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Bio 110 Chapter 9 Review

by: Angelina Notetaker

Bio 110 Chapter 9 Review BIOL 110 001

Marketplace > University of New Mexico > Biology > BIOL 110 001 > Bio 110 Chapter 9 Review
Angelina Notetaker
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

We reviewed chapter 9 which is about Invertebrate Diversity. We went over the origins, ancestors, defining features, and diversity of animals.
Biology Non-Majors
Thomas L. Kennedy
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 110 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Thomas L. Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Biology Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 11/10/15
Bio 110 Chapter 9 Review Invertebrate Diversity  1. The Earth was 4 billion years when animals appeared. 2. Three Hypothesis proposed to explain the evolutionary origins of animals: a. Hypothesis 1 – Rise in Oxygen  b. Hypothesis 2 ­ Evolution of Hox genes  i. Any of a class of genes that determines the basic structure and orientation  of an organism. c. Hypothesis 3 – Rise of the predators 3. Choanoflagellate was the ancestor of animals 4. Modern animal group evolve during the Cambrian (550 million years ago) 5. Type of cells that make up animals: a. Ectoderm – nervous tissues, skin b. Mesoderm – muscles bones c. Endoderm – lungs digestive tract 6. First land animals were arthropods. 7. Characteristics of all animals: a. Muscles  b. Nervous System 8. Germ Layers ­ each of the three layers of cells (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm)  that are formed in the early embryo. 9. Heterotrophs that feed by ingestion means that they are basically a creature that has to  eat its food. 10. About 2 million species of animals have been described. 11. Difference between: a. Radial Symmetry – symmetry around a central axis, as in a starfish of a tulip  flower b. Bilateral Symmetry – the property of being divisible into symmetrical halves on either side of a unique plane  12. Cnidarians ­ each of the three layers of cells (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) that  are formed in the early embryo. Some examples have how they are different: a. Primitive animals with radial symmetry  b. Symbiont living inside a symbiont (anemones and Nemo) c. Important for coral reefs and diversity but threated by climate change  13. Cnidarians are important for cool reef diversity because they provide spawning,  nursery, refuge and feeding areas for a large variety of organisms. Reefs also play an  important role as natural breakwaters, which minimize wave impacts from storms such  as cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons.] 14. The box jellies or sea wasp are some of the most dangerous animals on the plane. 15. Jellyfish populations have rapidly grown in the last decade because of overfishing and  changing water temperatures. (Cities have reported global warming and global  overfishing (which removes jellyfish predators) as causes for exploding jellyfish  populations in recent years.) 16. Mollusks ­ an invertebrate of a large phylum that includes snails, slugs, mussels, and  octopuses. They have a soft, unsegmented body and live in aquatic or damp habitats, and most kinds have an external calcareous shell. 17. Elysia Chlorotica can feeds by sucking out the insides of stands of algae and using it to  make its own food. This doesn’t mean it can’t eat any other way. It can also munch on  any other food just like any other sea creature. It can choose to make its own food when  it can’t find any or it is hurt or sick. 18. Unique abilities of Octopi and Cuttlefish: a. Tentacles  b. Gills c. Locomotion  d. Defense e. Changing Colors  19. Defining Characteristics of Arthropods: a. Hard Exoskeleton b. Jointed Limbs c. Compound Eyes 20. As an arthropod grows larger it has to get rid of the exoskeleton it has and grow a new  one that is larger in size. This is to do with the fact that the exoskeleton cannot stretch to  accommodate new growth. This is done using the process of molting. But with a larger  size, the process would become difficult. 21. The compound eye is incapable of giving distant vision and sharp vision but is efficient  in picking up motion and in providing 360° view, as it is large globular and mounted on  a movable stalk. 22. Myriapod ­ an arthropod of a group that includes the centipedes, millipedes, and related  animals. Myriapods have elongated bodies with numerous leg­bearing segments. 23. Features of centipedes that are considered primitive are venomous claws or  forcipules formed from a modified first appendage. Centipedes are a predominantly  carnivorous taxon. 24. Defining characters of arachnids (aka chelicerare): a. Chelicerae b. Head and thorax fused  25. Horseshoe Crabs are 450 million years old. 26. Importance of horseshoe crabs: a. The eggs are an important food source for migrating shore bids b. They live with their own community  27. Unique feature of the wind scorpion: a. Powerful Jaws  b. They have two main body parts: the cephalothorax and the abdomen. The  exoskeleton is made up of many hard plates connected by stretchy tissue.  This lets the wind scorpion bend and move. 28. Arachnophobia (fear of spiders) 29. Jumping spiders are known for their swift reflexes and leaping abilities. These  spiders are capable of leaping as high as 25 times their own size and, as such, are  extremely capable predators. Jumping spiders also possess impressive eyesight. 30. The teeth of shelled, aquatic creatures called limpets are the strongest biological  material on Earth, overtaking the previous record­holder, spider silk. 31. A spider’s primary weapon is its pair of sharp fangs that are housed inside its  chelicerae (a pair of jointed jaws). The fangs have a small hole in the tip and a hollow  duct inside that leads to the venom gland. Normally retracted, when the spider catches a  prey, the fangs whip themselves out into action. Acting as deathly hypodermic needles,  they inject the prey with enough neurotoxin to paralyse or kill. The spider can now feed  on its prey in safety, without the risk of struggle or attack. End of Chapter 9 Review!  Important! ­  There will be a test this Friday (11/13) 


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