Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Donna RL on Saturday January 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSC2338 at George Washington University taught by Mylonas in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see Nationalism Midterm Study Guide in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/24/15
Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 1 1 De nitions a Ethnicity i There is almost no case in which ethnic groups are de ned by only one attribute ii Usually it39s several attributes 1 Language religion skin color iii There are many dimensions of variation between ethnic groups b Divine right i Ideology that authorityleadership or legitimacy stemmed from a deity often dynastic 1 At the time when this ideology was prevalent rulers who claimed this right could rule over many different communities ii In modernity though the legitimacy of leadership stemmed from selfdetermination based on nationality 1 quotI need to be ruled by my own peoplequot 2 Eg 19605 decolonization movements in Africa c Na on i Anderson 1 Imagined impersonal community de ned by its common history and perceived distinctiveness that is believed to exercise the collective right to sovereign control over a given territory d Ethnicity i Can have an ethnic identity without right to national self determination ii Ethnic con icts unlike national ones don39t have to do with selfdetermination e National identity i Ideological claim about selfdetermination f Nationalism i Ideology that every nation has a claim to a state ruled by its own people 1 In extreme cases believe that only members of ethnicnation stay there a Promotes homogeneity ii Gellner 1 Political principal which holds that the political and national unit should be congruent iii Hechter 1 Collective action designed to render the boundaries of the nation congruent with those of its governance unit g Johann Gottfried von Herder 17441803 German Romantic movement i quotDo not nationalities differ in everything in poetry in appearancequot h Johann Gottlieb Fichte 17621814 Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 2 i De ned nations by objective criteria such as shared attributes i Ernest Renan 18231892 quotWhat Is a Nationquot i Nations as a modern phenomenon ii quotFusion of populationsquot vs quotsystem of complete discriminationquot iii All nations should have stuff in common iv quotUnity can come from dynasty direct violationquot National identity v Renan debunking prior de nitions of national identity Instead he believes that what makes a nation is heritage ofmemoryand desire to live togethercommon purpose So not Dynasty Race Language Religious af nity Community Geography and military necessity vi Proponent of constructivisim ideas about national identity are socially constructed vii quotThe existence of a nation is a daily plebiscitequot 1 Will only exist if its individuals want it to 2 Individuals have an equal say in what is the national interest O P PP N j Otherviews i Primordialism Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 3 1 quotA nation is a historically evolved stable community of language territory and economic lifequot Stalin k Nation and nationalism critical elements i Na on 1 Impersonal don39t meet everyone 2 Territorial sometimes aspirational 3 Perceived commonalitydistinctiveness not necessarily ethnic can be ideological 4 Collective ascription consciousness ii Nationalism 1 Belief in a nation division of the world into nations 2 Primary political loyalty is to the nation 3 Claim to sovereignty l Assimilation i Adoption of an identity ii Placement by self and others in a new social category implies loyalty m Acculturation i Acquisition of attributes ii Can be acculturated without assimilating and vice versa 2 Varieties of nationalism Hechter a Statebuilding nationalism i Comes after the formation of a state ii quotAssimilateincorporatequot 1 Often results in a very inclusive state iii Eg the UK they had quotdivine rightquot state before having a national state b Peripheral nationalism i quotResisting incorporationquot ii Response to a state becoming a national state and attempting to assimilate iii Eg quotBraveheartquot iv Eg Greek and Serbian nationalism in response to centralization of Ottoman Empire in the 20th century c lrridentist nationalism i Extending existing borders ii After state that is already thinking in national terms exists iii Expansion of borders to include those who identityare identi ed as part of a nation iv Eg Crimea v Eg Annexation of Sudetenland to Nazi Germany d Uni cation nationalism i Merger of divided but quothomogeneousquot territories ii Eg Italian Uni cation Bismarck39s Germany e Patriotism not a form of nationalism i Assimilationist attempts of a state have succeeded so you don39t need nationalism anymore ii Eg the US Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 4 f Emergence of nationalism in a given state isn39t always a consequence of the reason for nationalism i Eg why is Scotland seeing a resurgence of nationalism so long afterjoining the UK g Walker Connor i Ideology of nationalism views world as comprised of nations whereas class consciousness trumps national consciousnessdivision for Marxists 1 Despite being antithetical ideologies nationalism is strategically used by Marxists in that it opens up a space for communism it destroys previous regimes and is then destroyed 2 Communism and nationalism a Incompatible b Prerevolutionary can be shared c Postrevolutionary no way h Geller39s typology of nationalism i Relevant criteria 1 Do you belong to the powerholders or the rest 2 Access to modern highculture 3 Cultural unity or duality 3 Primordialism people are naturally different in an observable way a According to these theorists national identi cation is natural ancient and durable hardimpossible to change b Causal logic i Homo sapiens D differences of geography and climate D evolution of protonations D forgingcultivation of national characteressence through historical events and interactions with alien groups national awakening l con ict and statehood or annihilation c Primordialist scholarship late 19th century i Linguistics philology started drawing maps of Europe according to language ii Geography also drew ethnolinguistic maps iii Historians 1 Gave national coherence to the narrative of a group 2 Not really factually accurate just for the sake of ideology iv Anthropology and ethnography 1 Tried to scienti cally taxonomize people d Political loyalty in primordial theory i Well phenotypical characteristics don39t always explain politics e Legacy of primordialism i Countries that de ne themselves mostly in ethnocultural terms are more likely to have populations that have primordialist tendencies 4 Primordialism Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 5 a How much of the nationalist narratives of historiography of a group is authentictrue and not anachronisms used to emphasize a point i Eg quotBraveheartquot we don39t know what Wallace actually said how he said it and how people responded 1 Would concepts of freedom and liberty have motivated people in 15th16th centuries ii Modern concepts are made relevant when applied to history b Comparing the current Scottish nationalist secessionist movement to other nationalist movements i Voting use of a referendum to reach national self determination c Primordialist quotsciencequot hides behind claims of objectivity using statisticsobservable characteristics to claim inherent differences between nationsnationalities d Horowitz quotEthnic Groups in Con ictquot i Hierarchy of attributes visible and nonvisible 1 In the Western world a 17th century colonizers de ned con ict based on religion and how civilized groups were b Then 1680 color came into play some slaves became Christian e Ethnicity not a set of attributes that de ne groups The group and group differences are what makes the attribute important i Based on myth of collective ancestry and traits believed to be innate ii Weber quotsubjective belief in common descentquot f Ascriptiveness is correlated with intensity of con ict g Horowitz39s argument divided vs homogenous societies i In divided societies anything might quotturn ethnic39 1 Segmented organizational structure political and economic as a product of divided society Where does this come from 1 Colonial powers departed eg quotdivide and rulequot 2 Constitution makes provided minority protections eg Lebanese Constitution 3 Industrialization will take care of things iii But according to Horowitz we are mistaken iv Ranked and unranked systems type of ethnic group system you have affects the type of con ict you ll get 1 Ranked ethnic groups coincidence of ethnicity and class castes a Class con ict with ethnic manifestations 2 Unranked ethnic groups noncoincidence of ethnicity and class ethnic coexistence a Ethnic af nities will undermine class clashes class con ict less likely v Key mechanism of ethnic con ict 1 Distribution of honor and prestige Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide a Ranked xed i Politics of subordination ii Produced by conquest or capture b Unranked uid i Politics of inclusionexclusion ii Social mobility open to all groups vi Countries with both systems 1 Guyana and Trinidad 2 Mauritania vii Countrywide variation 1 Dispersed ethnic systems interethnic cooperation 2 Centralized ethnic systems IMPEDE interethnic cooperation h Laitin and Chandra39s classi cation system i Attributes 1 Phenotypical hair eye skin color 2 Language and dialect 3 Speci c religious practices ii Categories identity categories that group attributes 1 Protestant Catholic Jewish 2 White black 3 French German American iii Dimensions broader organizing principles that group ID categories 1 Religion 2 Race 3 Nation i Problems with Primordialism i Assumes commonalities of language race etc that do not necessarily hold up empirically ii Con ates shared group attributes with shared group identity 1 Attributes aren39t really enough to capture group identity iii Con ates group identity with political loyalty iv Fails to account for identity changes or timing of nationalism 5 Industrialization urbanization and social mobilization a Idealtypical agrarian society i Strati ed horizontally segregated layers of military administrative clerical and sometimes commercial ruling class andlaterally insulated communities of agricultural producers no social mobility ii Dyansticdivine right rule b Industrial society i Distinguishing features 1 Centralized bureaucracy 2 Rational businessman 3 Unitary idiomcommon language 4 Belief in perpetual growth Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 7 ii Gellner believes that nationalism is a byproduct of industrialization via common language c Social mobilization quotprocess in which major clusters of old social economic and psychological commitments are eroded or broken and people become available for new patters of socialization and behaviorquot Deutsch i Social mobilization is driven by Industrialization Conscription Urbanization Educann Transportation Mass communication ii Functional de nition of nationality membership consists of quotsocial communicationquot over a wide range of subjects d Causal logic i Industrialization urbanization etc social mobilization l acculturation D social communication D social integration l assimilation l political integration loyalty 1 There is no quotagentquot each part of the process leads to the next phase not really a causal claim more observational 6 Modernization empirics a Deutsch39s modernization hypothesis i Modernization should lead to higher levels of social communication ii Commonality political loyalty and social solidarity iii As communication increases nationalism should increase b Gellner39s modernization hypothesis i Nationalism should coincide with industrialization ii Proximate cause mass schooling iii As industrialization proceeds nationalism should increase c Anderson39s modernization hypothesis i Nationalism should coincide with rise of print capitalism newspapers popular novels etc ii As markets for printed materials expand nationalism should increase 1 More so a claim about the spread of nationalism among individuals 7 Socialization schooling family army a Aggregation problem composite causes composite effects can39t really separate the various factors i quotSocial changequot education industrialization urbanization etc ii quotindividual modernityquot nationalism abstract thought impersonal ties individualism interpersonal trust scienti c reasoning materialism secularism b Disaggregation parsing out discrete variables to identify what effect they have both individually and in court O P PP N Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 8 c Alexander Luria 19505 attempted to measure exposure to quotmodernityquot i Some people quottodayquot still haven39t been exposed to social changemodernity d Darden quotbut like the classi cation of physical objects into geometric categories classi cation of groups into the abstract modern national categories of 39peoplehood must be learnedquot i Main argument national identities are malleable until populations become literate Once they39re mass schooled in nationalist ideology families become operators of national identity they pass it down ii First mover advantage rst country to educate on a mas scale is the one who gets greatest in uence on ID and then it39s really hard to change 1 If more than 50 of population is mass schooled this process can take place trickled own effect iii Is this argument claiming that literacy national identity 1 NO It39s a proxy for seeing whether mass education takes place 2 Eg Vai tribe of Liberia literacy without schools or national content attached to it e Scribner and Cole quotPsychology of Literacyquot 1981 i Findings of 10 year study 1 Literacy alone notlinked to abstract categorization Luria 2 Only schooling had signi cant effect on categorizationperception a Abstract categorization of people into nations 3 Only Englishlanguage westernstyle schooling had the effect a Madrassas only improved speci c memory tasks f Parsing the variables i Separating education from other aspects of modernization 1 Prevalence of peasant nationalism rural geographically isolated but schooled ii What is it about education 1 Literacy Common language Classroomsdiscipline Content iii Separating national identity and loyalty from the rest of quotindividual modernityquot g Potential effects of mass schooling i Literacy ii Shift from practical personal experience based on categories D abstract categories eg nations as abstract category iii Breaks intergenerational transmission of culture status reversal iv Indoctrination Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 9 1 Curricular content 2 Constitutive story in history geography and literature v Standardization and homogenization 1 Of attributes language dress ritual 2 Of ideas history and identity vi Status changes 1 Establishment of quothigh culturequot 2 Status reversal in family 3 Status reversal in community breakdown of oral authorities 8 Events practices and demonstrations effects a Barry Posen nationalism increases the intensity of warfare and speci cally the ability of states to mobilize soldiers i How do both the beliefs and shared culture come to be in many states more or less simultaneously ii Posen39s answer imitation 1 The international system a Anarchical condition b Military capability means to security c Concern about size and effectiveness d Successful practices will be imitated e Those who fail to imitate will perish f Eg mass conscription of armies 2 Eg the Prussian Army needed to spread literacy to facilitate command training and political motivation down to noncommissioned of cers b Rogers Brubaker are nations real entities i Problematizing groupness 1 Structuralism modernization theory assumes existence 2 Network theory 3 Methodological individualismrational action 4 Constructivism treats constructed identities as omnipresent 5 Postmodernismephemeral and fragmentary nature of identity ii Who believes in nationalism 1 Nationalists 2 Primordialists 3 Also scholars modernists and constructivists they ask quotwhat is a nationquot iii Why is this a problem 1 Because such treatment quotadopts categories of practice as categories of analysisquot 2 Practices of nationalism and theory of nationalism The latter should not reproduce the rei cation of the nation iv Brubaker s argument 1 quotNationessquot as a conceptual variable Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 10 2 Treat nation not as a substance but an institutionalized form a contingent event 3 Eg Soviet Union was nationalist in form socialist in content a Antinationalist vs antinational the USSR was an empire thought to be antinational but they institutionalized national identities b From collapse of a regime to disintegration of a state c Lisa Wedeen nationalism in absence of a strong state eg Yemen i Where does quotsense of membership coherent and powerful enough to tie people39s political loyalties to the nation statequot come from 1 How use of words understanding of abstract concepts and enactment of everyday practices produce speci c logics and generate observable political effects 2 What does quotlogicsquot mean a Repeated actions and practices that are learned and reproduced subjected to risk over time b Nationalist actions may be understood as performatives because they enact that which they name a national self or quotsubjectquot c Identities are not antecedent facts they are results of public speech and action agents have no control over identity ii Wedeen39s major argument 1 No necessary connection between idioms of national solidarity and political stability 2 National solidarities rarely allencompassing but can happen episodically conveyed anonymously and solidify suddenly 3 In absences of strong state events and public discussions can produce quotnationquot that demands a stronger state 4 Nationalism and religion can and do coalesce 9 Elites and the politics of peoplebuilding a How quotmodernizationquot D nationalism see 5d i The quotagentsquot in this theory are people eg the peasants but no quotagencyquot is applied for the encourager b New idea general causal logic of elitedriven explanations i Elite motives eg military elite l social mobilization eg instituting a draft l assimilation into desired quotpeoplesquot c Key points of elitedriven explanations i Nationalism is notjust neutral communication but shared be ef 1 Goes against Deutsch Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 11 ii Nationalism is an intended outcome 1 Occurs by design not as byproduct of anonymous social outcomes iii Differentiates between the root political causes and the social mechanisms that lead to identity formation 1 Schools mass communication conscription become intervening variables the means for achieving political ends iv Elites not quotsocialitesquot drive the process agency v Not one but many 1 Theories differ in the motives that they attribute to the elites d Speci c logics some elite motives and strategies for quotpeople buildingquot i Mass army loyal warriors ii State administration iii Industrial development iv Territorial control v Divide and rule vi Electoral majorities vii Material resources viii Institutional byproduct contingent event e The critical variable the constitutive story Smith pursued by elites i Selfservingpartisan ii Crafted with two goals 1 Embrace membership in the community 2 Accept leaders advancing the goal iii Competitive stories geared against others 1 Eg MLK and Malcolm X iv Involves both maintenance and modi cation of pre existing identities v Exclusionary 1 Inevitably need to keep someone out f Why elites Smith i Political communities created through asymmetrical interactions between actualwouldbe leaders and communities they39re trying to win over 1 Asymmetrical because it39s the actualwouldbe leaders who directly articulate and seek to institutionalize conceptions of political peoplehood 10Elites and the politics of peoplebuilding empirics a The quotAge of Nationalismquot i Theories of nationalism 1 Try to account for the rise of statebuilding nationalism by referring to the process of modernization that took place in earlymodern Europe 2 Hechter Anderson Gellner ii Theories of statebuilding Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 12 1 Explain nationalism as an outcome of external security threats commercial needs and market integration 2 Posen Tilly iii Nationbuilding vs nationalism 1 Nationbuilding presupposes a national idea Is a quottopdownquot approachquot a Development of cultural identity through myth symbols history b Can coincide with statebuilding because is more successful when elites have access to institutions 2 Statebuilding a Development of infrastructure and institutions b Focus on bureaucracy c Can come from within or without but wouldn39t deal with national identity d Eg US statebuilding in Iraq 3 Statebuilding does not equal nationbuilding a The two terms are distinct but not mutually exclusive i Sometimes they go together sometimes not b Empirical observations i Some countries more homogeneous than others linguistic ethnic religious ii Some countries more homogeneous today than 19th century 1 Eg Italy today is more linguistically homogeneous than in the 18605 a Only 3 of quotItaliansquot spoke N Italian language 2 A product of nationbuilding c Paths to nationbuilding i Unplanned Eg the US quotmelting pot theoryquot would lead people to feel more American 1 Social mobilization 2 Industrialization 3 Social communication 4 Deutsch Gellner Anderson ii Planned 1 Nationbuilding 2 Assimilation politics 3 Political choices 4 Smith Kaiser iii Both lead to national integration iv In most cases both planned and unplanned nation building take place at certain points in time one might be more dominant Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 13 d Nationbuilding conventional wisdom that homogeneity has been constructed by the state through i Compulsory primary schooling ii State censuses and civil service iii Military conscription e Shortcomings of the literature i Functionalism namely causes are accounted for by outcomes backward induction Thus the role of politics is underdeveloped 1 Need to account for the mechanism and alternatives 2 Not explanatory merely observational ii Observational equivalence 1 Makes isolating separate factors dif cult iii Model misspeci cation 1 Existing theories oversimplify by outlining an ideal type of the process and assume away the problem of collective action free rider 2 Most theories posit a direct leap from interest to outcome 3 The state is treated as a unitary actor 4 Other actors are often not speci ed f Types of elites various levels of analysis i Intellectual elites exist in all different groups within society 1 Advisers 2 Philosophers 3 Academicsphilologistshistorians 4 Don39t need to be contemporary to have an impact 5 Eg Machiavelli ii Governing elites core group P nces Charismatic leaders Presidents Generals Lawgivers a Eg Constitution writers Eg Kemal Ataturk created modern Turkish nation abolished hijab and caliphate changed to Latin letters for Turkish language eliminated Farsi and Arabic words from Turkish a Planned state policies D homogeneous population iii Administrative elites core group 1 Ministers 2 Politicians 3 Local government elites 4 Policemen 5 Teachers iv Religious elites core and noncore groups PWF E 9 Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 14 1 Higher and lower rank priests v Subnational elites core and noncore 1 Headmen 2 Locallevel intellectuals a Eg teachers 3 Activists 4 Other professionals g Up to this point we have been assuming that all national elites want to assimilate every noncore group within boundaries 11Cascades and identity change a Choosing identities premises methodological individualism i People even peasants are not sheep ii Identities are uid and largely situational iii Each person carries a cultural quottoolkitquot repertoire of potential identityladen attributes 1 Constrains where you can t but also gives you oonns a Primordialists would disagree iv Choose to stresscultivatemake salient those attributes that best serve ones39 personal chances of survival material gain and social approval v Identity is less quotwho am Iquot than quotwho do I need to be to get what I wantquot b lnterdependent choices i Individuals expect a coordinated outcome between interdependent choices different people involved ii But how can disparate individuals agree on the general will c Laitin under what conditions would a regional language retain its status i Thomas Schelling Tipping Model d Laitin39s theory i People invest in certain attributes for the purpose of qualifying for membership in another category in process of assimilation ii Political entrepreneurs expand or contract category space iii Ethnic entrepreneurs work to increase salience of a dimension to expand their authority 1 Eg Malcolm X emphasizing differences between black and white iv Identity change 1 Nation population with coordinated set ofbeiefs about their cultural identity whose representatives claim ownership of a state for them by dint of hat coordination either by separation amalgamation or return v How do we get a cascade what39s on either side of the tipping point Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 15 vi Eg Catalans in Spain Catalans could afford lower payoff in Spain because kids also learned English and could get higher payoff in global market 1 Castilianspeakers in Catalonia a Immigrants b Credible threats that they would not get jobs c Or be accepted to university d Blocked upward social mobility vii Factors that go into quottipsquot 1 Economic payoff 2 lngroup status 3 Outgroup acceptance shaming etc viii Equilibrium in Laitin39s tipping model 1 Situations with no incentive to change a trend without outside in uence force of change a Eg would anyone sending kids to Catalan school in Catalonia send kids to Spanish speaking school ix Cascade once you hit the tipping point least permanent position and go right you39ll get people leaving Spanish schools to go to Catalan schools quotcascadequot of people until you reach 100 12Cascades and identity change empirics a Eg Russianspeakers in Estonia i Raising the cost of maintaining Russianspeaking monolingualism 1 Restricted citizenshipvoting rights for Russian speakers Estonian language pro ciency test 2 Also jobs restricted to Estonianspeakers ii Bene t of speaking Estonian upward social mobility b quotMarginalityquot why don39t Roma and Jews play the game i They have no incentive due to the cultural division of labor societal roll is dependent on identity 1 Eg everyone in your profession speaks Yiddish why learn Russian c Flaws in Laitin39s theory i He assumes a democratic uninvolved government in terms of what in uences quottipsquot 1 Totally irrelevant in authoritarian countries 2 In reality states have a lot more to do with this ii What explains the timing 1 Laitin s choice to start the quotgamequot in postFranco Spain is selfserving but not explicit iii Is there always choice available 1 State might make the choice foryou eg by excluding you from the game eg Nazi Germany 13lnternational involvement and the politicization of cultural differences a Fifth column i When ghting interstate war people within one state who belong ethnically or loyaltywise or whatever to the Nationalism Midterm Exam Study Guide 16 other will be regarded as a security threat and a quot fth columnquot b Mylonas39 argument fear of other countries using populations within your country against you was a motivation for elites in the Ottoman Empire to oppress Armenians i Motivation Armenians in Ottoman Empire 1 1875 minority rights a Hierarchical but peaceful b Armenians considered most loyal because Greeks had rebelled 2 18905 systematic discrimination 3 1915 ethnic cleansing 4 Why a Around 1915 Russia still Imperial Russia a big threat to Ottomans and France intervening on behalf of Armenians i Russia had helped to facilitate the Greek and Bulgarian revolutions so Ottomans feared same would happen with Armenians c Noncore group any group that is not assimilated according to speci c de nition of nationhood i No minority why 1 quotNoncore groupquot broader than quotminorityquot including latent identities 2 quotMinorityquot usually refers to quotnumerically inferiorquot groups while quotnoncore groupquot doesn39t imply anything about size 3 quotNoncore groupquot allows us to view even stereotypical members of demographic core group as targets of assimilationist policies ii Minority type of noncore group and quotnational minorityquot that is quotnoncore group mobilized by an autonomous claimquot 1 Differences are accommodated by the state d The politicization process i Anarchy you39ve got super powerful and super weak states ii Fluid borders iii Constant international competition iv Nationalist agitation to weaken enemies cultivating fth columns 1 Impetus to spread nationalism according to Mylonas v Nationbuilding to immunize the population ghting fth columns
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