POS 355 Week 5 Team assignment Paper
POS 355 Week 5 Team assignment Paper fin571
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Operating System analysis Operating System Analysis When considering which operating system for a home or business office computer or network of computers, it is important to evaluate areas of the different operating systems options. When evaluating Microsoft Windows XP, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, and Linux operating systems it is important to consider the system requirements, the different editions available, security features, system features, updates and support, user interface and cost effectiveness. Depending on what a person’s or organization’s needs are will determine which operating system is the best fit. Windows XP System Requirements and Physical Memory Limits Working with XP Professional and Home Edition has the same requirements. These requirements are a PC with a 233 megahertz or higher (a 300 megahertz + processor speed is recommended), 64 megabytes (MB) of RAM or higher (128 MB is recommended), 1.5 gigabytes (GB) of available hard drive space, CD/DVDROM DR and also a monitor and video adapter which supports super VGA or higherresolution, keyboard, and mouse/pointing device. The Windows XP Starter Edition has different system requirements. These are 233MHz processor or better, 256 MB of RAM, Super VGA (800x600) monitor and video, mouse and pointer and also the keyboard, Graphics that have 32 MB of graphics memory or DirectX 9, and the highly recommended Internet access. Although Windows XP has minimum system requirements, it also has limits on the physical memory. The maximum RAM supported for the Starter Edition is 512 MB. The Professional and Home Editions both have a physical memory limit of 4 GB. Windows XP will not recognize anything over the limits (Microsoft, 2010). 1 Operating System analysis Windows XP Editions There are two main editions of Windows XP. There is the Home Edition and Professional Edition. Another edition is the Starter Edition. Each edition has certain aspects that the user will need to know to determine the proper edition to meet his or her needs. For example, the Professional Edition may be a must for a business, but for a personal use computer the Home edition would probably be ideal. The edition that is called Windows XP starter is much different from the other two. This edition has limited hardware and only allows a user to run only three programs. XP Starter will also have features which are removed or disabled from the default. XP Starter is not that expensive like the other two editions, and it is available in same places. XP was made to replace windows 2000 and windows NT4. This edition was to replace the professional edition. The home edition, took place of the version of windows 98/95 and also ME. The features of this are offline folders and files, remote desktop, encrypting file system, software installation, roaming user profiles, maintenance, and installation services. Windows XP Security Windows XP has many security features offered in different packs. Some packs provide the ability to make NT files and also allows encrypted files to help us manage the read only and write permissions. Here are some services packs that XP has to offer. SP1 was out on September 9, 2002 and contains: 2 Operating System analysis Window massager 4.7 Post RTM security fixes and hot fixes Compatibility updates NET framework support Enabling technologies for like tablet PC USB 2.0 support Users can controls defaults applications and the feature in the Microsoft’s bundled programs. SP2 contains: WPA encryption compatibility WiFi support Popup blocker for the Internet explorer 6 Bluetooth support Great firewall The service packs come with different features and will be chosen depending on the needs and requirements of the user. Windows XP System Features 3 Operating System analysis XP home edition is the newest OS for home users who use windows 98, 95 and millennium edition (ME). With this new edition it includes advanced and also businesses features so the company can accomplish more efficiently and productively in the workplace. This new XP has also improvements over windows 2000 to appeal to both home and businesses users. More enhancements have been added to improve hardware, applications, security and ease for users to change to different accounts faster. The media on the new editions works on the movies, music users download and also added improved firewall on the hardware and software. Business has chosen Windows XP Professional to run their businesses. Windows XP has great manageability, great security, reliability, and also has the great features for business running 98 windows. XP Professional has made the interface and plug and play capabilities to support businesses. .Windows XP Languages Windows XP is designed to have more than one language. With this software installed users can have multiplelanguage setups for each user on your computer. This is beneficial because if a business deals with customers in different parts of the world, businesses can convert the documents that you receive from them. The image below shows how to change the language and how to use it. Windows XP New Updated Features 4 Operating System analysis Windows XP has many new updated features over previous versions of Windows. New features are present in the user interface and appearance, performance, stability, application compatibility, device support, system administration, networking, and security. The user interface and appearance was changed drastically from previous versions to give the OS a smoother feel. The sharpness of the fonts and the clarity of the graphics were improved. Many different ways to line up icons and organize the desktop were provided to help the user customize his or her Windows experience. The user interface will be covered in more detail in the next section. The performance of Windows XP was changed by improving memory management and by using a different kernel than the older Windows 9x and ME operating systems. The end user does not see how these improvements are made because they are made behind the scenes. More virtual memory was allocated to the system and the kernel was set up with simultaneous multithreading so the processor could process more than one thread at a time. Stability was improved by creating side by side assemblies (SxS). SxS is the ability for the OS to store different versions of DLLs to ensure that a program using one version of the DLL does not grab the wrong version and cause the application to crash. Application compatibility was achieved by Microsoft designing XP with the Application Compatibility Toolkit to ensure that older application would work with XP. Device support was improved in many ways. Windows XP was the first Windows version that had CD burning built in the OS. No longer was third party software needed for burning CDs. Device driver rollback was also included in this version to ensure that if a new 5 Operating System analysis driver was installed that made the system unstable the user could easy rollback to the older stable driver. Power management was also improved to reduce power consumption and increase battery life for laptops. Faster recovery from standby mode was created to encourage more users to use standby mode. System administration improvements were mostly made in the area of remote management. Remote desktop was created to allow the administrator to log into a desktop remotely and use all the functions available. Remote assistance was also created to allow a user to take over the computer and provide support to a user having trouble. Automated system recovery was also created to allow the administrators to recover a system that was corrupted. Various network and security features were added to Windows XP to promote more connectivity with tighter security. Peer to peer support for networking was installed. Basic networking diagnostics were set up to help diagnose networking problems. Software restriction policies were enabled to limit users of which software could be installed and ran on a system. A credential manger was also installed to ensure that all credentials were up to date and valid. Encrypted file systems also became an option in Windows XP to help protect sensitive data from being copied without permission. The various upgrade and new features added in Windows XP were leaps and bounds over the older Windows operating Systems. Windows XP is a stable, high performing operating system and these features and upgrades accomplish the goal. Windows XP User Interface 6 Operating System analysis The Previous windows in XP versions their interface is not like the others. The classic start button is still in place but the options under it have expanded. The user can access more options from the start button and the start menu is customizable with shortcuts to frequently used programs. A quick launch bar is added for even faster use of commonly used programs like web browsers, text editors, or whatever else the user wants to access with just one click. Windows Explorer has been updated in Windows XP to have a more visual and functional appeal. Explorer is more than just a file system navigator and has access to other options, such; as other computers on the network and the other printers on the network. There is also many shortcuts to commonplaces like the “my documents” folder or the media folders. An animated search function was also added to help with the search process through files and folders. Windows XP also offered many improvements to image handling. The user can set various ways to view media files such as pictures or video. The file browser can be setup to view as a film strip, slide show, or the classic thumbnail. The user can also choose just view the file name and nothing else. Metadata also can be added to the files to help with the search options and to organize the media. Windows XP also allowed the user to go to “classic view” in many instances if the user was more comfortable with Windows 2000 or previous versions. This feature allowed users to avoid upgrading due the learning curve of a new operating system. The user interface allowed Windows XP to stand out from the previous versions of Windows. Windows XP Product Activation 7 Operating System analysis There are many copies of Windows XP which are not legit copies. In order to decrease the protection of XP, Microsoft has attached keys that are called product keys to every computer that is sent out. This requires the operating system to be activated over the Internet connection or by phone within 30 days of installation. Windows updates and Service Packs are only available to those with legit and unique product keys. Users will not be able to download and install these updates if there computer does not pass the Windows Genuine Advantage verification (Microsoft, 2010). Definition of Windows 2003 Windows 2003 is also known as Windows Server 2003 in which the operating system in this case Windows 2003 is based on a server. Information is transferred to and from utilizing a network. Since the operating system will be using a network, it has some features that are truly beneficial; these features are a Microsoft Management Console, Print Management, Identity Management, and File Server Management, (Microsoft, 2011). The Microsoft Management Console has the ability to list and inform the user of any available actions that are available to be executed. MMC also comes with built in error handling to correct issues on the fly and there is no need for the system to crash. Print Management informs the user with up to date information. PM information available to the user includes the queue the documents pending to be printed. Names of printers that have the pending documents, servers where the printers are located and informs user’s amount of toner available. The toner life for example percentage available, in the status print failures will be displayed including 8 Operating System analysis paper jam, no paper available. Print Management is simply the ability for one computer or group of computers processing information in California for example and the information then printed in New York. In addition to Identity Management it features the ability for UNIX based operating systems to utilize Windows. IM also allows both Windows and UNIX to operate and simplify passwords in synchronization so the users do not need to have separate passwords, one for Windows and another for UNIX and work over the server, (Microsoft, 2011). File Server Management is a very powerful snap in feature from MMC and gives the ability for many tasks to be completed. These tasks are formatting volumes, creating shares, defragmenting the created shares and managing the shares created, ability to set limits. Other tasks are creating reports, replicating data from one file server to another, lastly managing Storage Area Networks as well as sharing files universally between Windows, UNIX, and Macintosh, (Microsoft, 2011). Windows Server 2003 also has the ability for Hardware Management this ability is completed using Windows Remote Management. This is remotely completed to manage other computers, printers, software, a network administrator can log into a computer in Texas while residing in Florida. Remotely handled can be storage spaces, creating additional folders, taking and assigning access to folders created, access can allow users to only view content, edit content, and create new content on the folders. Linux Operating System Analysis Linux began as a part of the GNU Project started by Richard Stallman in 1983. The GNU project seeks to create open source free software under the General Public License (GPL) framework. Many of the system tools and libraries used by Linus Torvalds to create the system 9 Operating System analysis kernel for Linux in 1991 came from the GNU Project. The name Linux comes from the name Torvalds gave his kernel (The Rise of the Free Software Movement, 2004). Linux started as a UNIX derivative. The goal was to create a legally unencumbered version that would be suitable for home, small business, and server use. Being free software (The Rise of the Free Software Movement, 2004), many programmers and professionals would be able to work on the Operating System to create enhancements and new tools. While Torvalds is still credited with creating the original kernel, many others have worked on it to create the subsequent generations released to the public. Linux has changed as it has grown over the years since the first release of the finished kernel in 1992. It is now used to run platforms from PCs to servers and mainframes. Its proven versatility and utility has helped it gain in popularity over time making it a major contender when it comes to choosing an Operating System. Graphic User Interfaces (GUI) Since Linux is open source, it isn’t limited to one GUI or the command line interpreter (CLI). There are currently three major GUIs available for Linux with a potential fourth on the horizon. The three current interfaces are the X Window System, GNOME, and the KDE Plasma desktop environment. The X Window System was the first GUI released for Linux use and has been around almost as long as Linux itself. GNOME was the second entrant followed shortly by KDE. The new GUI just out is Xfce. All are Windows like interfaces and have a very similar appearance and feel to both Microsoft’s Windows and Apple’s Mac OS X. While running a GUI the command line is still available through a terminal window. Some server installations forego the GUI altogether and run application and programs strictly from the command line. Applications 10 Operating System analysis Part of the popularity of Linux is due to the sheer number of programs available for it. For almost every Mac and Windows application that doesn’t have a version already ported to Linux, there are open source counterparts that can be run instead. Even when commercial packages are available for Linux there may still be competition. Being open source, that means they are free to use. Open Office and LIBRE for example are alternatives to Microsoft Office. Internet offerings include most of the current crop of browsers such as Firefox, Opera, and Chrome. There are also packages for servers. The best known is the Apache HTTP web server. Apache was originally written for Linux. Since its inception it has proven to be a very capable and dependable product. It has also been ported to Windows and Mac OS X. It is still in use on web servers running all three Operating Systems to this day and continues to be improved with each new release. Linux Flavors There are various Linux distributions available. Different vendors combine Linux with various setup tools and utilities to create packages called “distros”. They could be considered different flavors of Linux each designed with a different focus in mind. The Debian Project is a distribution that is not sponsored by a company. Debian is a free distribution that is supported by thousands of volunteers and funded through donations. A commercial product based on Debian intended for desktop use is Ubuntu. The commercial side of Linux distributors includes two wellknown companies, Novell and Red Hat. Novell distributes SUSE which is aimed at the professional market. Red Hat not produces its own distribution for desktop use but also sponsors the Fedora Project. The goal of 11 Operating System analysis the Fedora Project is to lead advances in free and open software. Many consider Fedora releases beta versions of what will eventually become release candidates of future versions of Red Hat. Then there is Mandriva Linux. Mandriva Linux used to be known as Mandrake Linux and is a French distribution of Linux produced by Mandriva , formerly Mandrakesoft. This is an example of a “distro” that started out based on another distribution, Red Hat version 5.1, but has undergone so many changes since then it is now considered a fullfledged independent distribution. Windows Emulators The WINE open source project is intended to provide Linux and other open source Operating Systems with the capability to run applications designed for Microsoft’s Windows OS without Windows being installed on the system. This started out a tall order and has not gotten any easier with subsequent releases of Windows or the programs running under them. As Keir Thomas put it in his October, 2009 PC World article, “Often, getting Wine to deliver is a black art, and not for novices.” This begins with installing some of the default Windows fonts that applications will expect. Mr. Thomas also recommends picking an emulator with an install wizard. Besides commercial products, there is an open source offering called WineDoors that does provide easy setup by Linux standards. That does not mean it should attempted by a novice. Until an emulator is developed that is as easy to install in Linux as a Windows application is on a Windows machine, it is best to leave emulators to the more experienced Linux users. Cost Windows XP 12 Operating System analysis Microsoft Windows XP is available in two different categories: the Home and Professional editions. Behind the green or blue box lies exactly the same operating system with a few minor feature differences. The professional edition adds some extra business oriented features over the Home edition with the support of SMP systems, Active Directory and IIS Web server, the suggested list price is $199.00 Windows Server 2008 Microsoft Windows Server 2008 is the most advanced Windows Server operating system yet, designed to power the nextgeneration of networks, applications, and Web services. With Windows Server 2008 you can develop, deliver, and manage rich user experiences and applications, provide a secure network infrastructure, and increase technological efficiency and value within your organization. Windows Server 2008 builds on the success and strengths of its Windows Server predecessors, while the suggested price is $130 to $199. Linux Red Hat Enterprise Linux WS is the technical and design workstation partner for Enterprise Linux AS and Enterprise Linux ES. It is ideal for all engineering desktop deployments, including design workstations, software development environments, and targeted engineering ISV client applications. When configured as a headless workstation, Enterprise Linux WS is also ideally suited for use as a compute node in a high performance computing (HPC) environment, the suggested price is $23.84. In the Final Analysis 13 Operating System analysis Although the Linux operating system may seem like the most cost effective, one must decide which features are more important. The security and extra features may be a good investment for an organization when choosing a Windows operating system. For larger organizations Windows Server 2008 may be a more efficient choice. There are many things to consider, however the most important may be the size of the network and the hardware compatibility. In a lot of cases using multiple operating systems may be beneficial as well. 14 Operating System analysis References: Microsoft. (2011). Windows Server Techcenter. Retrieved from http://technet.microsoft.com/en us/library/cc773240(WS.10).aspx The Rise of the Free Software Movement. (2004). Multinational Monitor, 25(7/8), 29. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Thomas, K. (2009). How to Run Your Windows Applications in Linux. PC World, 27(10), 101. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/library/bb457058.aspx 2010 Microsoft Corporation retrieved Retrieved on August 2011 from: http://technet.microsoft.com/enus/default.aspx http://www.windowsnetworking.com/articles_tutorials/wxpdifs.html 2010 TechGenix Ltd.Microsoft (2010) Microsoft Windows XP. Retrieved August 2011 from www.microsoft.com 15
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