New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 3 Study Guide

by: Benny Ye

Exam 3 Study Guide PSY 351LEC

Benny Ye
GPA 3.65
Meyer, P

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

I made this study guide with the help of the outline that Professor Meyer gave us. I expanded on it and added notes under the following things to know bullet points. It will all make sense once you...
Meyer, P
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Biopsychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Benny Ye on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 351LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Meyer, P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.

Similar to PSY 351LEC at UB


Reviews for Exam 3 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/11/15
Rhythms 1 Know how the Suprchiasmatic nucleus in uences the sleepwake ip op located near hypothalamus optic chasm without the SCN there is no circadian rhythm so SCN transplants xes that 2 Know the general theory regarding how the SCN quotticksquot Gene makes mRNA mRNA exits nucleus and makes protein in cytoplasm protein expressed protein returns back to nucleus Gene stops making mRNA cycle repeats when protein is low again Sleep 0 Know the stages of sleep the different kinds of EEG electroncephalograph waves and what synchrony slow wave sleep desynchrony awake means 0 Alpha 814htz relaxation Beta1430htz arousal Theta 38htz REM Sleep Delta14htz deepest slow wave sleep Stages of sleep lst 2nd 3rd 4th REM theta and beta waves 0 synchrony looks like uniform brain activity on the EEG recorder while desychrony does not an orchestra playing with a composer vs a band of musicians all playing something 0 net average of neuron activity and where it is in the brain EEG Know the role of adenosine in producing sleepiness brain arousal systems and NTs Acetylcholine serotonin norepinephrine histamine 0 serotoninactivating behavior released in the raphe nucleus which is in pons and medulla region 0 raphe nucleuscontains serotonergic neurons within the pons and basal forebrain there are acetylcholinic nuerons norepinephrineinformation storage inactive when we are asleep 0 Know the sleep ip op system the interaction between the leOAa group of GABA neurons that promotes sleep and the arousal systems 0 When VLPOA is inhibited arousal is on meaning person is in alert awake state Flip op on when VLPOA is activated Flip op off 0 Know how orexin neurons in the LHatera hypo in uence the ip op and how they neurons are in uenced by environmental events adenosine makes us drowsy and as we stay awake adenosine builds up in the brain when orexin hypocretin gets destroyed causing narcolepsy Know the REM sleep ip op including the role of the ventrolateral PAGREM off the sublaterodorsal nuceusSLD Know how emotional stimuli might induce a cataplectic attack in someone with narcolepsy Reproduction 10Know the de nition of a hormone 1 component in the development of reproductive systems and the activation of malefemale characteristics for adulthood is due to hormones 11 The Y chromosome carries a gene called the sexdetermining region of Y 5R Y makes a family of proteins that are collectively called testes determining factor TDF 12 If Y chromosome is present SRY is expressed and TDF acts at the undifferentiated gonad to make it develop into a testis Testes release two key chemicals androgens and antiM llerian hormone 13Know how steroid hormones alter gene expression 14 Know the hormones of the posterior and anterior pituitary especially in their relation to reproductive behavior 15Know about Androgen Insensitivity Syndromewhen an XY human lacks functioning of androgen receptors Persistent Miillerian duct syndrome Turner39s syndrome1 x chromosome no gonads unable to have children 16 males have a MPAmedial preoptic area the larger nucleus size for males area is known as sexually dimorphic nuceusSDN oconnections between MPA and the motor neurons of the spinal cord are accomplished through the periaqueductal gray matter PAG of the midbrain and the nucleus paragigantocellularis nPGl of the medulla o stimulation via electricity oSDN regulates copulatory behavior for males 17 PAGpreiaqueducta gray matter plays an essential role in various species typical behaviors including female sexual behavior Excites the nPGl 18 nPGl nucleus paragigantocellularis receives input from the medial preoptic area and contains neurons whose axons form synapses with motor neurons in the spinal cord that participate in sexual re exes in males 39 use of SSRI is known to suppress male sexual behavior 19Know the HPG axis and the hormones involved and the role of these hormones in the menstrual cycle ogonadtropin releasing hormone causing pituitary gland to secrete follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone located in the arcuate nucleus 0 both hormones develop the ovarian follicle contribute to ovulation o menstruationcleansing of the uterus lining happens if pregnancy does not oestradiol main version of estrogen o estrogen develops female secondary sex characteristics affects female sex drive and intensity 11Know the steps of the menstrual cycle including how the follicule develops and releases the ovum which then turns into the corpus luteum and releases estradiol and progesterone Know how FSH and LH in uence the cycle 0 luteinizing hormone causes ovulation the ovarian follicle turns into a quotyellow bodyquot othe quotyellowquot body secretes estradiol and progesteronesteroid hormone maintains uterine lining and promotes sex urges for females 12Know the evidence supporting the organizationalactivational hypothesis How does the perinatal administration of testosterone or estrogen affect the masculizationfeminization of the brain as measured by mountinglordosis o hormones dual roles sexual differentiation of body and brain adult regulation and development of sexual behavior ocircuits of neurons at work in the spinal cord controlling erection and ejaculation prenatal androgenization makes it more likely to be attracted to females happens for females and males In other words the organizational effects of androgen 11Know the brain areas involved in mediating sexual behavior including the medial Preoptic area and sexually dimorphic nucleus males PAG nucleus paragigantocellularis and the ventromedial hypothalamus in females 12 sex hormones affect on the medial amygdala perceiving pheromone related info 10 1 estrogen receptors abundant in the female brain 2 pseudorabies virus via retrograde tracing to see the areas activated when engage in sex Eating and Drinking 19Know the principles of osmosis and how changes in intracellular and extracellular salt content can change the ow of water into and out of cells 20 homeostasis body substances and conditions are kept at optimal settings 21intracellularwithin cells vs in btwn cells interstitial uids vs intravascularwithin blood vessels 22intraceluar little water intake too much sodium osmotic thirst 23voumetric decrease in water and salt volume storage 24Know how cells in the brain can detect changes in water and salt content in the body 25adrenal hyperplaxia salt imbalance salt cravings 26aldosterone kidneys works to retain the salt in the body 27 Lewis Dahl campaign for excessive salt consequence 28 What39s ADH antidiuretic hormone the vasopressin where does it get released PVN patraventricular N and supraoptic N SON brain areas within the hyper thalamus 29vasopressin functions as increases water retention and constricts and regulates vessels blood pressure 30How does the kidney and arterial baroreceptors detect hypovolemia 1 kidneys detect volumetric water loss angiotensin 1 turns 2 and combined with adotersone causes an increases in appetite and thirst feelings 31VentraateraPreoptic AreavLPOA regulates the feeling of thrist in body 32 Extracellular dehydration symptoms like hemorrhage vomit perspiration 33Know all the steps in the angiotensin pathway and where angiotensis acts in the brain What is the role of angiotensin in uid and salt intake 1 Angiotensinvolume thirst kidney sends out renin and then angiotensin cascades into the II stage which is trying to retain water and salt quantity 34Know how blood levels of glucose are regulated by insulin and gucagon and how organs derive energy from glucose andor fat 1 glucose cannot enter cells so it builds up in the blood and causes hyperglycemia diabetes mellitus 35Food intake and relationship with mechanisms for motivational behavior 36Gycogen is short term energy reservoir and fatty acids is long term reservoir 1 glucoprivation rapid decrease in glucose 2 lipoprivation rapid decrease in fatty acids 37Know how information about nutrients are transmitted to the brain and the nerves and hormones involved Including but not limited to the vagus nerve liver portal vein system CCK nucleus of the solitary tract 1 receptors in the liver and in the brain gives us physiological signals of hunger 2 stomach receptors send out CCK and PYY to decrease our appetite 3 stomach sends out Ghrelin to tell us we are hungry 38lnsulinstores glucose in cells and Glucagon make glucose readily usable 39Know the brain areas involved in feeding behavior the LateralH the VentroMediaH 1 secretion of MCH increase hunger 40HPT axisnegative feedback hypothalamus secretes TRH then causes emission of TSH body temperature insulin breakdown of food 1 involved in the metabolism of food Obese children have more TSH emission 41 Know the role of feeding hormones including leptin agrp npy MSH and how is comes form POMC CART ghrelin CCK and the organsbrain areas they39re located in 1 Ghrelin levels were higher at the end of the fasting study than at the beginning Ramadan fasting 2 Cholecystokinin bilesacmove CCK from intestines to periphery receptors connected to vagus nerve sensory ber Learning and memory 28Know the types of memory including associative and nonassociative memory 1 Associative learning is the process by which an association between two stimuli or a behavior and a stimulus is learned The two forms of associative learning are classical and operant conditioning 2 Non associative habituation amp sensitization refers to quota relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus 29Know habituationtethering sensitizationheightening dishabituation spontaneous recovery fatigue and how they can be studied experimentally 1 habituation and sensitization are opposite learning responses 2 habituation cascading lower synaptic strength senstization cascading stronger synaptic strength 30Know the neural circuit mechanisms of habituation and sensitization worked about by Kandel39s work in the sea slug Aplysia 1 motor neuron and inter facilitator neuron 31Know what Donald Hebb said about the neural basis of associativestimulus response learning 1 requires strengthening of a synapse that is repeatedly active when neuron res cellular learning basis 2 whenever neurons depolarize together their connection enhances 32Know the structural changes in synapses associated with learning neuro plasticity neuro genesis 1 of connections increases axon terminals dendrites 2 new neurons formation 3 more NT release or more synaptic receptors 33Know how the NMDA receptors functions as a coincidence detector 1 one of 3 of the Glutamate receptor glutamate is blocked because Mg2 stays blocking the channel only when enough positive ions are within the receptor does it nally come out checks if the pre and post synaptic neuron is activating simultaneously sodium goes through AMPA receptor calcium does not through AM PA calcium role in LTPCaMK11 responds to calciummore AMPA receptor develops CREB then changes gene expression retrograde transmitters go from terminal back to the cell nucleus once returned to the presynaptic the NTs release of glutamate increases 34Know what LTP is Know the synaptic changes that occur during LTP and the molecules involved Especially NMDA magnesium AMPA CAMKII glutamate creb retrograde neurotransmitters like nitric oxide 1 3 4 LTP when the response of the postsynaptic neuron is enhanced can lasts for years Starting point is PSP then after consistent training then the PSP increases LTP is highly noticeable in hippocampus CA1 to CA3 are hippocampal regions 35Lesions in extrastriate auditory or visual perceptual learning 36lesions in the basal ganglia or blocking of NDMA receptors causes de cits in instrumental conditioning 37esions in inferior temporal cortex causes de cits in perceptual learning 38lesions in cuadate nucleus causes de cit motor learning 39lesions in hippocampus causes de cit spatial learning 40lesions in lateral temporal cortex causes de cit in semantic memory 41 lesions in the Medial temporal lobe damage causes impairment on matching objects 42what classical conditioning is and how it is used to study learning in humans and in animals Know what eyeblink conditioning is and the brain areas involved 43Dopamine neurons located in the ventral tegmental area reach out to the accumbensimbic and hippocampus 1 associative LTP because the reinforcer or prediction of reinforcer sti increases dopamine 44Know the brain systems involved in motor learning perceptual learning and spatial learning Hippocampus not the location for long term memory or short term memorynot necessary for retrieval of long term memory HOWEVER it plays a role in consolidation 0 hippocampus contain place cells grid cells head direction cells etc Declarative explicit capable of recounting retelling Nondeclarative usually perceptual stimulus response or motor control of behaviors remembering how to behave that is automatic episodic when and where a memory took place depends on context semantic simple facts 0 re consolidation of memories when older memories are reactivated with reminder of the old memory Dentate gyrus is one place in the brain where adult stem cells can split to make new neurons KNOW YOUR BRAIN AREAS Areas that contain osmoreceptors and control vasopressin Sleep ip op REM ip op Sexually dimorphic brain areas 0 Brain areas that promoteinhibit feeding and uid intake 0 Brain areas involved in speci c form of learning and memory KNOW YOUR NEUROPEPTIDESHORMONES Hormones involved in the menstrual cycle Neuropeptides involved promoting or inhibiting feeding in the brain or periphery gut liver pancreas fat tissue Neuropeptidehormones involved in uid intake including the angtiotensin system Oxytocin and vasopressin hormones that facilitate pair bonding oxytocinfemaes vasopressinmaes Peptideshormones involved in reproductive development 0 testoterone and androgens of the testes causes masculinity oAntimullerian hormone suppresses the mullerian developmentdefeminization known as organizational effects


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.