POL 443 Week 4 Individual Assignment Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper
POL 443 Week 4 Individual Assignment Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper
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Date Created: 11/09/15
Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper 1 Running Head: FACTIONALISM EVALUATION AND PRESENTATION PAPER Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper Name…………………………. Wealth and Power in America POL 443 Faculty……… Date……………………. Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper 2 What is factionalism? Factionalism has often been described as a party that is within another party or group. Other definitions provide a definition of “a group of people that have formed a cohesive union within a larger group.” (US History Encyclopedia, 2006) This type of group has been established in pursuit of a common goal within a type of party of government. This paper will seek to discuss a pressing current issue in our country. The issue is one of the environmentalists versus the lumber industry and the approach to access of old growth forests. The basis of the issue and one that is a hot topic debate, is finding a true balance between “governmental jurisdiction rights, long term sustainable use of global natural resources and property rights.” (Harris, 2009) A consensus exists among the groups that the unlikely partnership between the US Forest Service and the lumber industry is somehow not beneficial to the public at large, and thus encourages Congress to enact laws with extreme policies. To overcome that perception, forest management agencies and others must consider corporate and social responsibility and the full protection of our environment along with those of external stakeholders. Examination of environmentalist versus big business on access to old growth forests The lumber industry is the chief source for “production and harvesting of trees with construction, shipbuilding, telegraph poles, furniture manufacturing and railroad ties.” (Harris, 2009) The media has sensationalized the issue along with the environmentalist spin on the issue. The term deforestation brings visions of global warming, diminished global environmental resources and the extinction of the wildlife habitat ecosystems. Lumber is used to “build our homes, tables and other wood by products and is a renewable resource.” (Fiset, 2007) An Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper 3 economic side to the issue must also be considered. The use of lumber creates many jobs from lumber processing facility plants, to paper manufacturers. The obvious or natural assessment would be to replace what we have consumed and plant new trees. Forests, however, are “losing trees faster than new trees are able to grow and replace the ones lost.” (Handwerk, 2009) Time is of the utmost importance as trees can take hundreds of years to mature fully. That coupled with nature establishing a nourishing ecosystem for wildlife to flourish. The survival of many species is dependent on the very existence of old growth forests. Staunch confrontations arise when beliefs are promulgated that “mature forests are in need of some type of renewal.”(Cundiff, 1992) The debate about effective forest management is not a new one. Some of the concerns are the numerous wildfires that have plagued many states. More often than not, a man made occurrence. That is a burden borne by the taxpayers of the affected states. The Northern California acreage has been deeply affected and “incurred millions of dollars in clearing brush.” (Winslow, 2008) Thousands of individuals are required to fight those fires and effect containment once started. When several hundred acres are affected, the fire damage and risk to old growth forests is difficult to manage especially with an extremely hot fire. Description of the competition between elite groups and SIGs with policy issues The more modern forestry management practices involve the use of computers whose models predict optimal tree growth patterns and harvesting schedules once tree growth has declined. The environmentalists are quick to point out the “loss of wildlife species of birds, insects, flora and fauna, degrading biodiversity and water quality, which remains unrealized with computer schematics.” (Cundiff, 1992) The lumber industry answers back with log trucks carrying out fallen giants and the potential profits to be gained from timber production. The Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper 4 lumber industry as a whole sees tree decay and the environmentalists see the benefits of a “regenerative, natural process of healthy forests.” (Cundiff, 1992) How has issue been debated? The environmentalists agree a need exists to boost the US economy, but to also protect our environment. The feelings of the group are clear in the belief that the timber industry does not protect our forests or deliver any credible assurances. As a result groups united in the cause are making their presence known such as Greenpeace, Sierra Club and Earth Island Society. These groups are trying to mobilize public opinion and hold the corporate and private sector accountable for the promotion of environmentally, socially and economically responsible management of our forests. The spotlight is now being shined on business companies and the lumber industry because of this issue. In 2003, “wildfires swept through Southern California destroying over 750,000 acres, 3,500 homes and killing 23 people.” (Feinstein, 2009) Congress went into action, spurred in part by appeals filed against the US Forest Service’s management guidelines. The Healthy Forests Restoration Act passed with bipartisan support to “protect national forests from catastrophic fires, expediting the thinning of hazardous fuels (dead or dying trees) and was the first legal protection of old growth trees.” (Feinstein, 2009) The Healthy Forests Restoration Act requires that communities within the wildlife environment or landscape create protection plans. These plans specify what areas are to be thinned, so that the fires will not burn directly into habitated communities. Opponents of the Act point out logging companies of the timber industry will cut larger trees neglecting smaller brush trees. With human intervention preventing forest fires, the forest will die and be replaced only after considerable time has passed. Proponents of the Act state their belief in use of federally owned forests susceptible to forest fires, thereby reducing risk of human life and destruction of our forests. With the lumber Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper 5 industry allowed access to the larger trees in the forest and removing them, a valuable service is provided for the tress are most susceptible to fire and infestations. Personal assessment of debate and was the outcome healthy? Rather than going back to old style management, conservation and forest management efforts should be more focused and adaptive to be successful. Many experts in the field exist whose counsel can be helpful on the decisions necessary for specific forest management strategies. The forest wildlife habitat and the surrounding ecosystems should be protected. The debate on this issue while vocal was indeed a healthy discussion. The Healthy Forests Restoration Plan has a plan in place to address the threat of fires by using controlled burning and forest thinning and cannot be easily overturned. Wildfires are reduced by the “prohibition of the logging of fire resistant trees, updating forest plans to include old growth protection areas and allowing forest managers to write forest specific management plans.” (Feinstein, 2009) Research studies submitted to Congress showed that this plan would address “conservationists concerns about environmental decline, national fire fighting efforts and strategic forest management and the reduction of timber cutting in affected areas. (Boxall, 2001) References Boxall, B. (2001) Clinton’s Plan for Sierra Upheld. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on February 1, 2009 from http://articles.latimes.com/2001/nov/17/local/me5307 Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper 6 Cundiff, B. (1992) Vanishing Old Growth Forests. Borealis Magazine. Retrieved on February 1, 2009 from http://raysweb.net/specialplaces/borealarticles/oldgrowth.html Feinstein, D. (2009) Protecting Our Nation’s Endangered Forests. Senate.gov. Retrieved on February 1, 2009 from http://feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm? FuseAction=IssueStatements.View&Issue_id=c200eb197e9c9af97b83 383d4319c6a0&CFID=4501489&CFTOKEN=95484425 Fiset, N. (2007) Benefits of Deforestation. Ezinearticles.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2009 from http://ezinearticles.com/?BenefitsofDeforestation&id=504455 Handwerk, B. (2009) US Old Growth Forests Withering with Warming. National Geographic News. Retrieved on February 1, 2009 from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/77730281.html Harris, P. G. (2009) Lumber Industry. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Online. Retrieved on February 1, 2009 from http://encarta.msn.com/text_761552104___0/Lumber_Industry.html US History Encyclopedia (2006) Lumber Industry. Answers.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2009 from http://www.answers.com/topic/lumberindustry Winslow, L. (2008) Use of Inmates to Clear Brush in the California Forests to Prevent Old Growth Fire Damage. Ezinearticles.com. Retrieved on February 1, 2009 from http://ezinearticles.com/?UseInmatestoClearBrushintheCaliforniaForeststo PreventOldGrowthFireDamage&id=1431455 Factionalism Evaluation and Presentation Paper 7
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