Midterm 2 Study Guide
Midterm 2 Study Guide ANTH 0780
Popular in Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Notetaker on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 0780 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Laura Brown in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
Midterm Two Study Guide ➢ Frame/Framing: A guide to the perception and interpretation of a given social situation ○ Contained or implied within the situation in question ○ A way to understand situations in which ordinary rules and expectations are suspended ○ metacommunicative message that tells participants what’s going on ○ openings and closings in conversations ■ e.g. hello and goodbye, hugging hello or goodbye ■ *May also help to establish what counts as ordinary ➢ Play:play is a frame or orientation ○ consciously adopted by players ○ systematically related to the non-play work ways that comment on and transform it ○ (somehow pleasurable) ■ e.g. when dogs play, when is biting playful and when is biting hurtful and malicious? ○ Trobriand players ‘play’ and separate event from everyday life ➢ Metacommunication: frames events and enables meanings ○ ‘communication about communication’ ○ guides the interpretation about social events ○ implicit or explicit ○ linguistic or non-linguistic ■ What’s going on here? ■ Who is involved? ■ What can happen? (who is in control) ■ What is at stake? ● e.g. in politics someone speaks for congress even though not all are present ● e.g. think about architecture: seating in a classroom forces everyone to face the teacher; constructive listening ● e.g. the way in which a particular device is used tells about the seriousness and importance of a message ○ via phone, messages, emails ○ generational differences (parents like to email. we like to text) ➢ Language Ideologies: conceptions of language that guide its use connect it to social groups and interests ○ A marker of struggles between social groups with different interests, revealed in what people say and how they say it ○ can judge a group of people by the way they speak or use language ■ steel worker is blue collar maybe underprivileged ○ metalanguage: frames events, guides language use in action ○ metacommunication: frames events, enables meaning ○ Semiotic Ideologies: characterize processes, perception, and interpretation ○ Media Ideologies: discourses between media and the ways they may be interpreted are culturally defined ➢ Laura Ahearn’s Position During Fieldwork: ○ demonstrated REFLEXIVITY by demonstrating how her position in the field impacted what kind of information she acquired ○ demonstrated P ARTICIPATION IN KINSHIP NETWORK ○ worked as a DEVELOPMENTAL AGENT ➢ Magar Love Letters and Development Texts: ➢ Link Between Magar Literacy and Love: ○ in being literate, the person in the relationship is able to write love letters and express their feelings ■ more inclined to elope with love letters (hiding their relationship) ➢ Effects of Literacy in Magar Nepal: ○ literacy supports the possibility of writing love letters ○ literacy is more common in the younger population ➢ Gender in Magar Nepal: ○ women tend to drop out of school early to have a family and work in the home ○ men stay in school and support the family financially ➢ Transformation-Representation: ○ the process in which experience is transformed as it is represented symbolically in a different medium ➢ Art: ○ play with some form producing some aesthetically successful transformation-representation ➢ Sports: ○ a physically exertive activity that is aggressively competitive within constraints imposed by definitions and rules ➢ Myths: tructured stories about the world that are interpreted (implicitly or explicitly) as a guide for life and action ○ Their truth may seem self-evident (or unimportant) ➢ Reflexivity:Anthropologists admit their position and imitations ➢ Cassette Tape Sermon Listening in Cairo: Listening isn’t just about learning content but feeling ○ People learn to listen in particular ways ○ Speakers coach their listeners in correct listening ○ Serve as a reminder for people to monitor their behavior for vice and virtue ○ Correct listening blocks out distractions ○ Listening is a kind of performance or action ➢ Formation of a Sensorium: ○ People discuss and debate correct listening ○ Good speakers inspire feeling, but not as a persuasive technique ○ Feeling is part of the message ○ Good listeners feel as they listen, but they do not listen solely to feel good ○ Hearing and feeling are cultivated and interpreted as part of culture ○ Listening and feeling are part of culture ○ Religious traditions are more than doctrines and discourses; they may also involve perceptual skills and pre-discursive modes of appraisal ○ Cassettes participate in “visceral substrate enabling of the particular form of life that those who undertook the practice aspired to.” ➢ Listening as a Cultural Practice: ○ hearing and feeling are cultivated and interpreted as part of culture ➢ Authenticity/Fakes: ○ Authenticity: etermine what is real, authentic, powerful and legitimate is local ○ Fake: ➢ Ritual: repetitive and organized ○ markedly different from everyday activity ○ occurs according to a culturally definritual schema ○ you can know a ritual without having seen one before ○ often connected to myth ➢ Orthodoxy: ○ Emphasis on correct doctrine- sticking to explicit rules and texts ➢ Orthopraxy: ○ Emphasis on regimenting correct behavior, often in religious or ritual contexts ■ good posture ➢ Doxa: ○ Rules that remain unconscious and unstated. Could be habitus. Often the strongest rules of all. ■ habitus for ideas ➢ Rite of Passage: ○ consists of separation, transition, reaggregation ○ meant to initiate or accept someone into a culture or group ■ e.g. graduation, baptism, marriage, shaman ➢ Separation, Transition, Reaggregation: ○ Separation: removes the participant from everyday life (changes clothing: e.g. wedding) ○ Transition: as the ritual is happening participants are between stages, ■ often seen as vulnerable ■ humiliated ■ not ordinary ○ Reaggregation: subject is reintroduced into society in his or her new position ■ wearing graduation gown and now you’re an adult not in college anymore ➢ Liminality: ambiguous transitional stage or space created by a rite of passage ○ e.g. crying when she didn’t become a shaman ○ e.g. wearing different clothes; graduation gown ➢ Communitas: ○ unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community ○ strong sense of unity, togetherness ➢ College as a Liminal Space/Rite of Passage: ○ liminal with living uncomfortably in a new environment, far away from home ○ once you are done you are in the real world; a real adult ➢ Worldview: ○ Encompassing pictures of reality created by members of societies ➢ Key Metaphors: ○ metaphors that serve as the foundation of a worldview ➢ Symbol: ○ something that stands for something else ○ presence of an important domain of experience ➢ The Five Sexes: ➢ American Tongues: ➢ Trobriand Cricket: ➢ Initiation Kut for a Korean Shaman: ➢ Made in India: ○ surrogate mother in India participated in surrogacy due to her poverty she lived in; wanting to make more money ➢ Religion: ○ ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond which is immediately available to the senses ➢ Syncretism: ○ synthesis of old religious practices with new practices introduced from outside, often by force ➢ Secularism: ○ separation of religion and state ➢ Revitalization: ○ conscious, deliberate, and organized attempt by some members of a society to create a more satisfying culture in a time of crisis ➢ Relatedness: ○ socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of ways ➢ Imagined Communities: ○ refers to groups whose members knowledge of one another does NOT come from face-to-face interactions, ut based on shared experiences with national institutions ➢ Kinship: ○ ties involved in mating, birth, and nurturance ➢ Descent- Bilateral and Unilineal ○ bilateral:defined through mom AND dad equally ○ unilateral:defined through mom OR dad only ➢ Ascribed Status ○ social positions are assigned at birth ➢ Achieved Status ○ social position may be attained later in life, often as the result of their own effort ➢ Lineage ○ Patrilineal- of or based on kinship with the father or the male line ■ homunculus:semen contains small humans that eat menstrual blood for food; believespatrilinelineage ■ US and Turkey believe ipatrilinelineage; father’s last name, father supports family; father is the seed that plants in mom’s soil ○ Matrilinea- of or based on kinship with the mother or the female line ■ Trobriand Islands believeatrilineality ■ believe that most stuff comes from the mother and the mother’s side of family ■ child is of the same legal, baloma, yet it may take its material substance from its father ➢ Matrilocal ○ referring to the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents ➢ Patrilocal ○ couple settles in the husband's home or community ➢ Neolocal ○ type of post-marital residence when a newly married couple resides separately from both the husband's natal household and the wife's natal household ➢ Clan ○ a group of people who claim unilineal descent from the same ancestor but who cannot specify all of the actual links. The ancestor is genealogically so remote that he or she is often thought of as a mythical being, animal, or plant. Clans usually consist of a number of related lineages ➢ Bridewealth ○ transfer of goods from groom’s family to bride’s family ➢ Dowry ○ transfer of goods and wealth from bride’s family to groom’s or from natal family to the bride ➢ Parallel Cousins/Cross Cousins ○ Parallelchildren of a parent’s persons’ same-gender siblings ○ Cross:children of a person’s parents’ opposite-gender siblings ➢ Affinity/Affinal Relations ○ connection through marriage ➢ Consanguinity/Consanguineous Relations ○ based on descent ➢ Kinship in Photographs ➢ Performing/Creating Kinship ➢ Jocks and Burnouts ➢ Sex ○ Observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans, females and males, needed for biological reproduction. ○ informed by culture ➢ Gender ○ The cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex ○ cultural categories ➢ Relationship between Biology and Culture ➢ Virgin Birth Debate ■ Early Explanations ● some anthropologists insist that people know that sex is involved in getting pregnant ● don't want to think about parents having sex ○ Edmund Leach ■ explanations that people give in some situations may not be the full explained events ■ maybe they don’t know what sex is ○ Trobriand Details ■ sex may help to ‘open’ the womb ■ men don’t create babies, but they look like them from sexual activity and contribute to characteristics ● Jesus is legally the son of Mary and Joseph, yet his substance is from God ➢ Trobriand Explanations for Conception ○ people in the Tully River region of Australia in the Trobriand Islands have explanations for pregnancy other than sex ■ animals, dreams, words, ghosts ■ BALOMA ■ matrilineality ■ sperm is actually a spirit from the dead; not from male ➢ Baloma ○ spirit of the dead in the Trobriand Island society ○ believes in the matrilineal descent from substituting the male sperm with the spirit of the dead ○ male only chisels out some features of what the child will be like ➢ European Explanations for Conception ○ The U.S. and Turkey believe that the male’s semeseed the and the woman’s womb is toil ➢ Endogamy ○ endogamous (within group) ■ e.g. in India people get married in same caste ➢ Exogamy ○ exogamous (outside of group) ■ langue group in the vaupes region of columbia ➢ Polygamy ○ more than one spouse at a time ➢ Polygyny ○ man may be married to more than one wife at a time ➢ Polyandry ○ woman may be married to more than one husband at a time ➢ Monogamy ○ only one spouse at a time
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