Exam Three Study Guide
Exam Three Study Guide PSYC 440 002
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PSYC 440 002
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Carroll on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 440 002 at University of South Carolina taught by Eugene Hubener in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 223 views. For similar materials see Survey of Personality in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
EXAM THREE STUDY GUIDE PSYCHOLOGY 440 SURVEY OF PERSONALITY Behavioral Psychology 0 B f RE 0 Behavior is a function of personal variables P and environmental variables E o B F Skinner was a major leader in behavioral psychology 0 All behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment 0 Example Rat in a Skinner Box 0 A skinner box is a controlled environment that is good at showing cause and effect experiments People s behavior is completely controlled by their environment according to Skinner this idea has now changed The rats don t think but are controlled by punishers and reinforcers of the environment Inquot El n H D 7 41 Mnad L 7 1 5 n 7 En a l 134 I r l r 171 a 11DL 5ng 51 I r ifquot in 391 l g f Erin if 3 The Skimmer a o Behavioral psychologist look for behaviors that are speci c observable and countable 0 They do not use adjectives 0 Example Jimmy is hostile on the playground not what a behavioral psychologist would say instead they would reportJimmy hit other children four times while on the playground Onerant Conditioning in Therapv interventions do not have to involve the person of interest in behavior psychology Strengths Lost so research 0 Because it is easily seen and tried and studied 0 Lots of applications 0 Generalizable Easy to teach Quickly 0 Parents teachers bosses o Learned quickly Rewards and punishments Weaknesses Flaw conceptualization o Ignores individual differences 0 Positive reinforcement present a pleasant stimulus 0 Presentation of a positive stimulus immediately after a behavior which increases the probability of that behavior occurring again 0 Reinforcers can be a material candy money toys social verbal praise or an activity going on a trip or playing a game 0 Positive Punishment present aversive stimulus 0 Lots of positive punishment at school makes students not want to be there 0 Skinner says you should be able to everything using positive reinforcement Negative punishment removal of a pleasant stimulus o Extinction Be careful of response bursts An increase of negative behavior and intensify temporarily and decreases behavior overs time Easeln EilllflnETiEil39i FIE3thquot li lul r I E I39nu u Cand L E I39 fllilj 3 Filming If quot 339 ala39 F r i H i E LP 0 Time out 0 Response Cost taking back previous reinforcers Example a kid had trouble paying attention during class The teacher put a box with sheets of paper on her desk If she was off task the teacher took one sheet of paper each time At the end of the day if she had a certain number of papers left in the box she got a reward Chaining not interested in a single behavior but a sequence of steps 0 Example Dolphins learning a routine at Sea World or people with disabilities learning to do everyday tasks 0 Task analysis building successive chains in a link that leads to one speci c behavior Example Teaching my dog to play dead 0 Step 1 learn to sit Step 2 learn to lay down 0 Step 3play dead Shaping making a person acquire a behavior they don t have 0 Method of Successive approximation to the desired behavior Example a rat in a skinner box needs to push a lever That is a behavior they do not possess and the scientist can teach them Behavioral Contracts a positivereinforcement intervention that is widely used by teachers to change student behavior The contract spells out in detail the expectations of student and teacher in carrying out the intervention plan making it a useful planning document Homework activities done outside of the counseling sessions Schedules of reinforcement every time you do something the environment responds 0 Example when someone does well they get a compliment or a reward or if they do bad they get disciplined lntermittent are periodically reinforced you know eventually that the reinforcement will come 0 Example playing the slots they know eventually that the slots will eventually get a reward It might be next time that I win big Hard to extinguish behaviors Must be persistent Sum of Principles of Changing Behavior 0 If I want to change someone s behavior I 0 Change the environment 0 I should change my behavior rsteveryone involved must adjust their tactics Humanistic Psychology 0Humanistic psychology emphasizes the subjective experiences of the person 0 Client centered counseling focuses on the frame of reference of the client 0Self Actualization o Tendency to move toward greater complexity independence and exibility 0 Single motivation factorgrowth 0Does not work from a theory necessarily but from the client s worldview 0 Basis of all talk oriented counseling oForerunner of positive psychology Antibehavioral approach to personality Unconditional positive regardVERY IMPORTANT Contributes to mindfulness and over laps with Eastern and Christian religions Carl Rogers 0 Leader in humanistic psychology Started with kids and extended to adults Rogers Model 0 Two parts of personality 0 Organism person s actual experiences 0 Self perception of experiences of selfconcept Incongruence 0 Split between organism and selfconcept Also called rea self and ideal self Adjustment is the degree of congruence between organism and selfconcept Protects self from harm via 0 Distortion o Denial Rogers thought that most people were generally healthy and that means that they are growing Human Potential Movement 0 Single motivation selfrealization actualization We have a self and we want to bring it forward 0 GROWTH Environmental Facilitators of SelfActual Unconditional positive regard 0 Positive respect for the person positive with whatever the client tells you be accepting unconditionally Being okay with whatever the client tells the counselor no judgement 0 Example Dead Man Walking movie The main character kills a couple and has to see a counselor and denies killing anyone and the counselor gives him unconditional positive regard until he admits to the killings Authenticity Honestly 0 Who we are and who we are to become is like a concrete square formed by society and we need to chip it away to nd our authentic self May be different then what society says is normal 0 The therapist needs to be authentic to their true selves to the client 0 In a real relationship we will feel comfortable to share out true selves Empathy Understanding o More likely to open up if the counselor is empathic Active listening o If you provide these conditions people will learn and grow How to improve health and growth 0 Create conditions of worth 0 Don t devalue their emotions 0 Don t criticize them Inhibit experience of negative emotions 0 Don t minimize their pain 0 Don t give advice 0 Be there for the person 0 Provide the 3 Key Ingredientsquot 0 Active listeningempathic listening Key into their emotions and cognitions Paraphrasing and summarizing what they said back to them 0 Most people do not do this unless in a counseling session 0 Example Growth of SelfEsteem in Children Coopersmith o Behavioral differences between kids with low and high selfesteem Low selfesteem boys Showed depressed and discouraged emotions Rejected by their peers and did not have many friends Sensitive to criticism Preoccupied with themselves High selfesteem boys Initiated discussion 0 Did not ignore disagreements Not anxious Not selfpreoccupied optimistic o certain characteristics of parentschild interactions 0 The study was of 5th grade boys The researchers divided the boys into high and low selfesteem Then they looked at the parents of the two groups and how they interacted with their children 0 Parenting behaviors of the boys with high selfesteem Affectionate acceptance Accepting of individual differences Strict but exible discipline Interdisciplinary parental agreement 0 They had rules but were able to adjust the rules for certain situations 0 Example they have to go to be every night at 800 pm but for the Super Bowl they get to stay up until 1000 pm Positive discipline strategies 0 They discussed what the children did well and what they did not do well Explained consequences and rewards Gave rewards and took away privileges and did not spank Parents were consistent with both parents agreeing and enforcing the rules Maslow s Need Hierarchy morality creativity spontaneity problem solving lack of prejudice Selfactualization acceptance of facts selfaesteem confidence achievement respect of others Esteem respect by others friendship family sexual intimacy Lovebelongan security of body employment resources Safety morality the family health property breathing food water sex sleep homeostasis excretion lPhySIologIcal Hierarchy distinguishes between lower de ciency needs and higher being needs We don t seek higher needs until lower demands are reasonably satis ed Only unsatis ed needs motivate a person Most people follow this order but there are exceptions SelfActualizers Characteristics Superior perception of reality 0 Sees reality really well Increased acceptance of self others and nature 0 Both good and bad qualities Increased spontaneity o Rejection of rigidity 0 Increased responsiveness to situations Increased detachment and need for privacy Appreciation and richness of emotional expression 0 Accept all emotions and being able to express any emotion and value Increased autonomy and resistance to conformity Higher frequency of peak experiences 0 Moments of transcendence during peak experiences 0 Wonderful moments of happiness ecstasy transcendence Major life moments 0 Have a baby 0 Winning an award 0 Running a marathon More democratic character structure More creativity Chapter 3 Review Behaviorism focused on how environments shape the observable behavior of organisms Although behaviorism s presence has faded considerably in recent decades its fundamental emphases have lived n in sociallearning theories of personality and in the widespread recognition that individual lives must be understood in terms of the environmental contexts within which they are situated Behavior is learned in the environment Two fundamental forms of learning are classical and instrumental operant conditioning In classical conditioning an organism forms associations between different stimuli that are contiguous in time in instrumental conditioning learning occurs through rewards and punishments as behavior is shaped by its consequences From operant standpoint personality characteristics are shaped primarily by rewardand punishment learning that occurs in particular social situations over time The determinants of any particular behavior therefore can be found both in the current situation and in similar situations in the past which the person has learned similar responses Albert Bandura s sociallearning theory emphasizes the roles of observational learning and selfef cacy in human behavior While reinforcements and need satisfaction may be instrumental in behavioral performance Bandura shows that learning does not necessarily require reinforcement and may proceed instead through simple observation and imitation As people observe and learn new responses over time and as they obtain experience in the performance of those responses they develop beliefs about their abilities to carry out particular behaviors in particular situations producing characteristic levels of selfef cacy Social structure de nes an important macrocontext for human behavior Research documents signi cant relations between social class variables on the one hand and aspects of personality and social life on the other Individuals in lower socioeconomic strata report lowerjob satisfaction greater concerns for security and stability and more fatalistic and pessimistic views of human nature compared with individuals in the middle and upper classes Professional highstatus occupations place signi cant to take initiative and cultivate selfdirection at work By contrast lowerstatus employees nd fewer cognitive challenges and opportunities for initiative in their work and are strongly urged to follow the demands of supervisors The most encompassing and farreaching context for human behavior is culture Culture is a system of rules and norms that bind people together in a given society or group providing a tool kit of habits skills styles perspectives roles and values out of which the person an construct a life Culture infuses human lives with meanings Two major dimensions upon Pages which different cultures can be organized are individualism and collectivism Individualist cultures give priority to personal goals individual attitudes and opinions exchange relationships and the ef cacy of the autonomous and independent self By contrast collectivist cultures give priority to the goals and norms of the ingroup or community communal relationships and the development of an interdependent construal of the self 271279 Fully functioning person the person who is able to ful ll his or her potential Organismic Valuing Process experiences in accord with the basic organismic actualizing tendency are viewed as satisfying and therefore are approached and maintained Unconditional Positive Regard he or she has been loved and accepted by others in an uncritical and noncontingent manner People need to be loved for their very existence as persons through the kind of unconditional love that the ancient Greeks and Christian church have called agape Conditions of Worth certain aspects of our experience are worthy and other are not worthy
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