NTC 362 Week 2 DQs
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to fin571 at Kaplan University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
Week 2 DQ 1 Answer by Day 3 Voice over the Internet Protocol VoIP What is VoIP and how is it different from the Plain Old Telephone Service POTS What are some issues an organization not individuals should analyze when evaluating the move from a traditional phone system to VoIP Explain the impact positive and negative on an organization when moving to and using VoIP NOTE this is covered outside the assigned reading for this week Chapter 11 Business Data Networks and Telecommunications Chapter 9 Telecommunications Essentials Additional material on the topic can be found in the library of on the internet Answer Voice over IP or VoIP is a communication system that is used in conjuction with the internet VoIP is a service that is provided to cut down on cost and allows for more exibility of line that are being used Instead of assigning just a phone number you are able to assign and IP to the phone as well The phone number can then be assigned to an individual that is working with a company and all they would have to do is sign in or out of a station and they will have the same voice mail and number The Plain Old Telephone Service or POTS is the old fashion way of doing things The connection is a the basic phone setup and is the standard telephone service that is used in most homes In addition the standard POTS service includes the following 0 bidirectional or duplex voice path with limited frequency range of 3003400Hz 0 dial tone and ringing signals 0 subscriber dialing 0 operator services such as directory assistance and long distance and conference calling assistance Some issues that an organization needs to think about is the overhead and total cost of a new VoIP network There is more cost to running a system like this because of the equipment and special phones that are needed The other thing that needs to be taken into consideration is the technical knowledge it take to set up and use It can sometimes become frustrating to new users Some advantages the VoIP system are as follows 0 The Flexibility of use As stated above any one person can use the same phone number were ever they may be because the system uses the internet to make calls 0 Inexpensive Service Though the initial buy in my cost a little bit more then the POTS The service cost are cheaper in terms of the rates that are applied to a regular phone bill and ever cell phone services This can be a huge cost efficient savings to many companies 0 Bundled packages The VoIP service usually comes with Caller ID Call Forwarding Three way calling and voicemail This is something that is not offered with the regular POTS service because these are upgrades for the service being provided Their are some disadvantages to using VoIP because the fact that this service is offered and is based on the user internet connection this could limit the quality of service This means that if the bandwidth is being fully used an extra cost would have to be taken to ensure that the internet connection would not go down or bottle neck during peak hours of usage The other down fall is that VoIP requires power unlike the POTS system If there is no power this means that the internet connection is more than likely down To prevent service outages a UPS battery backup system would have to be in place to prevent and outages from taking place The bottom line is that with new technology comes new challenges to overcome The POTS system has been around for over 100 years and it too had its problems but they were solved The thing that a company must look into is what saves to the most money over time Once the question has been answered then they should make the correct decision Week 2 DQ 2 Respond by Day 5 Write a 200 to 300 word response to the following What is the nature of digital signals binary and other multilevel signal types What are the advantages of digital signals over analog signals Cover noise suppression in your explanation Answer Analogtodigital conversion is an electronic process in which a continuously variable analog signal is changed without altering its essential content into a multilevel digital signal The input to an analogtodigital converter ADC consists of a voltage that varies among a theoretically infinite number of values Examples are sound waves the waveforms representing human speech and the signals from a conventional television camera The output of the ADC in contrast has defined levels or states The number of states is almost always a power of two that is 2 4 8 16 etc The simplest digital signals have only two states and are called binary All whole numbers can be represented in binary form as strings of ones and zeros Digital signals propagate more efficiently than analog signals largely because digital impulses which are well defined and orderly are easier for electronic circuits to distinguish from noise which is chaotic This is the chief advantage of digital modes in communications Computers quottalkquot and quotthinkquot in terms of binary digital data while a microprocessor can analyze analog data it must be converted into digital form for the computer to make sense of it A typical telephone modem makes use of an ADC to convert the incoming audio from a twisted pair line into signals the computer can understand In a digital signal processing system an ADC is required if the signal input is analog The following are advantages of digital signals over analog signals An analog recording is one where a property or characteristic of a physical recording medium is made to vary in a manner analogous to the variations in air pressure of the original sound Generally the air pressure variations are first converted by a transducer such as a microphone into an electrical analog signal in which either the instantaneous voltage or current is directly proportional to the instantaneous air pressure or is a function of the pressure The variations of the electrical signal in turn are converted to variations in the recording medium by a recording machine such as a tape recorder or record cutter the variable property of the medium is modulated by the signal Examples of properties that are modified are the magnetization of magnetic tape or the deviation or displacement of the groove of a gramophone disc from a smooth at spiral track A digital recording is produced by converting the physical properties of the original sound into a sequence of numbers which can then be stored and read back for reproduction Normally the sound is transduced as by a microphone to an analog signal in the same way as for analog recording and then the analog signal is digitized or converted to a digital signal through an analogtodigital converter and then recorded onto a digital storage medium such as a compact disc or hard disk Week 2 DQ 3 Write a 200 to 300word response to the following Explain digital multiplexing the digital TX and SONET hierarchy Explain the differences between the American and European systems Explain digital services such as Integrated Services Digital Network Switched Multimegabit Data System and Switch 56 Answer Multiplexing may be defined as the process which allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals along a single data link It is generally used when there is excess bandwidth on the system Multiplexing can be of two type s ie analog and digital multiplexing Analog multiplexing includes FDM frequency division multiplexing and WDM wavelength division multiplexing Digital multiplexing includes TDM time division multiplexing In time division multiplexing each connection occupies the portion of time in the link ie in this link is sectioned by the time rather than frequency In the TDM time slots are grouped into frames with one slot dedicated to each sending devices Digital transmission is the transfer of digital bit stream over point to point or point to multipoint communication channel The various communication channel are copper wire optical fiber or wireless communication channel In other words digital transmission is a mode of transmission in which all the information to be transferred such as voice text data or image is converted in the form of stream of binary numbers ie combinations of zeros and ones before transmission At the receiver end binary code is converted back into original format It provides clearer and faster transmission using less bandwidth to transmit more information than analog transmission Synchronous Optical Networking SONET is the standardized multiplexing protocol that transfers multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or coherent light from light emitting diodes LEDs In this mode of transmission less transmission rates are required SONET equipment is managed by the TLl protocol TLl is a telecom language used for managing and reconfiguring SONET network elements In America the basic digital channel format is DS0data stream0 These are further grouped into frames of 24 channels each Concatenation of 24 channels and one start bit is called frame Group of 12 frames is called multiframe or superframe The basic channel rate used in the America is 64 kbps European systems use slightly different principles The 64 Kbps channel is still the basic unit but common channel signaling is used In this channel 0 and 16 are reserved for signaling and control and they experience much larger penetration of ISDN services Integrated Services Digital Network ISDN is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of video data voice and other network services over the circuit of the public switched telephone network ISDN is a circuitswitched telephone network system which provides access to packet switched networks It is designed to have digital transmission of voice and data over ordinary telephone copper wires ISDN provide simultaneous access to both voice and data services ISDN has the ability to deliver the minimum two simultaneous connections in any combination of data voice and video over a single line By using ISDN multiple devices can be attached to the line Switched Multimegabit Data Service SMDS is a connectionless service which is used to connect LAN MAN and WAN to exchange data But this service was used in early 90 s not now It was a switching service that provides data transmission at the rate of 1544 Mbps It is a highspeed connectionless packet switched networking service that operates over public data networks SMDS supports fiber or copper based media and operates over DSl and 3 DS3 facilities The SMDS network is composed of routers workstations terminal devices and carrier equipment mainly WAN switches Switch 56 is a dialup digital service provided by the local and long distance telephone companies For connection in this service DSUCSU is used instead of a modem It uses a 64 Kbps channel but one bit per byte is used for band signaling leaving 56 Kbps for data
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