Bio 110 Chapter 8 Review
Bio 110 Chapter 8 Review BIOL 110 001
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 110 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Thomas L. Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Biology Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 11/10/15
Bio 110 Chapter 8 Review Part 1 Plant Diversity 8 The Evolutionary Origins of Plants 1 8 The first organism to evolve photosynthesis was Cyanophyta Which is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis Chemical Equation for photosynthesis Water Carbon Dioxide Energy Glucose Carbohydrate Oxygen 6H20 6C02 energy I C6H1206 602 Photosynthesis affected the Earth s atmosphere by slowly adding oxygen into the atmosphere Endosymbiosis is an evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes It states that several key organelles of eukaryotes originated as a symbiosis between separate single celled organisms Plants acquired the ability to do photosynthesis when single celled organisms called protists engulfed photosynthesizing bacteria Over time through the transfer of genes aided by a parasite the absorbed bacteria became a functional part of the protist enabling it to transform sunlight into nourishment The organelle in plants where photosynthesis occurs is the chloroplast Plants adapted to the dehydrating land environment through the development of new physical structures and reproductive mechanisms Approximately the first plants to colonize the land was 440 million years ago 82 What makes plants unique What are their defining characters 9 10 Here is what happens during alternation of 11 Plants vs Algae a First of all algae may be unicellular colonial or multi cellular Each cell in algae must obtain its own nutrients from water for survival b Plants on the other hand are only multi cellular Plants have roots stems leaves owers fruits seeds and cones The roots of plants not only hold them in place they nourish them Plants possess vascular systems which allow for the uptake and transport of water and nutrients generations in plants The sexual phase gametophyte creates gametes sex cells The asexual phase sporophyte creates spores asexually Altemation of generations is a common element of all land plants Autotrophic is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple substances present in its surroundings generally using energy from light or inorganic chemical reactions 12 Compare and Contrast a Gametophyte i This is that phase of the plant in which the gametes that is the egg and sperm formed are haploid 11 having only one set of chromosomes in them Thus gametophyte phase is the sexual gamete producing stage in the life cycle of the plant b Sporophyte i This phase in the life cycle of a plant is the asexual spore bearing generation of the plant featuring diploid cells ii By the process of meiosis reduction division this sporophyte produces haploid spores The haploid spores produced will then form the next gametophyte generation by growing into multicellular haploid individuals called gametophyte 83 The Rise of Plants 13 The Surface of the Earth became green between 420360 million years ago 14 Coal was formed when dead plant matter submerged in swamp environments was subjected to geological forces of heat and pressure over hundreds of millions of years As time went by the plant matter evolved from moist and low carbon peat to coal which is much higher in energy and carbon content 15 Modern Conifers are the adaption to cooler and drier environments 16 The oldest tress would be the Bristlecone pine which is 4800 years old The Largest tree would have to be the Giant Sequoia Trees in California 17 The purpose of owers and fruits are primarily in plant reproduction 84 Modem Diversity 18 Evolution of owers and pollinators O Pollinator I An agent as an insect that pollinates owers I Batesian minicry to avoid predation 0 An edible animals is protected by its resemblance to a noxious one that is avoided by predators O Predator I Evolved to catch pollinators I Cryptic coloration to catch prey 19 Diversity begets Diversity which means that evolution of V diploidy paved the way for polyploidy which was such an important mechanism for speciation in higher plants Diploidy also paved the way for sexual reproduction and the incipient processes of recombination and meiosis that 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 generate further genetic diversity Evolutions of primitive roots rhizoids in certain green algae were a precursor to more advanced roots in the highly diverse vascular plants Batesian Minicry a relationship where one organism that is harmless has evolved aposematic coloration that mimics a noxious species For example a monarch butter y is poisonous when eaten and viceroy butter y which is the mimic is not The viceroy will trick predators in to believing that it is a monarch butter y because of the similar shade of color they both have Parasitoids is an insect whose larvae live as parasites that eventually kill their hosts Grasse is very important to humans because grasses help three different food crops grow which are wheat rice and corn It seems kind of anti productive in terms of survival for a plant to produce an addictive chemical as that plant will constantly be sought after by animals that ingest it but also defend themselves from animals Nicotiana Rustica Tobacco is the plant that is responsible for the most deaths per year Kale Garlic Blueberries Broccoli and Spinach are some of the most nutritious plant for humans Side effects of Cannabis are lower sperm count lower testosterone loss of libido depression can be addictive and short term forgetfulness Part II Fungal Diversity 85 The Origins of Fungi 27 28 29 30 The LUEA is by definition the joint ancestor of fungi plants animals and all protists But it could also be the joint ancestor of plants and animals We don39t know a lot about how things branched that far back but it39s possible that the first quotsplittingquot resulted in one branch containing a bunch of protists and plants with another branch containing a bunch of protists fungi and animals Fungi colonized the surface with plants 480 million years ago Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs that feed by absorption In most fungi hyphae are the main mode of vegetative growth and are collectively called a mycelium 86 Fungi Exhibit diverse lifestyles 31 32 33 34 Decomposers return nutrients back to the environment so they can be recycled Bread Mold any of various fungi especially of the genus Rhizopus that grow on bread and other foods Penicillium Glaucum which are the blue molds used for cheese cannot produce these toxins in cheese If all the decomposers were to die there would be no organic nutrients and all the dead plants would ruin the animals39 habitat the ecosystem would be filled with plant and animal waste and there would be no decomposition of waste material 35 Mutualist Relationship is when two organisms of different species quotwork togetherquot each benefiting from the relationship 36 Mycorrhizal benefits can include greater yield nutrient accumulation andor reproductive success Mycorrhizas can cause growth form changes to root architecture vascular tissue etc 37 Lichen a simple slow growing plant that typically forms a low crustlike lea ike or branching growth on rocks walls and trees a The body of a lichen will contain an alga this is able to photosynthesis sugars some of which are passed on to the fungal component of the lichen In return the alga gets a tiny but significant amount of shelter within the tissues of the lichen 38 Leafcutter ants are often compared to farmers and the analogy works on many levels They apply fertilizers to their crops in the form of bacteria that provide nitrogen to the fungal gardens They also use pesticides they grow antibiotic secreting bacteria that disinfect the fungi of parasites or competitors 39 They are a type of symbiotic fungi but they are not mutualistic because they do not tend to give anything of value back to their host in return for sustenance Fungi can be separated into three distinct groups based on how they interact with their hosts mycorrhizal fungi work in cooperation with a living host parasitic fungi attack a living host and saprophytic fungi feed on a dead host 87 Disease causing Fungi 40 Chytrid Fungus is responsible for many amphibian declines in Central and Southern America 41 Ergot a fungal disease of rye and other cereals in which black elongated fruiting bodies grow in the ears of the cereal Eating contaminated food can result in ergotism End of Chapter 8 Review 0 Important There will be a test this Friday 1113
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