that rely on wind pollination are tine amp inconspicuous ex Oak trees Flowers that are pollinated by animals have o Bees see ultraviolet on flowers Flowers advertise their Flowering plants go to great lengths to o Pollen amp ovule are chemically incompatible o Stamens amp stigma are arranged to avoid eye contact 0 Pollen amp pistil mature different times are an Important Adaptation 0 They maintain o the young plant when it is most vulnerable o for the embryo until it can produce its own food 0 of the embryo o Germination cannot take place until water amp oxygen reach the embryo 0 Seeds of some plants have been known to for thousands of years 0 Specific adaptations ensure that seeds will Wm I Some seeds lie within tough cones that don39t open until exposed to fire l V El After forest fires the soil is very rich in nutrients amp resources to 5W foster plant development Fruits 39 0 Contain I 7 iii 0 Most simply defined as g 39rrmrr 0 During seed formation the flower ovary begins to develop into fruit 0 Limanu l39quot1 CC I Ex Bananas are propagated asexually o I 3 layers exocarp mesocarp endocarp I Their fate determines the fruit type Fr1f rquot39quot l o can Developing I Occurs through a wide array of methods V mm I by birds or other vertebrates El with hooked spines on birds amp mammals I by herbivores El Blowing in the dandelions El FloatingDrifting on coconuts Wind Ingestion Hitching a Ride Unit 3 Page 16 Angiosperm Reproduction Ch41 Monday November 9 2015 1000 AM I Learning Objectives 0 Know that the gametophyte stage is reduced to only a few cells 0 Learn the life cycle of a flowering plant 0 Understand that double fertilization is a defining characteristic of Angiosperms 0 Differentiate monocots amp dicots I Review haplodiplontic life cycle figure 302 0 Understand these basics GAMETOPHYTE GENERATION I Flower house the gametophyte generation Camel 0 The Carpel has 3 major regions 1 Ovule I Swollen base containing ovules I n There can be Ovary wall Tip where pollen lands NeckStalk I Single undergoesM 0 4Megaspores 39 M I Nucleus of remaining megaspore divides mitotically O Daughter nuclei divide to roduce I 2 groups of 4 o Integuments become seedcoat I Form microper FEMALE GAMETOPHYTE 7v Integuments Stalk of Ovule liumculusl O 8 nuclei in 7 cells I O 8 haploid daughter nuclei 2 groups of 4 I 1 from each group of 4 migrates toward center a Functions as polar nuclei may fuse 39 Egg n 1 cell in group closest to micropyle I Antipodals El 3 cells at other end no function MALE GAMETOPHYTE I production occurs in the 0 It is similar to but less complex than female gametophyte formation 0 undergo meiosis gt I Binucleate microspores gt I 39 BUT if it does 0 Pollen grains develop a that is guided to the embryo sac o la 5 behind I This generative cell divides to produce not flagellated I Double Fertilization unique to angiosperms 0 unites with 0 unites with new sporophyte generation 2 9 u 1 1 v I U u I Seed may remain dormant for years 0 Germinate when conditions are favorable ANGIOSPERM REPRODUCTION I Sporophytes gtsporangia 0 MALES Pollen Development I Microspores gtmicrosporangia El Stamens are highly modified sporophylls 0 Sporangia are located on stamens inside the anthers 0 Each anther holds 4 microsporangia I divides by meiosis gt I divides into a will form m nucleus will act as sperm I Each gta El O 0 0 w Ovule Formation 39 MW El Megasporangia are located in the ovary at the base ofthe carpel 0 Each carpel holds 1 ovules ltgt pollen tube sperm nuclei malllre male b Ovules are attached to the walls of the ovary by a short stalk b Each ovule will ultimately contain a single egg divides by meiosis gt El One nucleus from each group of 4 migrates to the center ofthe embryo sac 0 Remaining 3 nuclei in each group migrate to each pole I form around the nuclei I now consists of 7 cells n 3 the top El 3 the bottom El 1 large cell in the middle with 2 nuclei I Double fertilization is to angiosperms A Unit 3 Page 17 1 7 one of me microspore ii mother cells inside a pollen sac Diploid Stage Hapioiu Stage gametophyte wmm mm Ovule Development Embryo Sac lquotir39l g39 m l 4 Anlner l 4 l Slaan FilamenlJ Petal Sepal Receplacle Pedlcel Megaspnw inquot t 6 I 5 Damn Megaaaove mulrgr cu 192 mlhtlr S rJinn Ami1 IErv39v Motsoon molrer tels 12m 2n OWEN Allquot scorochvle w tr quot3 m F39 n 4 Voun umrcpltyln flrlj Cow 16m O k g Sacd IF39m i 3 O mixu Vim o Erms rm quot0 I D Clduzuu ill31 19 1 3 Sand m 3 Jl o O Z IOSM mpma style of carpel I mitosis 3x39s pollen grain pollen tube WPAm1llmng 2mm generative nucleus coll E model wllhin cmlum of single co degnon n9 mooopera haploid AMA MIYOSIS l l Pear v Gonnruhw ruclev ILI Egg Two rucleua eross gt Pr en lube Point m V I 599 r 39 Two chietxm of mclcus when tuta i nl Style 0 Sperm quotE9 a 4 C un Lulu El 3 the bottom El 1 large cell in the middle with 2 nuclei E model within c am of single on Ohmitosis 3x39s dognoun Double fertilization is to angiosperms Wm WM quotWquot I It hydrates with water from stigma amp germinates O Grows a to enetrate the sti ma amp reach the ovar WIJJ SDEVI39I l39IpClEI I Now the 0 As thepoen tube approaches the embryo sac the M O enters the amp discharges the into the I 2 central female nuclei fuse together to make a 39 E0 0 Ii gtmitotic divisions 3 Ephedra and Gnetum have double fertilization suggesting that gnetophytes are related to angiosperms but endosperm does not form in gymnosperms Y n I ll ll LFl JL quot39n u r lrml mini DI LI 3 MORPHOLOGY OF SEEDS H39g39nr Ovule megasporangium integuments O O s into a hard protectivejacket we I embryo from desiccation amp mechanical damage I Seed coat is relatively impermeable El Encloses the seed with its dormant embryo amp stored food Civi ill quot I 39 39 39 l I 41 my V Each section of an orangetomato is a carpel filled with little embryos inside seeds TAXONOMY Seed Plants 0 Gymnosperms 0 Angiosperms I Phylum Anthophyta flowering plants El Class Monocotyledonae onions corn etc El Class Dicotyledonae roses magnolias etc MONOCOTS amp DICOTS There are many ways to tell monocots amp dicots apart 0 MAIN WAY Plant one amp see come up I Monocotseed leaf I DicotSeed leaves I The seed leaves are flat little leaves that develop inside the seed El As soon as the seed germinates it can start to photosynthesize amp put down roots I Seed leaves wither away when the lst true leaves emerge o s in I Monocot Multiples o I Dicot Multiples of Dicot E aux rm 3 Quin39 laxn 39 VI Calcnzznwrm anfIx HZXx manl wum 0 Furrows W I MOI IOCOtII Pore 39vi n m l Ir ll39i I M I Pores XWT 0 Vascular bundles figure 3623 phlxm I Monocot Vascular bundles are throughout the pith so called quotmonkey facesquot a I Dicot Vascular bundles are nicel MOHOCOt Xylem Pquot mam G39oun39 Inth VERE 4m hu39ld Unit 3 Page 18 Kingdom Fungi Tracheophyta Clade Seedless Plants fern amp fern allies Clade Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Basidiomycota Ascomycota Glomeromycota Subphylum Saccharomycota Yeast Genus Penk unl Species Batrachochytria Dendrobatidis Species Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Spedes Uchen Lycophyta club moss amp quillworts Pterophyta Ferns Psilophyta Whisk Ferns Sphenophyta RhVn39OPtha Horsetails Genus Genus Equisetum Selaginella dubrnosQ Spedes Cooksonia Kingdom Plantae Bryophyta Clade Seed Plants Clade Angiosperms Flowering Plant Clade Gymnosperms Naked Seeds Clade Coniferophyta Pines Spruces Cedars etc Bryophyta Anthophvta MosseS Hepaticophyta Liverworts Cycadophyta Gtenophyta Ginkgophyta r r N Class Dicotyledonae Rose magnolia etc Class Monocotyledonae Onion corn etc Genus l cea Spruce Genus Welwitschia Genus Gnetum Genus Ephedra Spedes Ginkgo BHoba Spedes n archan a Spedes PoreHa Anthocerophyta Hornworts Kingdom Clade Clade Clade Phylum Subphylum Saccharomycota Yeast Class Genus J J Species N N f Penicillium Saccharom ces Lichen y CereVISIae J k Batrachochytria Dendrobatidis Kingdom Plantae Clade Tracheophyta Bryophyta Clade f N An ios erms Clade GymnospermsNaked Seeds g p Flowering Plant Lycophyta Coniferophyta Sphenophyta PSIlophyta Pterophyta Bryophyta Anthocerophyta Phylum Rhynlophyta clulo mossamp Horsetails Whisk Ferns Ferns PmesSpruces Cycadophyta Gtenophyta Gmkgophyta Anthophyta Mosses Hepatlcophyta Liverworts Homworts qUIllworts Cedars etCl amp J F N f f NW N f N f NW N f N Subphylum Monocotyledonae DiCOtV39edonae Class Rose magnolia Onion corn etc etc Selaginella Genus club moss Ephed ra Welwitschia Ginkgo Biloba Porella Species Cooksonia
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