Exam 3 Study Guide- BIO 106 Ocean Life
Exam 3 Study Guide- BIO 106 Ocean Life BIO 106 - M001
Popular in Ocean Life
Popular in Biology
This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Hill on Tuesday November 10, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
Reviews for Exam 3 Study Guide- BIO 106 Ocean Life
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/10/15
B10 106 OCEAN LIFE Exam Three Study Guide Key words are highlighted Weellt 8 Kev Concept 1 Fish are extremely diverse and have the most number of species of all the vertebrate groups a Fish one or more individual of a single species b Fishes More than one species regardless of the number c All fish fall under Animalia and are eukarya 1 There are approximately 30000 species i Bony about 25000 species they make up most of the diversity in the ocean 2 What are the three major divisions of fish a J awless fishes i Superclass higher than class below phylum b Cartilaginous fishes i Class c Bony Fishes i Superclass 3 In what parts of the ocean are fish found a Fish are found everywhere in all oceans and in all habitats Wherever there is water there is fish b About 58 of fishes are marine species about 1 are both marine and freshwater salmon they are born in freshwater and come back to freshwater to reproduce c Different species have specific adaptations to different habitats i Rockcoral dwelling coastal rocky bottom open ocean deep sea 4 What are the five types of fins of bony fishes How do fish use different fins a side fin used for movement turning braking and balance b on the bottom also used for turning braking and balance c vertical fin near anus used as a stabilizer like having a sail on the bottom also used for propulsion d tail fin used for propulsion swimming and speed c another vertical fin used as a stabilizer like having a sail on the top 5 What types of scales are found on bony fishes How do these differ from the scales found on cartilaginous fishes a Their scales are thin smooth exible and overlapping b They also have an a ap of bony plates covering and protecting gills c Cartilaginous fishes have sharp and rigid scales 6 How to fish regulate their buoyancy a Ossified skeletons make them heavy so they need a way to regulate buoyancy b Most species have a a gas filled sac for adjusting buoyancy this compensates for a heavy bony skeleton c This swim bladder is absent in most fastmoving fish tuna d It is like a little balloon inside of the fish 7 How do fish regulate their body temperature a Most fish are animals that primarily gain heat externally through the environment b are animals whose body temperature adjusts depending on the environment Many ectotherms are poikilotherms They are similar but they are two different things i Exception fast swimming fish tuna and billfish they are endothermic and poikilothermic they generate their own heat in their muscles and even though they swim through a very wide range of water temperatures they keep their eyes warm seeing prey better keeping their blood warm 8 Describe the body shapes of bony fishes a Streamlined shape b Lateral compression Dorsoventrally attened the fish that live on the bottom and hide in the sand Fast moving fish have fusiform football shaped bodies Elongated eellike Truncate shaped Homocercal tail shape it is the same on the top as it is on the bottom Homo means same cercal means tail 9 How does body shape relate to a fish s life history a A fish s body shape explains their lifestyle 10 Describe the life cycle of a bony fish a Most fish species have two sexes they produce eggs that are the sperm and eggs leave the parents bodies to be fertilized b The life cycle of the Atlantic Cod i Eggs days to weeks ii Larvae months iii Juveniles months to several years iv Adults over 20 years 11 What is a a Some species are all born one sex but change to another during their lifetimes b They become female as they become bigger because bigger fish tend to be females so they can produce more eggs c Social environments cause them to change sex if there is no female the next biggest fish will become female d Ex Damsel fish Coral Reef fish clown fish 12 How does coloration help with avoiding predators andor catching prey a Coloration varies widely b to blend in with surroundings camou age c a form of camou age when the pigmentation is dark on the upper side and lighter on the underside stripes bars or spots that break up the outline of the fish and confuse predators A common disruptive coloration is they eye spot totmgr e advertise distaste or poisons 13 Do fish make sounds a Yes b Male advertisement for mates males of may fish species produce sounds during breeding season to attract females c Herring sound makers i Produce fast repetitive ticks FRT ii Generated by passing air from the swim bladder through their anus farting iii Only used the presence of conspecific suggesting that it is used for communication 14 What are major conservation issues associated with bony fishes a Physical impact of fishing gear Habitat modification or destruction Bycatch economic discards regulatory discards collateral mortality Incidental morality Harvest morality biggest conservation issue Biological interactions i Predatorprey interactions ii Competitive interactions iii Changes in marine food webs g People have been fishing down and down the food chain started with big fish which are primary producers This all results in an altered ecosystem structure and function and a decline in the mean trophic level i Pollution mercury can go into the ocean and get eaten by krill Fishes eat the krill they eat a lot so there is a higher concentration of the toxin within the fishes Then something eats that fish and eats a lot of them so there is even higher of a concentration ii The levels of toxic chemicals in these fishes can grow and can hurt us when we eat the fish thrDFLPP Weellt 9 Kev ConceDtS 1 How many marine reptile species exist a are ancients of the giant sea b Fewer than 100 species only about 1 of today s reptile species are marine c There are a lot near the equator ectotherms d All marine reptiles are air breathing organisms they all have lungs i This is a major limitation and is why their evolution hasn t changed a lot 2 What are the three main groups of marine reptiles a Squamata snakes and lizards b Chelonia turtles and tortoises c Crocodilia crocodiles and alligators 3 What are some key traits of a There are about 57 species b None in the Atlantic Ocean yet found primarily in Pacific and Indian Oceans Fetchm The distribution of marine snakes is similar to terrestrial distribution they stay close to the equator Airbreathing nonaggressive but highly venomous reptiles i Asian sea snake and Australian sea snake enough venom to kill 50 people in one bite They are fully aquatic can only survive in water loss of ventral scales They range in size from 05275 m They generally feed on fish and fish eggs They are they give birth to live young in the water 4 How are they different from terrestrial snakes a They do not have ventral scales they can only survive in the water b They have a streamline 990 They are more like eels than terrestrial snakes They have a attened oarlike tail for swimming They have nasal valves and closefitting scales around the mouth to keep salt water out 5 What is the difference between a snake and a qutmgpp s More primitive species of sea snake More closely resemble land snakes They are also venemous Amphibious living part on land and part in water Range in size up from 0536 m Feed on fisheels They are lay eggs on land They have stomach scales and can move around land comfortably 6 How is their life history different from that of other reptiles a Sea snakes give birth to live young while most reptiles lay eggs 7 How is the El Nino climate pattern affecting sea snakes a b C Yellow bellied sea snakes have been seen on beaches in California in mid October These are the first sightings in over 30 years and it is due to very warm waters because of El Nino This is changing the habitat of sea snakes and where they live 8 What are some key traits of marine iguanas qorhrbgpp gw There is one species and they live in the Galapagos Islands They have a short snout Laterally compressed tail for swimming They are relatively small They have special glands to excrete salt they look crusty They are herbivores and they eat mostly marine algae off the rocks They lay eggs in the sand h They spend time in the sun they are ectothermic they need to regulate body temp and keep themselves warm 9 Where are marine iguanas found a Only in the Galapagos Islands 10 What are some key traits of marine and mangrove 9909 Amphibious lizards spend time on land and in the water 2 species both found in southeast Asia They live in coastal areas and estuaries Laterally attened tail for swimming They are larger than iguanas Lay eggs in terrestrial nests 11 Wha are some key traits of 1 Hawksbill Loggerhead Green Sea Olive Ridley Kemp s Ridley Flatback Black ii They have a long heartshaped shell covered with a layer of horny plates called scutes the top part of the shell is called the they have a tail and ipper like legs terrible at moving on land two tiny claws in each leg the bottom of the shell is called the plastron 2 Leatherback c d i The whole carapace is soft not rigid and hard like other sea turtles they can swim longer distances and go deeper than other sea turtle species All species are endangered or threatened Shells they have keratinized plates that are part of the shell of a turtle each species has a different number of scutes their shells are formed from a deeper layer in the dermis They are mostly tropical and subtropical in distribution ectotherms Sea turtles eat basically everything they are omnivores with adaptations to eat specific things hawksbill eat sponges leatherbacks are jelly eaters 12 How would you describe their life history a b c d All sea turtles are slow growing and long lived They lay eggs on land in sand nests they lay a ton of eggs that don t survive Life cycle birth long maturation longer than humans several hundred eggs laid every 25 years they live 50100 years Reproduction no parental care of eggs or hatchlings there are about 100 eggs that incubate for 2 months they spend years at sea before maturing to breed and lay eggs mating takes place in open ocean 13 What are some major conservation concerns for sea turtles 999 Direct hunting in Central America and Asia Illegal sea turtle shell trade in fisheries for sea turtles that are hatching i Entire nest emerges at night and heads toward the brightest light artificial lights confuse hatchlings most hatchlings dies before reaching the ocean 1 1000 survive to adulthood Beach activities dredging sand replenishment e Plastic pollution 14 What stages of life are impacted a All stages of life but mostly when hatchlings are emerging 15 What makes the turtle different from other sea turtles b Their whole carapace is soft c They can swim longer distances and go deeper than other sea turtle species d They lack scutes and have rubbery skin allowing them to dive deep adapted for open ocean swimming e They are jelly eaters f They are the largest sea turtle up to 27 m 1600 lbs g ENDOTHERMIC 16 What are some key traits of a Two major marine species saltwater crocodile and American crocodile b Salt water crocodiles i Largest reptile Up to 7 m and 2200 lbs ii Found in southeast Asia iii Strong swimmer up to 600 miles from shore open ocean iv Lay eggs in nests on shore show parental care V Responsible for up to 1000 human deaths a year dangerous vi Once hunted to near extinction species has been recovering from conservation efforts for over 30 years c American crocodile i They are big but not as big as saltwater crocs ii They have a longer and thinner snout than the American alligator iii Found in central America estuaries open ocean coasts and lagoons iv Feed on fish when small adults feed on sea turtles I v Endangered species 17 How is their life history different from that of other reptiles a They show parental care 18 What makes a bird a a Birds that have some aspect of their biology dependent on the marine environment 19 Understand how adaptations of sea birds vary with time spent in the water a Coastal duck not many adaptations for a marine environment b Shore bird not many adaptations for a marine environment but more adaptations than a coastal duck c More adaptations for salt water and making a living in the ocean but they don t swim or dive d marine adaptations are so extreme that they can t y 20 Why are all sea birds still linked to land a They have a terrestrial link for reproduction nests b They are found everywhere 21 Describe the general life history strategy of most sea birds a They are generally Kselected species b They have a low annual reproductive rate c They have few big eggsneonates d Nesting habitats include islands coastal cliffs tundra e Postovulation f Reproduction every 13 years g Longlived investment in adult survival 22 Why do sea birds exhibit a variety of a It enables different feeding methods 23 Which birds are the most efficient yers The least a Different birds have a variety of ying abilities b Some are the most efficient yers Albatross fulmars c Others are less efficient Auks puffins d Some can t y in the air at all penguins 24 Which birds are the most efficient swimmers The least a Different birds have a variety of swimming abilities b Some are great swimmers penguins alcids petrels sea ducks c Some are less efficient albatrosses gulls pelicans d Some are terrible swimmers frigate birds 25 What adaptations do some birds have for deeper and longer dives a Some birds maintain their oxygen levels on dives through the oxygen stores in their lungs muscle and blood b The lungs are a large reservoir for oxygen c In the muscles myoglobin stores oxygen and is an oxygen transport molecule d In the blood hemoglobin stores oxygen and is an oxygen transport molecule 26 What are some of the challenges for airbreathing organisms in diving a Marine birds can not obtain oxygen underwater low oxygen to vital organs such as the brain and heart b there is increasing pressure on gases with depth 1 atmosphere per 10 meters c their terrestrial appendages are not efficient for swimming 27 What are some characteristics of penguins a 17 species of penguins b Range in size from 10 inches little blue to 4 feet Emperor penguin c They are ightless d They are swimmers e They make some very strange noises they have distinct voices their babies know who their parents are 28 Where are penguins found a All found in southern hemisphere b one species spends time in both hemispheres Galapagos penguin c Found from the tropics to the poles d Generally located on remote islands or continental regions with few terrestrial predators because they are not very graceful on land 29 What adaptations do they have for their lifestyle a They are extremely good swimmers b They have solid bones not or hollow like most birds c They have furlike feathers double coat like Labrador Retrievers 30 What are some characteristics of albatrosses and other tubenoses a They live in all oceans most abundant at high latitudes b They do long distance 31 Why are they called What do they use them for a They have tubular nostrils used for smelling 32 What are some characteristics of pelicans gannets cormorants and their relatives a They are widespread more common in tropical and temperate zones b 4 toes connected by webs 33 What are some characteristics of a 17 species in the Northern hemisphere b about 20 million individuals c Typical sea duck distribution breeds in tundra andor boreal zones and winters in marine coastal waters 34 What are some conservation concerns for sea birds a getting caught on hooks and drowning b entangled in nets and drown c Trawl fisheries drowning because of warp cables and nets d About 1 million birds killed annually by bycatch i About 100000 albatrosses 35 What can be done to help these issues a Stop polluting the ocean with trash b Take steps to reduce bycatch i Reduction in albatross bycatch in longline fisheries in Hawaii mher Kev Words Wee the study of distribution of species in geographic space a type of sea bird related to albatrosses they are great swimmers there are 51 petrel species they live in all oceans and are most abundant at high altitudes there is the southern giant petrel the snow petrel Wilson s storm petrel and the diving petrel They are sometimes known as Jesus Bird because they can walk on water they have tubular nostrils they do long distance migration a type of sea bird related to albatrosses and petrels there are 7 species of fulmars including the Northern Fulmar they live in all oceans and are most abundant at high latitudes they have tubular nostrils they do long distance migration a type of sea bird related to albatrosses petrels and fulmars there are 21 species including the Sooty Shearwater and Buller s Shearwater they live in all oceans and are most abundant at high altitudes they have tubular nostrils they do long distance migration greater shearwaters tagged in the Bay of Fundy a type of sea bird related to pelicans gannets boobies and cormorants there are 5 frigate bird species including the magnificent frigate bird they are widespread and more common in tropicaltemperate zones they are totipalmate 4 toes connected by webs a type of sea bird related to frigate birds gannets pelicans and cormorants there are 7 booby species including bluefooted and redfooted boobies they are widespread and more common in tropicaltemperate zones they are totipalmate 4 toes connected by webs a type of sea bird related to gulls terns skimmers and auks there are 7 skua species including longtailed skuas they are widespread more live in the Northern hemisphere they have few anatomic similarities a type of sea bird related to gulls terns skimmers and auks there are 7 jaeger species including longtailed skuas they are widespread more live in the Northern hemisphere they have few anatomic similarities a type of sea bird related to skuasjaegers terns skimmers and auks there are 50 gull species including the dolphin gull and the redlegged kittiwake they are widespread more live in the Northern hemisphere they have few anatomic similarities a type of sea bird related to gulls skuasj aegers skimmers and auks there are 45 tern species including the sandwich tern and the fairy tern they are widespread more live in the Northern hemisphere they have few anatomic similarities a type of sea bird related to gulls terns skuasjaegers and auks there are 3 skimmer species including the black skimmer they are widespread more live in the Northern hemisphere they have few anatomic similarities a type of sea bird related to gulls terns skimmers and skuasj aegers there are 23 auk species including the puffin the marbled Murrelet the crested auklut they are widespread more live in the Northern hemisphere they have few anatomic similarities any of numerous wading birds that frequent mostly seashores and estuaries Week 10 Kev ConceDtS 1 What makes a marine mammal a marine mammal a A mammal with primarily marine existence from one of the following 3 orders cetacean sirenia or carnivora Mammals that are dependent on the ocean c They are all air breathing they all give birth to precocious live young d They have typical mammalia characteristics with adaptations to marine life 2 List the three orders of marine mammals a mysticetes baleen whales and odontocetes toothed whales b manatees and dugongs sea cows c seals sea lions otters and polar bears 3 Describe members of the suborder How do they feed a They are filter feeders They have a net in their mouths created by hair like fibers b They use their hole behind eye to strain water out when they filter food 1n They are primarily slow feeders They have paired nostrils blowholes on the top of their skulls Mysticetes are baleen whales there are few baleen whale species 14 They are all large the biggest mysticete is the blue whale the smallest is the minke whale g They make loud and low frequency sounds they use sound to communicate over a long distance because visibility is limited 4 Describe members of the suborder a There are more species than the mysticetes 74 species b They are toothed whales there is variation in the teeth they have c They come in a wide range of sizes largest is the sperm whale smallest is the vaquita d They make high frequency sounds e The Yangtze river dolphin is extinct f They have one opening on the top of their skulls 5 What is the largest cetacean Mysticete Odontocete a Largest cetacean and mysticete is the blue whale b Largest odontocete is the sperm whale 6 How do odontocetes forage How does echolocation work a odontocetes are able sense the environment and their prey by generating sounds clicks through their blowhole it goes through their melon the clicks echo off of prey and is received under their jaw b As they get closer to prey their clicks get faster so they can be more accurate 7 Describe members of the order Sirenia What is their closest terrestrial relative a s and only 4 species b They are herbivores they eat sea grasses They have slow moving ability They are found in tropical shallow waters and coastal areas They are a lot like elephants f Their sounds are high pitched shallow water 8 What are the five families in the order Camivora that contain marine mammals i Largest bear species ii Very strong swimmers iii Circumpolar arctic distribution 909 990 iv Whitecream fur black skin very good at regulating body temperature Otters c Otarids sea lions and fur seals i eared seals they have external ear aps ii Pinniped finfooted iii quadrapedal locomotion they swim with front ippers and they can walk supported on front and hind ippers d Walruses i Found throughout the arctic and subarctic ii They are very large iii They have sparse hair and moustache long tusks iv No ear aps V Very large and good fore ippers like sea lions not so good hind ippers like harbor seals e Phocids true seals i They are also pinnipeds ii Found in a wide range of latitudes iii Earless seals lack external ear aps or true seals iv Cannot support body weight on ippers use small front ippers to drag themselves they swim with their back ipper v Limited mobility on land but very graceful in the water 9 What are the differences between sea otters and marine otters i North Pacific ii Large iii Floats on back at surface to feed rest and groom i South Pacific ii Smaller iii Little known about the species 10 Define a keystone species Give an example of a keystone species a A is a plant or animal that plays a unique and crucial role in the way an ecosystem functions b A keystone holds an arch together c The sea otter is one of the first species described as a keystone species i They eat urchins and keep the urchin population relatively low which allows kelp to grow and thrive 11 List the differences between a seal and a sea lion Where do walruses fit in What about fur seals a Seal i Seals do not have actual external ears they have holes in their heads ii Seals have ippers that make them more graceful in the water but not so graceful on land iii They swim with back ippers use their front ippers to awkwardly drag themselves on land b Sea Lions i They have external ear aps ii quadrapedal locomotion they swim with front ippers and they can walk supported on front and hind ippers iii They are graceful on land and in the water 12 What is the number one conservation issue for marine mammals a Bycatch fishing is the number one conservation issue and cause of mortality in marine mammal species b Other threats pollution boat traffic habitat loss etc Guest Lecture Kev ConceDtS p x No marine mammal is deaf 2 How is sound important for marine mammals and how does human generated noise in uence marine mammals a Whales depend on sound and their acoustic habitats for life acoustic ecology b Human activities impose risks to those habitats over very large spatial and temporal scales chronic noise from commercial shipping and energy exploration 3 What are some sources of humangenerated noise in the ocean Where do these activities take place What is the area of impact of these sounds a Global commercial shipping traffic b Energy exploration and operations produce sounds and noises that invade marine acoustic habitats seismic exploration 4 What is being done to change human behavior a IMO quieter ships Oil and gas companies nonexplosive sounds US Navy research significant restrictions All Area and seasonal restrictions Social Actions events in NYC documentaries 9906 Week 11 Kev ConceDtS Decompression Sickness happens because an increased pressure with depth causes nitrogen to dissolve in the body This gas is released when pressure is reduced Rapid surfacing from depth causes bubbles to release rapidly into skin joints and blood stream This can be fatal if the bubbles go to your brain Treatment involves repressurization in a chamber To avoid this you have to make going back up to the surface in small increments to avoid the bends Marine mammals and the bends Marine mammals can get the bends 0 Deep divers show signs of chronic mild decompression sickness with age joint deterioration destruction of cartilage Startled deep divers from human activity show evidence of bubble formation from racing to the surface They have certain adaptations to minimize effects on long dives 0 Lung collapse reduces gas exchange 0 Their surfacing dives are much slower 0 They also take decompression dives Thermoregulation All marine mammals are endothermic and must maintain their body temperature even when they are swimming from the Arctic to the Caribbean Heat loss is a problem because it is 25 times faster in water than in air can happen Solutions to limit heat loss in water 0 Be big allows animals to maintain their core temperatures more efficiently the larger the animal the smaller the surface area to volume ratio less area to insulate 0 Keep warm with insulation fat and air I Polar bears blubber dark skin their fur it re ects heat so well that it traps the heat in their fur keeping them warm 39 Seals fat I Whales blubber bowhead whales have every thick blubber 39 Sea otters no blubber only very dense hair 0 Blood ow changes 39 a natural way to hold in the body s warmth due to the layout of blood vessels near the body s surface The blood comes from the heart cools as it gets to the skin but it warms up again before it gets back to the heart Avoiding overheating O Odontocytes dump heat through their dorsal fin by changing the path of the blood in their bodies 0 Mysticetes do heat exchange through their on the roof of their mouths Specialized foraging behaviors Plankton feeders O Baleen whales 0 long and slow swimming speed They open their mouths and slowly swim through the water Their prey is microscopic and can t move out of the way 0 They feed exclusively on plankton their primary prey is copepods zooplankton O Whales cooperative feed Vshaped arrangement like ying geese This maximizes prey consumption 0 Copepod behavior drives Whale behavior right Whales dive to depth With greatest prey density In summer this is about 125 meters While in Winter this is only 5 Fish hunters 0 Echolocation Odontocytes 0 spinning rapidly to get a sense of the environment 0 Strand feeding dolphins jump out of the water to get fish this is dangerous because they could get stranded on shore too O Crater feeding sticking their heads in the sand to find buried prey Mammal hunters 0 Pods family groups of some killer Whales feed on marine mammals I Peninsula Valdes Argentina killer Whales beach themselves to eat seal PuPS
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'