PHL 251 Week 3 Individual Assignment Logical Thinking Worksheet
PHL 251 Week 3 Individual Assignment Logical Thinking Worksheet fin571
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Date Created: 11/11/15
Logical Thinking Worksheet Use the following questions to guide you through your exploration of logical thinking and arguments Answer the questions as completely as possible and provide examples Where needed 1 What is a logical argument A logical argument is the one that follows the method of logical reasoning and is used to denote what is true and what is false 2 When and how do we use them As mentioned logical arguments are used to denote what is true and what is false Beginning with a statement their aim is to be credible and concise 3 What parts do they contain Logical arguments are comprised of an interface premises and a conclusion Syllogism 1 What makes something a syllogism A syllogism occurs when deductive argument involves a major premise a minor premise and a conclusion 2 Why do people use syllogisms People use syllogisms to make a categorical argument 3 How do people create syllogisms When a person intends to prove something during an argument he or she makes use of a syllogism The most vital statement is added rst followed by a backup statement and ends with a conclusion comprising of both points 4 Construct a syllogism Label its parts Major Premise No reptiles have fur Minor Premise All lizards are reptiles Conclusion No lizard has fur Deductive Argument 1 What makes an argument deductive An argument becomes deductive when it demonstrates the truth of a statement and gives reason from one statement to the other 2 Why do people use deduction People use deduction to prove their arguments 3 How do people create them Deductive arguments contain true premises followed by a conclusion To compose the argument given below I used one fact and made it ow into an easily analyzable and understandable argument 4 Construct a deductive argument Label its parts Premise Limes are fruit Premise All fruit grow on trees Conclusion All limes grow on trees Inductive Arguments 1 What makes an argument inductive An argument becomes inductive when its premise implies a possible conclusion In this case though the premises are true the conclusions may be false 2 Why do people use induction Most arguments that we use every day are inductive These arguments are easy to compose and depend entirely on probability rather on fact The key to inductive reasoning is interface and has the capability to broaden and enlighten our knowledge 3 How do people create inductive arguments Inductive arguments are created by obtaining a conclusion from two available facts Commencing with a particular idea and moving on to a general conclusion is the easiest way of creating an inductive argument but de nitely not the only way 4 Create an inductive argument Label its parts Premise My mother cannot read a map Premise My sister cannot read a map Premise My aunt cannot read a map Premise lam a woman and I cannot read a map Conclusion No woman can read a map Evaluate these arguments 1 Ten women can do a piece of work ten times as quickly as one man One woman can clean a room in ten seconds therefore ten women can clean a room in one second This argument is a syllogism It begins with a fact but the nal conclusion is the interface of the rst two statements It seems to be logically sound however one statement does not mean the other in reality 2 There are 16 cans on the topshelf of the pantry and 10 on the lower shelf of the pantry There are no cans anywhere else in my pantry Therefore there are 26 cans in the pantry This is a deductive argument It comprises of two truths or facts followed by a clear conclusion 3 I have seen many children with red hair misbehave therefore all children with red hair misbeha ve This is an inductive argument It begins with a true premise that indicates the conclusion could be true but does not prove it In inductive arguments people use real life examples as premises and arrive at a conclusion
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