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1 Personality Personality; Theories of PSY 496; Applied Project August 29, 2012 Personality; Theories of 2 Personality Personality has been defined as a way an individual thinks, acts, feels, and the way the individual perceives the world. Psychology which is the study of human behavior needs an understanding on how personality is formed and how it may operate. Human behavior has to do with a lot of different aspects in a persons’ life. For instance, childhood abuse, domestic violence, and trauma in an individual’s life, and also culture. Personologist are social scientists or psychologists who study theoretical systems for understanding human behavior. The purpose of this paper is to understand how an individual’s personality forms. Why do some people watch a violent show or movie and then act upon what they see? Why do some come down with psychotic personalities and some from the same type of background do not? These are just a few of the questions this research project is going to answer. Many companies give their applicants personality tests. These tests are what the employers go by in hiring an individual. One young man went to Budweiser for a job, and had to take a personality test; this individual was highly intelligent, had a degree from a prestigious college, always on time and hardly ever absent from any of his jobs. His personality was astounding, but he did not pass their test, so this company lost out on a terrific employee. Part of the problem in tying together psychological traits and job performance if the lack of support surrounding the identification of good traits among police officers. There are specific personality traits that correlate to good police work. Characteristics such as intelligence, dependability, and common sense have been supported. The opposite has occurred for traits such as sensitivity, flexibility, and empathy had more inconsistent results (B.A. Sanders, (2008), Using Personality Traits to Predict Police Officer Performance). 3 Personality Personality; Theories of There are component systems of personality which serve as a basis to many personality theories; ▪Neurobiological System. The neurobiological system serves as the basic ingredient of personality. The nervous system can be compared to your computer hard drive; the attachment, affective, cognitive, and interpersonal relations are the software. ▪Cognitive System. This system is responsible for information processing. This incorporates perceptions, thoughts that are used to organize our experiences, and sensations. This allows us to act in an adaptive way to the stress of everyday life. ▪Affective System. This type of system is used for our emotional actions. ▪Attachment System. This system is a mechanism important for the survival of our species. ▪Interpersonal Relations System. This allows us to interact in complicated relationships and our interactions with friends, large cultural groups, and families (J.J. Magnavita, (2012), Theories of Personality). There are several types of personality disorders, from schizophrenia, to narcissism, just to name a few. Some people have depression, low self esteem, unable to communicate with people of society properly. There are two researched risk factors of alcohol use are family environments and personality traits. A possible explanation for the relationship between alcohol problems and personality is that a genetic variance is shared. All personality traits have an inheritable component (Pros and cons of personality tests that employers should consider (2005)). The goal of this research is to gather the opinions of practicing clinicians about the Clinical utility of personality scales included within eight dimensional models of personality disorder, to 4 Personality Personality; Theories of able to add within an official diagnostic system for naming things (Stephanie MullinsSweatt, Vera Smit, Roel Verheul, et.al. (2009), Dimensions of Personality: Clinicians’ Perspectives). There were 226 psychiatrists, and 164 psychologists from two continents that provided clinical ratings on personality scales organized from eight alternative models of personality. The psychiatrists and psychologists supported the addition of most of the eight models being compared. Normal personality traits were endorsed, but abnormal personality symptoms received a higher level of endorsement. The traits were reduced by putting together the scales into groups based on repeated measures. The list of traits appear to represent each domain in a manner that is easy to understand both in its’ coverage and respective domain, as well as in endorsing certain strengths’ of each of the dimensional models, at the very best for the stated preferences of psychiatrists’ and psychologists’ (Stephanie MullinsSweatt, Vera Smit, Roel Verheul, et.al. (2009), Dimensions of Personality: Clinicians’ Perspectives). The psychiatrists and psychologists made the list of traits shorter by putting them into groups, based on the matches in traits they found. These professional’s were looking for the abnormal personality symptoms to better understand, and to get the information out to other professional’s so that they will have a better understanding of the negative symptoms and alcoholism.. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has become a well validated selfreport measure of psychopathic tendencies made to assess this syndrome in nonclinical individuals. The PPI was made with the understanding that this condition can be found in community groups, 5 Personality even highly intelligent achievers, such as businessmen, university students, politicians, lawyers, and doctors who, because of core features such as good social skills, high socioeconomic status, Personality; Theories of high intelligence, may have got away with law enforcement agencies or have taken advantage of others without committing illegal acts. To further support he PPI’s outside validity the current research individuals’, the recent study looked at the correlation between cognitive moral developments, an ethical training procedure, and psychopathic traits of a sample of businesspeople. In turn was the interest in Machiavellianism (MACH), which was looked at closely in business ethics literature, and was debated as being equal to psychopathic tendencies (P. Heinze, R. Allen, C. Magai, & B. Ritzler, (2010), “Let’s Get Down to Business: A Validation Study of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory among a Sample of MBA Students”). There were four tests used to come to a conclusion. ▪ Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), 187 item selfreport, using a four point rating. ▪ The MACHIV Scale – made based on watching traits advocated by Machiavelli. ▪ The Defining Issues Test2 – This is a newer version of the DIT, a measure of ethical thinking. ▪ The Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ) – The EPQ classifies people into four different categories depending on the degree in which they use each of two components, 6 Personality relativism, and idealism (P. Heinze, R. Allen, C. Magai, & B. Ritzler, (2010), “Let’s Get Down to Business: A Validation Study of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory among a Sample of MBA Students”). Conclusion – Results revealed a large negative match between total PPI score, and cognitive moral development (CMD). However, a closer look revealed only Machiavellian Personality; Theories of egocentricity was the cause of this correlation (P. Heinze, R. Allen, C. Magai, & B. Ritzler, (2010), “Let’s Get Down to Business: A Validation Study of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory among a Sample of MBA Students”). It was understood that high levels of psychopathic traits would be correlated with lower levels of CMD (Cognitive Moral Development). It was also forecast that high levels of psychopathic traits would be matched with the subjectivist ethical position (low idealism/high relativism). There were 92 MBA students recruited from an accredited MBA school. The PPI is a 187 item selfreport using a four point rating (Mostly false, False, Mostly true, True),( P. Heinze, R. Allen, C. Magai, & B. Ritzler, (2010), “Let’s Get Down to Business: A Validation Study of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Among a Sample of MBA Students”). The previous study found that these tests are really not as accurate as they would like us to think. In order to come out with as they would say psychopathic traits, you only have to be highly intelligent, and have good social skills, and this means you have psychopathic traits and can go off the deep end at any given time. In this research, companies that give these tests to potential employees are actually throwing away good potential employees. 7 Personality The term personality has been a part of psychology for a very long time. There is a continuous debate about the actual meaning. Much of our academic approach to personality, replete with controversies and possibilities, can be traced to the work of Gordon Allport (1897 1967), who thought there were “neuropsychic” structures such as “traits” that were the building blocks of personality (A. J. Marsella, J. Dubanoski, W. C. Hamada, & H. Morse, (2000), The Measurement of Personality Across Cultures: Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues and Considerations). Personality; Theories of In recent years, socialcognition theorists have mentioned that the perceived and intuitive sense of consistency and coherence in personality/character/self may arise from three sources: ▪ The way individuals assign meaning to social information. ▪ The way individuals establish causal agency over their lives through selfknowledge, and selfreflective processes. ▪ Finally, the way individuals organize multiple and desperate life experiences and events within a larger cognitive framework of goals, aspirations, and expectations. The social cognition position is yet another perspective for the ongoing debate between traitsituation positions. From an anthropological view, the concept of personality has been the subject of considerable criticism by some cultural anthropologists who consider the concept of personality to mirror excessive reliance on individualism in Western cultures. Although the concept of culture has been a topic of interest to behavioral scientists, there is hardly any agreement regarding its definition. Culture can be defined as he following: 8 Personality Shared patterns of behavior and meanings that are made and transmitted within sociallife contexts to promote individual and group adaption, survival, and adjustment. These shared acquired patterns are dynamic in nature (i.e., always subject to change and revision), and can become dysfunctional. These shared patterns are represented externally in roles, activity contexts, artifacts, and institutions, and are represented internally in identities, meanings, worldviews, epistemologies, attitudes, values, cognitive, somatic, consciousness patterns, affective processes, and concepts of self and personhood (A. J. Marsella, J. Dubanoski, W. C. Hamada, & H. Morse, (2000), The Measurement of Personality Across Cultures: Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues and Considerations). Personality; Theories of In conclusion we have seen how a persons’ personality can tell a lot about an individual. We have also seen how companies use these personality tests, and these tests are not affective in weaning out the individuals that are highly intelligent, have great social skills, but are not a threat to anyone. Companies are missing out in hiring these individuals that are probably a lot like the person doing the hiring. The CEO’s of these companies should have to take these tests to see how they fit into the equation of psychopathic traits. 9 Personality References Blonigen, D. M., Hicks, B., & et.al. (2005), Psychopathic Personality Traits: Heritability And Genetic Overlap with Internalizing and Externalizing Psychopathology, Psychological Medicine, 35(5), 637648. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/2045168701?accountid=32521 Deary, Ian J., Alistair, Peter, Austin, Elizabeth, Gibson, G., (2012). Personality Traits And Personality Disorders, British Journal of Psychology, 89(15), 647661. Retrieved from ProQuest Central, http://search.proquest.com/docview/199642201?accountid=32521 Heinze, P., Allen, R., Magai, C., & Ritzler, B. (2010), “Let’s Get Down to Business: A Validation Study of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Among a Sample of MBA Students”, Journal of Personality Disorders, 24(4), 487498. Doi: 10.1521/ Personality 10 pedi.2010.24.4.487 Hopwood, C., Malone, J., Ansell, E., & et.al. (2011), Personality Assessment in DSM5 Empirical Support for Rating Severity, Style, and Traits, Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3), 305320. Doi: 10.1521/pedi.2011.25.3.305 Magnavita, J.J., (2012), Theories of Personality, 4(2), 85102, San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Marsella, A. J., Dubanoski, J., Hamada, W. C., & Morse, H. (2000), The Measurement of Personality Across Cultures: Historical, Conceptual, and Methodological Issues and Considerations, The American Behavioral Scientist, 44(1), 4162. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214765921?accountid=32521. MullinsSweatt, Stephanie, Smit, Vera, Verheul, Roel, et.al. (2009), Dimensions of Personality: References clinicians’ Perspectives, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54(4), 247259. Retrieved from ProQuest Medical SciencesPsychiatry & Neurology, (Document ID: 222796537). Nestadt, G., Di, C., Samuels, J. F., Cheng, Y., Bienvenu, O. J., Reti, I. M., BandeenRoche, K. (2012), Concordance between Personality Disorder Assessment Methods, Psychological Medicine, 42(3), 65767. Doi: 10.1017/S0033291711001632 Pros and Cons of Personality Tests That Employers Should Consider, (2005), HR Focus, 82(9), 89. Retrieved from http://search.p Jang, K. L., Vernon, P. A., & Livesley, W. J. (2000). Personality disorder traits, family environment, and alcohol misuse: A multivariate behavioral genetic analysis. Addiction, 95(6), 87388. Retrieved from Personality 11 http://search.proquest.com/docview/199570554?accountid=32521proquest.com/docview/ 206805851?accountid=32521 Sanders, B.A. (2008), Using Personality Traits to Predict Police Officer Performance, Policing, 31(1), 129147. Retrieved from ProQuest, (doi: 10.1108/13639510810852611).
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