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Organizational decision making


Organizational decision making fin571

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Organizational decision making
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to fin571 at Kaplan University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


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Date Created: 11/11/15
Analog and Digital Technology 1 Analog and Digital Technology A Comparison NTC362 University of Phoenix Analog and Digital Technology 2 Analog and Digital Technology A Comparison Analog to digital conversions techniques begin with the transmission of the information without reproduction of the original information minus the degradation with signal distortion or noise by the binary signal T T 2011 The binary signal consists of two values characterized by binary digits or bits 1 and 0 Unless the noise and distortion is picked up during transmission then the binary signal will not change The value is measure by the receiver so that the reception is clear If the information to be transferred is already in binary form as in data communications there isn t any need for the signal to be encoded Voice communication thru the method of the telephone is not in binary form These signals vary in range of values are analog and within the digital communications system analog signals must be converted to digital form Digital to Analog conversions involve a conversion process with DAC This devise takes the binary code converting it to the analog signal Digital to analog signals can compromise the quality of the signal if it is not actively monitored Analog lines which are also known as POTS lines usually support standard phone lines fax machines or alarm lines keeping them separate from the digital PBX equipment An example of digital to an analog signal would be the use of a modem for Internet use that converts computer digital signals using POTS lines Advantages and Disadvantages of Common Modulation Techniques Amplitude Modulation Analog and Digital Technology 3 Analogsignals have four modulation techniques The most simple of the four is Amplitude Modulation AM AM transmits data by varying the intensity of the waves The most common use for AM is transmitting radio stations AM is very simple by design thatmakes it the least costly method of transmitting data The main disadvantage with AM is how easily the transmission can contain interference AM signals also use more energy than other types of modulation methods Frequency Modulation Frequency Modulation FM is also most commonly used in broadcasting radio stations FM transmits data by using multiple frequencies of the signal as opposed to the varying the intensity wave Using multiple frequencies makes FM transmissions less susceptible to line interference Disadvantages of FM are the amount of bandwidth required It is much higher than that of other methods FM is also much more complicated and requires more complicated equipment Phase Modulation Phase Modulation PM is similar to FM PM however uses two waves whereas FM only uses one The first wave sends out the signal normally and the second sends out the signal up to 180 degrees out of phase PM is much simpler than FM because only the phase varies not the frequencies Many of the complex circuits needed to measure the frequencies in FM are not needed in PM A disadvantage of PM is the creation of phase ambiguity when the modulation signal exceeds 180 degrees Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Analog and Digital Technology 4 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QAM can send multiple signals on one carrier When using QAM in modems both the amplitude and the phase of the signals vary this causes the transmissions to be much faster than any of the other modulation techniques A disadvantage is how susceptible QAM is to noise and interference Another disadvantage is that QAM requires the use of linear amplifiers Linear amplifiers use much more energy and makes them not very popular in mobile devices Applications of Modern Modulation Techniques From dialup to DSL to WiFi modulation techniques continue to increase throughput and improve quality through optimization The current networking technologies are 100 plus years in the making but it seems as though each year brings about a new advancement and each new generation of networking technology can be marked by a new or improved modulation technique Although hardware is significant as it often makes new modulation techniques possible with the current developmental stateof communication technology it is advancements in modulation that get noticed as significant V90 Starting with dialup connections as it was a major milestone of information technology as it is know today the creation of the 56k V90 modem marked the peak of the technology If fact after a decade V90 modems are still widely used still V90 modems use a very simple PAM consisting of 8000 symbols per second each coded from seven bits of each eight bit PCM word The result is 128 amplitude levels in the signal Upstream of V90 modems are limited to the older V34 modulation and is only capable of 336 Kbps ADSL Analog and Digital Technology 5 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines ADSL marked a huge step forward in consumer connectivity and the best part about it was that it made use of current twisted pair telephone lines which at the time almost every home in America already had active The advancement from Dialup to DSL was made possible by a combination of modulation techniquesCarrierless Amplitude Phase CAP a form of QAM developed by ATampT was used in early implementations of ADSL however it has been replaced by Discrete Multitone Modulation DMT which is currently the universally standardized ADSL modulation method Therefore only DMT is covered in detail DMT also a form of multicarrier modulation splits available bandwidth into sub channels each using QAM modulation on a separate carrier to maximize throughput DMT for ADSL divides the downstream bandwidth into 43125 kHz wide channels and the upstream bandwidth into 32 43125 kHz wide channels Alturayef amp Rodriguez 2007 The result is a throughput of about 81 Mbps downstream and a 15mbps upstreamBecause it has to coexist with POTS the first six channels are reserved for voice allowing ADSL and POTS to function simultaneously 80211X 80211 commonly referred to as WiFi marked a huge step forward in modern connectivity one people are still working to build upon Once again modulation has played a very important role in the development of 80211 from its original throughput of one to two Mbps to the 504 Mbps capabilities of today s standard 80211n The first widely adopted WiFi standard was 80211b operating in the 24 GHz spectrum To reach its top speed of 11Mbs 80211b used Direct Spread Spectrum Sequencing DSSS also found in CDMA cellular Analog and Digital Technology 6 networks and GPSs and Complementary Code Keying CCK Bhatia 2007 CCK consisted of 64 eight bit channels making it similar to the modulation techniques used by ADSL With 80211a introduced a new revolutionary modulation technique that we are still current trying to push it its limits Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing OFDM Using OFDM 80211a split each of its eight available channels each 20MHz wide into multiple subchannels each with its own signal able to transmit independently of one another Operating the 5GHz spectrum 80211a was not widely adopted because it was not compatible with the already successful 80211b which quickly made way to its successor 80211g also utilized OFDM however it brought it to the 24GHz spectrum and offered backward compatibility with 80211b Like 80211a though 80211g transmits a fourmicrosecond symbol with an 800 nanosecond interval and at the full transmission rate of 54Mbps each symbol contains 288 bits including 72 error correction bits whichis managed by using 64 QAM on each subcarrier with a rate encoder Cisco 2011 As mentioned before OFDM carries into the latest 80211 standard 80211n and it is still getting pushed to greater limits With a 56 rate encoder and more subcarriers per channel 80211n increased the data rate to a maximum of 65Mbps over a solitary transmission using the same 20MHz wide channels as 802 1 1a g With the capability to transmit four channels simultaneously the maximum throughput with 20MHz channels is 260Mhz While 260MHz alone is a significant leap forward there is more The 80211n standard also brought 40MHz channels to the mix and an available 108 subcarriers in total bringing the maximum data rate of all four channels to an outstanding 540Mbps It makes one wonder what the next advancement in modulation will bring to the table Analog and Digital Technology 7 Hierarchy of TX and SONET Concerning the use of SONET and TX there are some advantages and disadvantages but before we cover what those are we need first to understand what each is and what each has to offer SONET or what is also known as Synchronous Optical Networking is the standardized multiplexing protocol that transfers multiple digital bit streams over optical fiber using lasers or coherent light from lightemitting diodes LEDs In this mode of transmission less transmission rates are required SONET equipment is managed by the TLl protocol TLl is a telecom language used for managing and reconfiguring SONET network elements Some of the key advantages of SONET are 0 Provides highcapacity fiber optic transport 0 Defines a system of synchronous signal level 0 Includes a highlevel of OAMampP Operations Administration Maintenance and Provisioning capability 0 Supports automatic protection switching 0 Allows a highdegree of interoperability between different vendor platforms 0 SONET offers fault tolerance and reliability Network costs are lower However there are disadvantages to using SONET This is something that is almost hard to believe with what seems to be the perfect answer The following are the disadvantages 0 SONET is not for the everyday home network 0 It is primarily utilized in carrier networks such as Verizon Cox and Comcast in their high speed backbones Analog and Digital Technology 8 0 Requires strict synchronization schemes 0 SONET is not cheap because of the complex and costly equipment On the ipside to Synchronous Optical Networking SONET we also have the TX which is another name for the Tlor T3 data lines and so on These lines use adigital transmission to transfer digitaldata over point to point or point to multipoint communication channel The various ways for these lines to communicate are copper wire optical fiber or wireless For the digital transmission to take place forms of data information such as voice textor image data is converted into binary code which is nothing other than a combination of ones and zeros At the receiver end binary code is converted back into original format It provides clearer and faster transmission using less bandwidth to transmit more information than analog transmissionFor instance University of Phoenix spelled in binary code would look like the following 0 0101010101101110011010010111011001100101011100100111001101101001 0111010001111001001000000110111101100110001000000101000001101000 0110111101100101011011100110100101111000 This is only what three words look like just image the entire document spelled out this way Here are some advantages to using these lines 0 The T3 line cantransport a mass amount of data 0 The T3 internet line has 672 separate channels that can allow 672 people to simultaneously browse the net at a very high speed Theodorou 2008 0 T1 are fast at 15 mbps but T3 provides connection speeds as high as 446 mbps Analog and Digital Technology 9 With these speeds and the ability to transport a vast amount of data the TX data lines seem to provide all the answers we are looking for However there is always a downfall According to Data Connect Enterprise a networking company based in Olney Maryland T3 bandwidth can cost as much as 15000 per mont Johnson 2011 This means that using a T3 line can be very expensive to use Using a T1 line is around a fraction of the cost at about 1000 a month however this is not for a home network The other downfall is that adding a dedicated T1 line to a home or a T3 line to a business will require physical installation of the line The bottom line is that TXlines are expensive and only medium to large companies can afford the upgrade In contrast the one thing to remember about both of these types of data and communication lines is that they are not for the home network Cost of installation can run very high and they are meant for the networks that need the speed and bandwidth So unless one is a millionaire it is safe to leave these data line to the big dogs Analog and Digital Technology 10 References Alturayef M Rodriguez D2007ADSL Technology Retrieved January 13 2012 from httpeceecoloradoeduecen4242adsladsltechnologyhtm Bhatia A 2007 80211 Retrieved January 13th from httpittoolboxcomWikiindexphp802 1 1 Gao F 1998 An Introduction to the V 90 56K Modem January 13 2012 from httpWWWeetimescomdesigncornmunicationsdesign4018048AnIntroductionto theV9056KModem KVEDARAS R R KVEDARAS V V amp USTINAVICIUS T T 2011 Retrieved January 13 2012 from Settling Time Testing of Fast DACs Acta Physica Polonica A 1194 521527 Johnson J 2011 July 11 What is t3 bandwidth Retrieved January 13 2012 from Analog and Digital Technology 11 httpWWWehowcominfo8720239t3bandwidthhtml Theodorou V 2008 April 30 T3 internet Retrieved January 13 2012 from httpWWWsquidoocomt3internet


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