Psych 105 Exam 3 notes
Psych 105 Exam 3 notes Psych 105
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Wednesday November 11, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 105 at Washington State University taught by Arig Aboulenein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 11/11/15
Psych 105 Thinking Cognition mental activities involved in and 0 Thinking 1 Mental images mental representation of object or event NOT physically present images in your head 2 Creating concepts mental grouping of objects Types of concepts Forma concepts mental category formed by learning rules othese are rigid Natura concepts formed by everyday experiences o 0 think of birds and how penguin somewhat ts in the bird category Prototypes best or most typical example of a particular subject Example bird eagle crow Exampars individual instances Example birdall the birds you know 3 Problem Solving 0 Trial and Error trying different solutions and eliminating those that do not work 0 Algorithms using a strategy that follows a speci c rule or method 0 Instinct sudden realization of a solution 0 Heuristic menta shortcut to reduce number of solutions Obstacles to ProblemSolving 0 Functional xedness the inability to see a problem form a new persoective o Mental set the tendency to approach a problem with a mindset that has worked in the past using the same method that was used in a past event to solve the current problem Language 0 Displacement language can communicate meaningful ideas 0 Generativity language is creative 0 Multilingualism knowing multiple languagesability to control attention can build up cognitive reserve inhibit distractions 0 Alfred Binet created a test to measure mental ability Mental agethe average age at which each question should be answered correctly 0 Lewis Terman took Binet s work and expanded the theory developed the concept of IQ Mass intelligence testing the army developed a way to test millions of recruits during WWI 0 Army Alpha test administered in writing 0 Army Beta test administered orally to recruits and draftees who could not read 0 Two types of intelligence tests 1 Achievement test measures how much you already know from education or training 2 Aptitude test assess a person s ability to bene t from education of training 14chievement is What you know and aptitude is What gro W5 0 Requirements of a good test 1 Standardization l norm score administration of a test to a large population to received large amounts of data to nd the norm score Norm typically following a pattern 2 Reliability results the ability of a test to produce consistent results 3 Validityit works the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure Theories of Intelligence Description Spearman s Theory 55ingle factor beieved a single factor affects intelligence menta ability is all connected Mental energylevel of intelligence Thurston Theory Ttoo diverse to be numbered proposed 7 different primary mental abilities a separated from each other beieved that intelligence is too diverse to be numbered Gardner s Theory Gardner is great he found 8 proposed 8 different primary mental abilities mental abilities are independent can NOT be re ected in a test Different culturesDifferent intelligence Sternberg s Theory 5ternberg social and cultural universa intelligence adapting to a social and cultural environment Successful intelligence environment Analytical Creative Practica Emotions 6 Basic Emotions 1 Happiness 3 Surprise 5 Anger 2 Fear 4 Sadness 6 Disgust Emotion vs Mood o Emotion a psychological state that in volves a o Mood a milderemotional state that is more general tied to one s personality Evolution and emotions emotions have helped with adaptation to issues with survival and reproduction ex fearlj ee from attacker ex angerlj ght rival 0 Today emotions help with solving adaptive problems Valence the degree of the emotion pleasant or unpleasant Arousal the intensity of emotion Ex John is sad So sad he starts to cry SadVaence CryingArousal Neuroscience of emotion emotions are associated with distinct patters of responses by sympathetic nervous system and in the brain different emotionsdifferent responses Fear decrease in skin temp Anger increase in skin temp Microexpressions discovered by Paul Ekamn eeting facial expressions that indicate deceit deception associated with nonverbal cues they last for about 125 of a second Polygraphs it measures physiological changes associated with emotions 0 Problems no unique physiological arousal for lying innocent people may be anxious when asked queonns Amygdala and Fear part of the imbic system activates when something is threatening damaged amygdalacannot feel fear reckless behavior quotpsychic blindnessquotinabiity to recognize fear in facial expression JamesLange Theory of Emotion 1 Stimulus is perceived 2 Physiological and behavior changes 3 Changes experienced as an emotion Suppo Cquue basic emotions produce a distinct patter of brain activity expressing the emotionl subject will experience the emotion the emotions are not matched by the range of physical reactions emotional reactions are usually faster than physiological counterparts Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion it is possible to intentionalyunintentionay to change your emotion O Emotion Regulation physical activey controlling physiological reaction Ex deep breaths slowing down the heart rate Cognitive Reappraisal psychological you reevaluate an event so that a different emotion results focusing on the positive of a situation Expressive Suppression physical deiberatey concealing emotions Facial expression Tone of voice Nonverbal cues posture o Humanistic Perspective Car Rogers and Abraham Maslow emphasized the importance of psychological and cognitive factors Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Psychological Self actualization Esteem Love and Belonging Physical Safety and Security Needs Physioogica People can move up and down the scale Selfful llment personal growth Achievement Selfrespect Friendship intimacy affection Protection from elements order law stability Food Water Shelter People who reach selfactualization 0 Characteristics accurate perspectives of themselves spontaneous natural open in behavior and thoughts focus on problems outside of themselves appreciate the simples pleasures in life 0 Peak Experiences moments of intense ecstasy wonder and aw during which their sense of self is lost
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