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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Morgan Nooney

Exam 1 Study Guide PSYC 200

Morgan Nooney
Shoreline Community College
GPA 3.5

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Developmental Lifespan Psychology
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Nooney on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 200 at Shoreline Community College taught by Knauf in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Developmental Lifespan Psychology in Psychlogy at Shoreline Community College.

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Date Created: 11/10/15
Exam Date: Open Oct. 17, closed Oct. 19 at 11:59 PM COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW: EXAM 1 1. CHAPTER 1 (HIGHLIGHTED PAGES: 4-9, 24-30) A. Pages 3-10 i. Nature Versus Nurture (pg. 5) 1. Nature: a general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from their parents at the moment of conception 2. Nurture: A general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived ii. The Life-Span Perspective 1. An approach to the study od human development that takes into account all phase of life, not just childhood or adulthood (pg.5) a. Life is multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic 2. Critical Period: A time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen (pg. 6) 3. Sensitive Period: a time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or happens most easily, although it may still happen later with more difficulty. For example, early childhood is considered a sensitive period for language learning (Pg. 7) 4. Ecological-Systems Approach: the view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life. (pg. 7) a. Urie Bronfenbrenner recommended this approach (examples featured to the right) 5. Cohort: A group defined by shared age of its members, who, because they were born at about the same time (Year, Generation), move through life together, experiencing the same historical and cultural shifts (pg. 8) 6. Socioeconomic Status (SES): A person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence (pg. 10) B. Pages 11 -18 i. Development is multicultural 1. Culture: A system of shared beliefs, norms, behaviors and expectations that persist over time and prescribe social behavior and assumptions (Pg. 11) 2. Social Construction: An idea that is based on shared perceptions, not on objective reality. Many age-related terms (such as Childhood, adolescence, yuppie, and Senior Citizen) are social constructions (Pg. 11) 3. Difference-equals-deficit error: The mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard(pg.12) ii. Development is Multidisciplinary 1. Epigenetic: referring to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual’s, or a species’, genetic inheritance (pg. 16) C. Pages 19 – 28 i. Development is plastic 1. “Plastic” – Traits can be molded and yet people maintain a certain durability of identity, similar to how plastic can be manipulated but doesn’t change its core make-up. (pg. 19) 2. For further and relevant explanations of Development via the Life-Span Perspective, refer to table on Page 21 ii. Research Methods (Also refer to handout received in class) 1. Types (Pg. 22-25) a. Survey: A research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means b. Case Study: An in-depth study of one person, usually requiring personal interviews to collect background information and various follow-up discussions, tests, questionnaires and so on c. Experiment: A type of observational study in which you attempt to prove a theory based on tested variables d. Scientific Observation: Recording observed behavior in naturalistic settings 2. Time Period Types (Pg. 25-28) a. Cross-Sectional: A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics b. Longitudinal: A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed c. Cross-Sequential: A hybrid research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages (a cross-sectional approach) and then follow these groups over years (a longitudinal approach) 2. CHAPTER 2 (HIGHLIGHTED PAGES: 44-62) 2 1. Pages 39-48 a. Sigmund Freud (pg. 39-40) i. An Austrian Physician who treated the mentally ill ii. He believed that the first 6 years of life have 3 stages of development (birth – 1 year; 1-3 years old; 3-6 years old), and that age 6 through adulthood was another 3 stages (6-11 years old; adolescence; adulthood) iii. His theories hyper sexualized childhood development and were completely rejected initially (Refer to table on page 40) b. Erik Erikson (Pg. 40-42) i. Erikson was an artist who became an art teacher for Freud’s Patients ii. He went on to further develop the Freudian theories from psychosexual to psychosocial iii. Erikson’s stages emphasize family and culture iv. They recognize adult development, with 3 stages after adolescence c. John Watson i. Behaviorism: a grand theory of human development that studies observable behavior. Behaviorism is also called learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned ii. Conditioning: the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. d. Ivan Pavlov i. Classic Conditioning: the learning process in which a meaningful stimulus (such as the smell of food to a hungry animal) is connected with a neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a tone) that had no special meaning before conditioning (Pavlov’s dogs) e. B.F. Skinner (pg. 43-44) i. Operant Conditioning: the learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired (which makes the being more likely to repeat the action) or by something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated) ii. Reinforcement: the process by which a behavior is followed by something desired, such as food for a hungry animal or a kind smile for a lonely person f. Arthur Bandura i. Social Learning Theory: An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person’s behavior. Even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people. g. Jean Piaget (pg. 45-48) i. Cognitive Equilibrium: in cognitive theory, a state of mental balance in which people are not confused because they can use their existing thought processes to understand current experiences and ideas ii. Assimilation: The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas iii. Accommodation: the restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences iv. Information Processing Theory: a perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output 2. Pages 49 - 56 a. Lev Vygotsky (Pg. 52-53) 3 i. Sociocultural Theory A newer theory that holds that development results from the dynamic interaction of each person with the surrounding social and cultural forces ii. Apprenticeship in Thinking: Vygotsky’s term for how cognition is stimulated and developed in people by more skilled members of society iii. Guided participation: the process by which we learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations b. Humanism: A theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender, or background. 3. Pages 57 – 63 a. Selective Adaption: The process by which living creatures (including people) adjust to their environment. Genes that enhance survival and reproductive ability are selected, over the generations, to become more prevalent b. Eclectic Perspective: The approach taken by most developmentalists, in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories of development rather than adhering exclusively to one theory 3. CHAPTER 3 (HIGHLIGHTED PAGES: 73-78, 87) 1) Pages 67-76 a) Pregnancy-Related Terms i) DNA: DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID; the chemical composition of the molecules that contain the genes, which are the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins ii) XX = FEMALE (SEX) ; XY = MALE (SEX) iii) Monozygotic (MZ) Twins: “Identical Twins”, twins who originate from one zygote that splits aprt very early in development (Also possible: Monozygotic Triplets, Monozygotic Quadruplets) iv) Dizygotic (DZ) Twins: “Fraternal Twins”, twins who are formed when two ova are fertilized simultaneously or at roughly the same time v) Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART): a general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and sustain a pregnancy vi) In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): Fertilization that takes place outside a woman’s body (as in a glass laboratory dish). The procedure involves mixing sperm with ova that have been surgically removed from the woman’s ovary. If a zygote is produced, it is inserted into a woman’s uterus, where it MAY implant and turn into a baby. vii)Intra-Cytoplasmic Injection (ICSI): An IVF technique in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into an ovum 2) Pages 78- 86 a) Human Genome Project: An international effort to map the complete human genetic code. The effort was essentially completed in 2001, though the research is ongoing. 4 b) Dominant-Recessive Pattern: The interaction of a heterozygous pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reflects one allele (the dominant gene) more than the other (the recessive gene) c) Carrier: A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype. The carried gene occurs in half of the carrier’s gametes and thus is passed on the half of the carrier’s children. If such a gene is inherited from both parents, the characteristic appears in the phenotype. d) X-Linked: A gene carried on the X Chromosome. If a male inherits an X-linked recessive trait from his mother, he expresses that trait because the Y from his father has no counteracting gene. Females are more likely to be carriers of X-linked traits but are less likely to express them. e) Down Syndrome: A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the st normal 46, with 3 – rather than 2 – at the 21 site. People with Down Syndrome typically have distinctive characteristics, including unusual facial features, heart abnormalities and language difficulties. Also called “Trisomy-21”. f) Fragile-X Syndrome: A genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules. The cause is a single gene that has more than 200 repetitions of one triplet. 3) Pages 87-89 a) Genetic Counseling i) Definition: Consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including harmful conditions that they might pass along to any children they may conceive ii) Reasons why people may opt for genetic counseling: (1) A Blood-relative in the family has a serious genetic condition (2) If a couple has had several spontaneous abortions or stillbirths 5 (3) If a couple is infertile (4) Couples from the same ethnic group, particularly if some degree of incest is involved (5) Women over the age of 35 and Men over the age of 40 4. CHAPTER 4 (HIGHLIGHTED PAGES: 96-105; 121) 1) Pages 93 – 102 a) Prenatal Development (cross- sectioned with class notes) i) The Trimesters (1) Germinal Period (Book)/ Gestation (Diana) (pg. 94- 95) (a) 1 2 weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation (2) Embryonic Period (pg. 95-96) (a) The 3 Week – 8 Week (Book)/ 3 -9 week (Diana) (i) At 8 weeks, Embryo is 1 gram (B) (ii) At 8 weeks, embryo has all organs of a human except that of their sex organs (b) (3) Fetal Period (pg. 96 -99) (a) Remainder of pregnancy (i) 3 month 1. Hiccups possible (D) rd 2. By the end of the 3 month, the sex of the fetus can be determined in ultrasound (B) (ii) 4 - 6H months 6 1. The heartbeat becomes stronger 2. Digestive and Excretory systems develop 3. Age of viability a. The age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which the fetus might survive outside of the mother’s uterus if specialized medical care is available (B) th 4. Thumb sucking reflex begins – 5 month (D) 5. About a foot long and 1.5 lbs (D) 6. Sleeping patterns have formed (D) a. Asleep when mother is moving (Movement rocks fetus to sleep) b. Awake when mother is still th (iii) 7 month – Birth th th 1. Auditory communication begins in the 28 week/7 month between the fetus/infant and the mother (B) 2. Startle reflex (moro reflex) begins to develop in the 7 month (D) 3. 18 INCHES, and 4-5 lbs (beginning to add fat as a temperature th control) in the 8 month (D) 4. 9 THmonth is the final weeks – final month a. The fetal brain begins releasing hormones (specifically oxytocin) to prepare the fetus for birth b. First born is (on average) about 12 hours of labor and 7 hours for subsequent children b) Birth i) Notes from Tasha (1) Labor (a) Stages (i) 1 (3-22 hours): 1. Early Labor: Dilating to 3 cm "cheerio to banana" 2. Active Labor: You can feel what's happening. 3cm-7cm a. Braxton Hicks b. Hot Water slows labor a little and eases pain c. "Dance" "Prepare for labor like you're preparing to run a marathon" d. Oxytocin : Released through sex (non-penetration) but not intercourse (penetration) and massaging breasts i. Pitocin: artificial oxytocin used to ease pain and provoke dilation sooner e. Serotonin i. Fentanyl Patch f. Epidural i. Can slow birth process 3. Transitional Labor (7cm - 10cm) : Feels like bowel movement 7 (2) c) First Minutes i) APGAR Scale: A quick assessment of a newborn’s health. The baby’s color, heart rate, muscle tone, and respiratory effort are given a score of 0,1, or 2, twice – at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth – and each time the total of all five scores is compared with the maximum score of 10 (rarely attained) (B) (1) A: Activity and muscle tone; P: Pulse, or heart rate; G: Grimace response, or reflexes and irritability; A: Appearance, or skin color; R: Respiration, or breathing d) Surgery e) Cesarean Section (C-Section): A surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother’s abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of a vaginal delivery 2) Pages 103-112 a) Doula: A woman who assists with the birth process. Traditionally in Latin America, a doula was the only professional who attended childbirth. Now doulas are likely to arrive at the woman’s home during the early labor stages and later work alongside medical staffing. i) Notes from Tasha (guest speaker-doula) (1) Doula v. Midwife (a) Midwife: Helps with medical side of birth (“heart and below”) (b) Doula: Knows the medical elements, but helps with psychological side of birth (“heart and above”) b) Teratogen: An agent or condition, including viruses, drugs and chemicals, that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or death c) Behavioral Teratogens: Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child’s intellectual and emotional functioning. d) Threshold Effect: In prenatal development, when a teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level (the threshold) e) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): a cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and reduced intellectual ability, that may occur in the fetus of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant. 3) Page 113 – 122 a) Low birth weight (LBW): A body weight at birth of less than 5.5 pounds (2500 grams) b) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW): A body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds and 5 ounces (1500 grams) c) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW): A body weight at birth of less than 2 pounds and 5 ounces (1000 grams) 8 d) Preterm: A birth that occurs 3 or more weeks before the full 38 weeks of the typical pregnancy (35 weeks or sooner after conception) e) Small for Gestational Age (SGA): A baby whose birth weight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception. f) Cerebral Palsy: A disorder that results from damage to the brain’s motor centers. People with cerebral palsy have difficulty with muscle control, so their speech and/or body movements are impaired g) Anoxia: A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can cause brain damage or death. h) Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS): A test often administered to newborns that measures and records 46 behaviors including 20 reflexes i) Reflex: An unlearned, involuntary action or movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex occurs without thought. i) Notes from class (1) Birth Reflexes (a) Rooting Reflex -- To know (in the first months) where the nipple (for nutrients) is (b) Grasping Reflex (c) Moro Reflex: Startle Reflex (i) Covers chest (crosses arms across) (d) Sucking Reflex (2) Breast Feeding (3) When held, babies are hard wired to look and identify faces. They can see only 8 inches from themselves (which is the distance between your face and theirs when held in “football” position) (a) Babies are genetically created to look cute and helpless for us (non-infants) to want to nurture, care for and assist the baby j) Couvade: Symptoms of pregnancy and birth experienced by fathers k) Postpartum Depression: A new mother’s feelings of inadequacy and sadness in the days and weeks after giving birth l) Parental Alliance: Cooperation between a mother and a father based on their mutual commitment to their children. In a parental alliance, the parents support each other in their shared parental roles. m) Parent-infant bond: The strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine and feed their newborn. n) Kangaroo Care: A form of newborn care in which mothers (and sometimes fathers) rest their babies on their naked chests, like kangaroo mothers that carry their immature newborns in a pouch on their abdomen. (pg. 121) 5. CHAPTER 5 (HIGHLIGHTED PAGES: 128-132; 140-147) A. Pages 128- 137 th i. Percentile: A point on a ranking scale of 0 to 100. The 50 percentile is the midpoint: Half of the population studied are ranked higher and half are ranked lower. 9 ii. Head-Sparing: A biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition. iii. Neuron: One of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially in the brain. iv. Cortex: The outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling and sensing involves the cortex. v. Prefrontal Cortex: The area of the cortex at the very front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning and impulse control. vi. Axon: A fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons. vii. Dendrite: A fiber that extends from a neuron and receives electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons. viii. Synapse: The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons ix. Neurotransmitter: A brain chemical that carries information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron x. Synaptic Gap: The pathway across which neurotransmitters carry information from the axon of the sending neuron to the dendrites of the receiving neuron. xi. Transient Exuberance: the great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that develop in an infant’s brain during the first two years of life xii. Pruning: when applied to brain development, the process by which unused connections in the brain atrophy and die xiii. Experience-Dependent Brain Functions: Brain functions depend on particular, variable experiences and therefore may or may not develop in a particular infant. xiv. Experience-Expectant Brain Functions: brain functions require certain basic common experiences (which an infant can be expected to have) in order to develop normally xv. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a life-threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections xvi. Self-righting: the inborn drive to remedy a developmental deficit; literally, to return to sitting or standing upright after being tipped over. People of all ages have self-righting impulses, for emotional as well as physical imbalance. xvii. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep: A stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming and rapid brain waves xviii. Co-Sleeping: A custom in which parents and their children (usually infants) sleep together in the same room. 1. Popular in Asia, Africa and Latin America xix. Sensation: The response of a sensory system (eyes, ears, skin, tongue, nose) when it detects a stimulus xx. Perception: The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation B. Pages 138 – 147 10 i. Binocular Vision: The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image ii. Motor Skill: The learned abilities to move some part of the body, in actions ranging from a leap to a flicker of the eyelid. (the word motor refers to movement of muscles in this context) iii. Gross Motor Skill: Physical Abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping (in this context, gross means big) iv. Fine Motor Skills: Physical Abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin (in this context, fine means small) v. Immunization: A process that stimulates the body’s immune system by causing production of antibodies to defend against attack by a particular contagious. Creation of antibodies may be accomplished either naturally (by having the disease), by injection, by drops that are swallowed, or by a nasal spray. (imposed methods are also called vaccinations) C. Pages 148 – 151 i. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition: A condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food of any kind. This deprivation can result in several illnesses, weight loss and even death. ii. Stunting: The failure of children to grow to be a normal height for their age due to severe and chronic malnutrition iii. Wasting: The tendency for children to be severely underweight for their age as a result of malnutrition. iv. Marasmus: A disease of severe protein-calorie malnutrition during early infancy, in which growth stops, body tissues waste away, and the infant eventually dies v. Kwashiorkor: A disease of chronic malnutrition during childhood, in which a protein deficiency makes the child more vulnerable to other diseases, such as measles, diarrhea and influenza vi. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): a situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, usually between 2-6 months old, suddenly stop breathing and dies unexpectedly 11 1. More common in babies who tend to sleep on their stomachs 6. CHAPTER 6 (HIGHLIGHTED PAGES: 156-164; 173-175) A. Pages 155-164 i. Sensorimotor Intelligence: Piaget’s term for the way infants think – by using their senses and motor skills – during the first period of cognitive development 1. Piaget’s Table ii. Primary Circular Reactions: The first of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving the infant’s own body. The infant senses motion, sucking, noise and other stimuli and tries to understand them. iii. Secondary Circular Reactions: The second of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving people and object. Infants respond to other people, to toy, and to any other object they can touch or move. iv. *Object Permanence*: The realization that objects (including people) still exist when they can no longer be seen, touched or heard v. Tertiary Circular Reactions: The third of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving active exploration and experimentation. Infants explore a range of new activities, varying their responses as a way of learning about the world. vi. “Little Scientist”: The stage-five toddler (age 1 – 1.5 years/12-18 months) who experiments without anticipating the results, using trial and error in active and creative exploration vii. Deferred Imitation: A sequence in which an infant first perceives something done by someone else ad then performs the same action hours or even days later viii. Habituation: The process of becoming accustomed to an object or event through repeated exposure to it, and thus becoming less interested in it ix. fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging): a measuring technique in which the brain’s electrical excitement indicates activation anywhere in the brain; fMRI helps researchers locate neurological responses to stimuli x. *Affordance*: An opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place or object in the environment 12 xi. Visual Cliff: An experimental apparatus that gives the illusion of a sudden drop-off between one horizontal surface and another B. Pages 165 – 174 i. Infant Amnesia: The belief that infants remember nothing prior to the age of 2 ii. Reminder Session: A perceptual experience that helps a person recollect an idea, a thing or an experience iii. Implicit Memory: Unconscious or automatic memory that is usually stored via habits, emotional responses, routine procedures, and various sensations iv. Explicit Memory: Memory that is easy to retrieve on demand (as in a specific test.) Most explicit memory involves consciously learned words, data and concepts v. Child-Directed Speech: The high-pitched, simplified and repetitive way adults speak to infants and children. vi. Babbling: An infant’s repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins when babies are between 6 - 9 months’ old vii. Holophrase: A single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought viii. Naming Explosion: A sudden increase in an infant’s vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, that begins at about 18 months of age (1.5 years) ix. Grammar: All the methods – word order, verb forms, and so on – that languages use to communicate meaning, apart from the words themselves x. Mean Length of Utterance (MLU): The average number of words in a typical sentence (called utterance, because children may not talk in complete sentences). MLU is often used to indicate how advanced a child’s language development is xi. Theories of Language Learning 1. Languages need to be taught a. Parents are expert teachers, although other caregivers help b. Frequent repetition is instructive, especially when linked to daily life c. Well taught infants become well-spoken children 2. Social impulses foster infant language a. Infants communicate because humans are social beings b. The social content of speech is universal and, since babies are social creatures, they learn whatever specifies their culture provide 3. Infants teach themselves a. Noam Chomsky i. “Language is too complex to be mastered by step-by-step conditioning.” ii. 13


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