353 Exam 2
353 Exam 2 Psych 353
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This page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Gonzalez on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 353 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory Intro A nomothetic laws a general laws that are assumed to apply to everyone b explains similarities among humans B idiographic laws a explains our uniqueness C socioemotional selectivity theory seeks to simultaneously prove nomothetic and idiographic laws in everyone D Conception of time a localized to our own life spans b telescoping memories that feel as though they were more recent than they were E Three basic principles a the perception of time plays a fundamental role in the selection and pursuit of social goals b social motives fall into 2 general categories i acquisition of knowledge ii regulation of emotion c when time is perceived as open ended we tend to focus on knowledge related goals younger people When time is perceived as limited we tend to focus on emotional goals older people F implications of principles a young people focus on knowledge related goals i we have a whole lifetime to benefit from said knowledge ii older people are less likely to use new knowledge in the future b as people get older they get increasingly more aware that time is running out i fewer yet stronger interpersonal relationships c when endings are salient people focus on the present i less planful and analytical ii more emotion based Salience of social motives A Across a lifespan a emotion related goals are strongest for infants and older people b knowledge related goals are strongest during early adulthood and middle age Empirical evidence A Lifecycle differences in salience of emotion a given these three dimensions based on interpersonal relationships Future contact information seeking and goodbad i young people rate these equally important ii older adults rate goodbad as higher than the other two iii people with full blown AIDS act similarly to older adults while asymptomatic HV patients act similarly to younger people b older people incidentally recall emotional events more than young people do B Age differences in regulation of emotion a as death becomes more salient people place more emphasis on meaningful relationships b people in their 70s manage emotions better and demonstrate less emotional spillover and fewer negative emotional states c older people display less intense emotions and more affection when addressing marital problems more multifaceted C Lifestyle differences in the composition of Social Networks a older people have smaller social networks but with stronger connections i contact with acquaintances diminishes ii contact with intimate people increases Subjective Well Being Intro A broad judgments about important life domains like job marriage education etc a Momentary positive affect what percentage of your life is spent feeling happy and loved b Momentary negative affect proportion of life spent being anxious scared depressed i Last two come from experimental sampling studies B Examination a Deviations from homeostasis make us uncomfortable and motivate change b Maslow psychological tension by deviating would become dominated by the need that must be fulfilled i the best you can ever hope for is neutrality ii proven not to be true Happiness and the American paradox A DesireImportance of money a Americans generally aspire to be rich i motives for attending college b does money determine happiness i GNPCapita study more wealth equates to more happiness per country until it exceeds subsistence level 1 8000 per year per person 2 after this level is reached more money does not make people more happy ii Wealthy families say yes 1 but report very low happiness levels 2 no correlation can be found iii Therefore money only impacts happiness when income is lower than subsistence level B Adaption a People can change their behavior to better suit changes b lottery winners i Happiness skyrockets after winning lottery but levels off after 36 months c spinal cord injury patients i Happiness hits rock bottom after paralyzation but levels off again after 36 months ii People born paraplegic are happier than those who were paralyzed after age 20 iii trends are similar after being incarcerated losing a spouse and being denied tenure C American Paradox a even with increasing technology Americans are only getting unhappier b in the last 50 years i teen suicide has tripled ii babies born to unwed mothers has quadrupled iii reported rapes has doubles Happiness from a historical Perspective A Philosophers say life is unhappy a struggle or that happiness is not entitled to us B Basically there is reason to question that our natural state is happy Evolutionary Processes A discrepancies between ancestral and modern environments a modern technology adjusts for slow evolutionary changes BUT leaves room for new environmental dangers i antibiotics gt bacteria evolves b psychological environments can cause damage c Men hold women s beauty more highly women hold men s status and success more highly i makes women want to be beautiful ii makes men want to be successful d Mass communication and larger communities make us feel unimportant and more competitive i we compare our lives to fabricated images from the media which makes us unhappy or feel inferior 1 upward comparison B Adaptations that cause subjective distress a Negative psychological states serve purposes i Jealousy motivates behavior that repairs relationships by causing anxiety and distress ii People tend to fear betrayal status ascension blockage threats iii learned through evolution to alert us when these bad things are happening b emotional cues in memory i we can recall how we previously solved problems that made us feel the same emotional distress in the past C Adaption designed for competition a one person s gain is another person s loss b take pleasure in other people s pain i shadenfreude D Four keys to improving happiness a increase closeness of extended kin b develop friendships c select a mate who is similar to you i values interests politics education income status and appeal are all important d try to manage competitive mechanisms in relationships i shared fate what s good for me is good for you ii motivates teamwork 5 iii insist on equity 1 Proportional rewards to effort put in iv cooperation How Happy are People A Happiness levels a overall we re pretty happy i on a 10 pt scale the average happiness level is between 7 and 75 b excep ons i hospitalized alcoholics new inmates new therapy clients and South Africans living under Apartheid Major Determinants of Subjective wellbeing A Genetic predisposition a twin studies i monozygotic twins 100 of genes and DNA in common ii dizygotic twins 50 of genes and DNA in common iii reared together raised in the same household iv reared apart separated at birth b Twins reared together were found to be no happier than twins reared apart B Marriage a 910 people want to get married b Married people are happiest then single people then divorced people and people separated from their spouses are least happy c Males and females are equally happy when married d Happy people make better spouses and are more likely to get married and married people are less depressed C Religious Faith a People active in their faith are more happy safe and healthy b retired people are happier when they are physically and religiously happy Depression lntro A most cases of depression go away after 68 months B can be caused by major life events C concentrating on self relevant issues a onset of depression b experience during depression c duration and severity of depression Conceptual overview A Diathesis stress model a Negative life events PLUS predisposition to depression causes depressive episodes b Diathesis vulnerability factor c Hopelessness i feeling like there is nothing anyone can do to get a good response ii causes gloom d Worthlessness i feeling inept weak broken or depraved ii depression can feel hopeless worthless or both e Helplessness i perception that one is powerless to change a situation ii subset of hopelessness iii can feel helpless without hopelessness but not other way around B Dysphoria a dysphoria is the emotional reaction to events b not considered clinical depression c usually wears off SelfEsteem models of depression A SE as a risk factor a Low self esteem people may lead to higher susceptibility to depression b Low SE can act as a diathesis for depression i low SE people are twice as likely to become depressed after a negative event ii tested and proven consistent B SelfWorth contingency model a people prone to depression have more conditional levels of self worth b Psychoanalytic model i people prone to depression have excessively high interpersonal dependency 1 Approval reassurance is needed from others to prevent depression ii Three types of depressed people 1 High need for love appreciation admiration and respect 2 Exaggerated need to be strong capable successful and independent 3 inordinate need to be good loving moral and virtuous iii Depression arises when needs are not met c Social identity model i assumes that people derive their self worth from their social roles 1 leads to social dependency 2 Depression arises when roles are threatened and the person has few alternatives to fulfilling this role ii empty nest syndrome and retirement are examples d Congruency models i assumes two personality types are prone to depression 1 highly dependent on social approval 2 highly dependent on achievement outcomes ii high interpersonal needs for constant and repetitive reassurance iii Depression arises when negative events are congruent with personality types 1 achievement based people a having many failures b not very strong evidence 2 socially based people a socially oriented failures b clear data e Labile SE as a risk factor i If SE is very conditional it is very labile or subject to change based on recent events ii Low SE alone was not found to be a risk factor but labile SE was Beck s Cognitive Theory of Depression A Theoretical Model a negative cognitive triad is the primary feature of depression i dysfunctional views about the world the self and the future ii Dysfunctional beliefs act as diatheses for depression and cause disturbances 1 somatic disturbances eg sleeplessness 2 motivational disturbances lack of enjoyment 3 affective disturbances sadness 4 said to arise in response to the negative cognitive triad iii depression is a cognitive issue not an affective issue b role of negative self schemata in the maintenance of depression i depressed people dwell on negatives even when life seems to be looking UIO ii Selective abstraction 1 including small negative details but missing the big picture 2 ignoring accomplishments and applying small failures globally iii Arbitrary inference 1 Drawing conclusions with no evidence iv overgeneralization 1 too broad of conclusions 2 eg failing one exam and dropping out of college v absolute dichotomous thinking 1 thinking in terms of black and white 2 eg if you don t love me you hate me c Dysfunctional beliefs as a vulnerability factor i Arise in childhood and are unchanging ii negative absolute beliefs cause depression when life events agree d Summary i Depression arises when negative life events agree with dysfunctional beliefs then manifest in the symptoms of depression disturbances listed above B Empirical reasearch a negative thinking during depression i negative thoughts can lead to depression and are usually selfreferencing ii depressed people see themselves in negative terms but not others 1 not self hate but neutrality towards the self 2 i m just here b Information processing i In word tests on trait endorsement and recall 1 Depressed people recall more negative words than positive words rate them as more selfdescribing but also identify with positive words 2 Nondepressed people recall recall more positive words than negative and rated positive traits as more selfdescribing c Dysfunctional beliefs as a diathesis i Beliefs are stable and concrete BUT ii Beck s model was not found to be supported iii beliefs fade when depression lifts d Links between negative cognitions and depression i Associatednetwork models can help explain these cognitions ii negative emotions are linked to negative memories 1 when a mood becomes active associated memories activate too 2 Good mood Good memories 3 Bad mood Bad memories iii Diurnal mood variation 1 depression rythms over a 24 hr period 2 used to test people s cognitions at most depressed periods of the day e Accessibility of negative cognitionspersistence of depression i Depression prone people are more likely to activate negative thoughts in negative moods ii differential activation hypothesis 1 It doesn t matter what caused the negative moods it matters how strong the mood is associated with memories iii predicts duration and severity of depressive episodes Attributional models A Learned helplessness a People who feel helpless get used to not helping themselves and then they never try b tested in dogs by Martin Seligman B Hopelessness theory of depression a depression arises when people feel there is nothing they can do to fix negative life events b people attribute negative events to causes that are internal stable and global C Empirical Research A Role of attributional style in depression a Depressed people don t take credit for positive events b nondepressed people attribute negative events as being more external c Depressed people show relative negativity but not absolute BAttributional style as a risk factor a Two days after receiving poor grades students were more likely to still be depressed if they possess this attributional style b Depression seems affective but may have strong cognitive underpinnings C Attentional Processes in Depression a depression is more likely to endure and worsen when negative moods automatically activate negative thinking b Attentional processes influence length and severity of depressive episode D Self awareness and self consciousness a People don t like self awareness i aversive psychological state ii causes people to focus on shortcomings iii Depression is characterized by tendency to stay in prolonged state of self awareness 1 There may be a tendency for self awareness following failure 2 Depressed people try and understand themselves to end suffering but it only makes them worse b Ruminative coping style i Some people ruminate when sad some try to avoid introspection ii Those who scored high on rumination scale had higher depression scores when tested 6 months later iii Sex differences 1 2 3 4 women more likely to become depressed as men 23 times as likely Women stay depressed longer than men Symptoms are more severe in women Ruminative coping style may be responsible here a Women are socialized to attend to their feelings b Males are taught to avoid emotions E Unwanted thinking in depression a some people have difficulty suppressing negative thoughts b Learning to replace negative thoughts to positive thoughts is important for depression Chapter 7 A Introduced to Erica a not eligible for a school she wanted to go b threw a tantrum and was almost arrested B Her mother Amy was manic depressive a father was not stable either b social class changed monthly C The norms of social behavior differ a lower class kids i relaxed and vibrant ii stay home more b middle class kids i more whiney ii busier scheduled c unconscious norms and skills will shape people s lives by age 18 D emergent systems in society a different elements come together and produce something greater than the sum of its parts b established patterns have downward influence customs are passed down thousands of generations d examples i poverty marriage culture the brain E Erica eventually gets into another school the Academy Chapter 8 A The academy was tough a Erica worked long hours to achieve honor roll status b lacked self control and remorse for bad behavior B Temperance a Amy worried that Erica would not outgrow her behavior b Personality is pretty constant throughout life c Erica didn t feel as though she was in control of erratic behavior d became obsessed with tennis C The Famous Marshmallow a Children who can wait longer to eat marshmallows or cookies i show fewer behavioral problems ii higher success rate in school b kids who could not wait longer than 30 seconds showed a higher rate of being incarcerated D Character reconsidered a human decision making i Perception of situation ii calculated risk or benefit iii using power to execute decision 0 E Rematch a Erica embraces strict rules b notices self discipline and better diction and posture c tennis obsession lessened i Calmed herself down before matches ii worked on focus F Inspiration a Erica decided she wanted to be successful after meeting a successful entrepreneur b changed wardrobe and became more organized and ambitious Chapter 9 A ambition a people who are highly driven suffer from existential fear i many have had absent parents ii have met someone who is successful and taken advice iii seek to belong to exclusive groups b erica goes away to school in denver despite protests from family B Cultures a erica studied subjects that would help her understand various cultures b society is a layering of networks adapted for modern development Chapter 10 A Erica then went to work in a consulting firm a surrounded by very smart men b felt inferior B IQ a malleable i environmental factors can change IQ ii kids from different eras have different mental skills iii genetic factors b intelligence and mental ability are not equal i intelligence is only one facet c people with high le aren t always successful i may not hold down jobs ii may selfdestruct bc of excessive faith in intelligence C Erica leaves to start her own consulting firm Ch 11 A Choice architecture a Manipulation by grocers and merchandisers i use things like smells or organization to entice customers ii consumers are more likely to pull from the right side of a display than from the left b The struggle i Erica studied these patterns ii collected info specifically tied to cultural differences iii developed analyses about consumer trends for her consulting firm B Behavioral economics a argue that stray intuitions have economic effects b oppose the idea that humans are decisive and driven only by incentives c Erica decided to use behavior economics over cultural segmentation i market was not ready for the latter C Heuristics a choice architecture i set of structures that frame decisions ii comes in heuristics b types of heuristics I priming n anchodng iii framing iv expectations v inertia vi arousal vii loss aversion c Harold and Erica unite to transform her research into usable advice Chapter 12 A Harold in College a he felt interesting and made memories b spent time with friends especially roommate Mark i Harold became a follower ii taught Harold to commit and be free at the same time c his friends became his innermost circle d Mark and Harold were separated by fate i Mark Dreamer 1 Moved to LA to be a producer ii Harold Practical 1 wanted more loving bonds and deeper meanings B What makes people happy a Money and happiness i rich countries are barely happier than poor countries ii Winning lottery short term happiness only iii People are happiest in their 20s and 60s b bad judgements on what will make us happy i overvalue money work and property ii undervalue relationships and challenges c social bonds i married people are happier C Harold received two job offers in one day a one was from erica b felt drawn enough to her to set up a meeting
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