Exam 3 Review
Exam 3 Review BIO 106 - M001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Iliana Elias on Monday November 9, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 257 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/09/15
EXAM 3 REVIEW Fish Diversity of fish How many species of fishes? 30,000 species How many are bony fish? 96% of fish Where are they found? o Deep sea, coastal, estuaries, any body of water Bony fish (osteichthyes) Tail shape: homocercal (top part is the same as the bottom part) Fin arrangement and uses o Dorsal fin (top) - stabilization o Anal fin (near anus) - stabilization o Pelvic fin (near pelvic) – steering o Caudal fin (end of fish) – For propulsion, how they swim o Pectoral fin – steering o Lateral line (line through middle of fish from mouth to tail) – sensory system Smooth overlapping scales Operculum – bony plate that covers gills Buoyancy o Swim bladder regulates buoyancy o Why is this important: to counteract how heavy their bones are, to float o Not all have swim bladders (e.g. tuna) Thermoregulation Ectotherm – generate heat from external environment o Fish are primarily ectotherms, gain heat from environment Endotherm – generate heat from inside Poikilotherms – wide range of internal body temp (withstand being cold or warm) Homeotherm – maintains the same body temp (like humans) Fish thermoregulation Majority of fish gain heat from their environment Body temps in most fish are variable Fast swimming fish are an exception. Generate their own heat in their muscles, eyes warm with their blood (tuna, marlins) Fish bodies Football shaped (fast) Lateral compression Dorso-ventrally flattened (makes it easy to glide near surfaces) Fish reproduction External fertilization o Eggs put into water, male spreads sperm over water EXAM 3 REVIEW Sequential hermaphrodite – change sex once throughout their life o Ex. Clown fish, dominant female, nondominant male, undifferentiated Fish coloration Cryptic - camo Countershading – top is dark, bottom is light o Sun comes from top, so from the bottom you blend in with light o Bottom of ocean is dark, so from above you blend with the darkness Disruptive coloration – confuses predators (stripes, spots, bars) Warning – bright, advertise distaste or poisons Fish communication Visual communication o Ex. color, pattern, self generated Acoustic communication o Purpose: mating o Ex, FRT – herring use to coordinate movement Fish facts Heaviest bony fish – mola mola Economic importance – economy, food Conservation – overfishing Clicker questions: Largest shark: whale shark Cartilaginous fish: ectothermic Hag fish most ancient All sharks are carnivores? True Marine reptiles Reptile orders Three groups: o Snakes, lizards o Turtles o Crocodiles and alligators How many species: 100 Sea snakes Air breathing Venomous Fully aquatic Don’t have scales on stomach (loss of ventral scales makes it hard to move on land) Flat tail Viviparous – don’t lay eggs, give birth to live young Sea kraits EXAM 3 REVIEW More primitive than sea snakes More like land snakes – amphibious, have ventral scales Oviparous – lay eggs Venomous Marine iguanas Galapagos islands Laterally compressed tail, good for swimming Herbivores Lay eggs in sand Monitors Amphibious Southeast Asia Lay eggs on land Laterally flattened tails Bigger than iguanas Sea turtles Leatherback and everyone else All endangered or threatened Scutes – plates on shell (different for each species) Located – tropics and subtropics Ectotherms Eat sponges, jellyfish Lay eggs, no parental care, low survival rate (1/1000 survive) Conservation Light pollution – hatchlings gravitate towards artificial light rather than light from moon Hunting Bycatch – caught on accident Plastic pollution – looks like jellyfish Leatherback Endotherms Largest turtle Migratory Rubbery skin allows them to dive deep Crocodiles Saltwater crocs o Huge o Live in southeast asia o Open ocean American crocs o Not as huge o Central America EXAM 3 REVIEW o Found in estuaries, coasts Clicker questions Marine reptiles alive today: 100 Which marine reptile does not lay eggs on land: sea snakes Not a conservation concern: loss of food availability Marine iguanas only found in: Galapagos island Endothermic: leatherback turtles Sea birds Reproduction Few eggs, big babies k-selected bi-parental care Behavior Foraging o Different bill shapes to enable different feeding methods Pelicans have large bills with large pouches to reach fish and carry them in their pouch Albatross have hook on the end of their bill to hold fish Flying o Variety of abilities o Penguins can’t fly Swimming o Variety of abilities o Penguins swim well Penguins Live in southern hemisphere *One species in the tropic: Galapagos penguins Few terrestrial predators because they’re not graceful on land Great swimmers Can’t fly Fur-like feathers Bird facts Largest number of species: gulls (50-60) Conservation: o Bycatch (main cause, ~1 million birds killed annually) o Long line fisheries o Oil spills Marine mammals What are they: Mammals dependent on the ocean Three main orders Whales and dolphins EXAM 3 REVIEW Manatees and dugongs Seals, sea lions, otters, and polar bears Mysticetes (baleen whales) Few species Large size Low frequency sounds, travels really far Two blowholes Biggest: blue whale Odontocetes (toothed whales) Wide range of sizes Lots of species Biggest: sperm whale High frequency sounds Echolocation Sirenia (manatees and dugongs) Only 4 species Eat sea grasses Tropical waters Live in shallow water Closest terrestrial relative: elephant Carnivora Seals, sea lions, otters, walruses and polar bears Polar bears o Largest bear species o Hair translucent o Strong swimmers; have webbed feet to help them Otters o Sea otters Northern hemisphere Large o Marine otters Southern hemisphere Small Sea lions and fur seals o External ear flaps o Quadrapedal locomotion (walk on four flippers), fast on land o Swim with front flippers o Males are huge in comparison to females Walruses o Where are they found? Northern hemisphere: Arctic and subarctic o Very large o Moustache EXAM 3 REVIEW o Long tusks o No ear flaps o Large foreflippers True seals o Earless (don’t have external ear flaps) o Move slowly on land o Small front flippers o Found in wide range of latitudes Conservation Bycatch Noise pollution Boat traffic Key stone species – organism that the ecosystem depends on to function (ex. Sea otters) Clicker questions Most numerous species: catacea All marine mammals must surface to breathe air: true Largest species of baleen whale: blue whale Pinnipeds give birth on land Cetacean that has gone extinct: Yangtze river dolphin Guest lecture Sound is important: to communicate, reproduction, foraging Humans disrupt marine life communication with noise What is being done? Quieter ships Limitations on where you can go and when Marine mammal behavior Challenges for marine mammals: No air Pressure “The bends” – decompression sickness Increased pressure causes increase in nitrogen in your blood stream Fatal Achy joints Marine mammals DO get the bends Prevention: o Slowly decompress pressure on way back up o Change behavior (dive deep, come back up, dive less deep) o Lung collapse: exhale before they dive, also helps to be less buoyant o Shift blood flow: shift towards blubber area (less gas) EXAM 3 REVIEW Oxygen stores for marine mammals Blood – hemoglobin carries oxygen Muscles – myoglobin carries oxygen Thermoregulation ALL marine mammals are endothermic and homeothermic Heat loss is an issue because: heat is lost through water very quickly How do they stay warm? o Being big Bigger animals have lower surface area to volume ratios o Insulation Two types: fat and air o Countercurrent heat exchange Heat stays within body by having hot blood get cooler as it reaches near exterior of organism (less heat being lost if blood is similar temp to environment) When they get too hot o How do they cool down? Stick dorsal fin out of the water to get cold Foraging strategies Filter feeding – eat plankton Engulfment – cooperate in groups to feed o Ex. Killer whales Echolocation – odontecetes Strand feeding – strand prey on land Clicker questions Decompression sickness caused by: nitrogen All marine mammals have thick fat layers for insulation: False Marine mammals do not ____ to avoid the bends: avoid rapid swimming in the deep Human survival time in 45 degree water: 1 to 3 hrs Which marine mammal eats other marine mammals: killer whales
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