AST 101 Midterm 3 Review
AST 101 Midterm 3 Review AST 101 - M001
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AST 101 - M001
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa McKenzie on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AST 101 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by C. Armendariz-Picon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 399 views. For similar materials see Our Corner of the Universe in Astronomy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
AST 101 Midterm 3 Review Math skills basic facts 393 Any number to the zeroth power is 1 393 Any number to the rst power is itself 393 The power or exponent tells us how many times to multiply the number by itself 393 A negative power is one over the corresponding positive power 393 For positive powers of 10 the power tells us how many zeros follow the 1 oz For negative powers of 10 the power tells us the number of decimal places with the last one lled with a 1 oz 10mx10quot10mquot o3 Dividing powers of 10 10m10quot10m quot 393 Powers of powers of 10 10mquot10mquotquot Some Metric Prefixes ower39of I0 ExpNotation Metric Prefix Abbreviation 1 l P billion I09 giga G million I D6 mega M thousand 03 kllllo k hundredth 390392 centi c thousandth IO 3 milllli m millllionth IOr6 micro lu billionth IO399 nano n Pa ra l lax 3 The farther away an object the smaller its parallax 3 The closer an object the larger its parallax 3 Stellar parallax occurs because we view nearby stars from different positions in Earth39s orbit at different times of year 0 The EarthSun distance forms the baseline used in parallax measurements 3 One degree60 arc minutes 0 1 arc minute60 arc seconds 0 D parsec 1p arc seconds The Solar System 393 Kepler s third law orbital period increases with distance from the Sun oz All planets orbit and rotate counterclockwise o3 Terrestrial planets include Mercury Venus Earth and Mars gt Smaller masses gt Composed of rocks metal gt No rings oz Jovian planets includeJupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune O 90 O 90 gt More massive gt Mostly H and He gt Many rings and moons Asteroids small rocky bodies gt Found in the asteroid belt Comets small icy bodies gt Found in the Kuiper belt of Oort cloud Terrestrial planets Earth Geological Activity 0 O 90 90 Earth s core is a hot liquid Terrestrial worlds were heating by the process of formation and heat released by radioactive decay This hot interior causes gt Volcanoes gt Plate tectonics and earthquakes Lithosphere is a layer of relatively strong rigid rock encompassing the crust and part of the mantle An example of convention is warm air expanding and rising while cooler air contracts and falls gt Convention also causes tectonic plates to shift Smaller planets have thicker lithospheres they also cool faster than larger planets If a planet has few impact craters of any size then other geological processes have wiped them out Two out of the ve terrestrial worlds are quotgeologically deadquot Volcanoes O 90 Occur when molten rock reach s Earth s surface Magnetic Field 0 90 Protects the atmosphere from being stripped away by the solar wind Atmosphere 0 90 Captures part of the energy from the sun making earth warmer The moon 0 90 No present geological activity Jovian Planets 0 Jupiter and Saturn are made mostly of hydrogen and helium while Uranus and Neptune are primarily made of hydrogen compounds such as water H20 methane CH4 and ammonia NH3 3 Lower in average density than the terrestrial planets Jovian Planets Jupiter 0 The internal layer consists of core of rock metal and hydrogen compounds thick layer of metallic hydrogen layer of liquid hydrogen layer of gaseous hydrogen cloud layer 0 Jupiter39s density is higher than Saturn s because Jupiter is more massive 0 The Great Red Spot is a huge storm that has lasted for centuries Formation of the solar system 7 Nebular Theory The solar lr lzmnlr azug mln lnur rme n IT formed from a the gravitational collapse of a gas cloud
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