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by: Annie Demith

SGE2pt1WesternCiv.pdf Hist 1220 Western Civilization From 1500 - by Professor Ingram

Annie Demith
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Study guide for the second exam in Western Civilization after 1500. Professor Ingram.
Study Guide
history, literature.
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annie Demith on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1220 Western Civilization From 1500 - by Professor Ingram at Ohio University taught by in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views.

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Date Created: 03/28/16
Henri IV- figure of absolutism in France; assumption of the throne, continuously converted back and forth in order to become ruler; wanted his people to feel economically secure  Tried to centralize the power and economy, as well as tried to end blood fueds  Edict to Nantes- Paris is Catholic only, had rights but you had to stay in your religious zones o Wasn’t legislation was a royal edict o Didn’t work, he was assassinated and succeeded by Lewis XIII Sovereignty- (fear fighting, killing can’t go on forever- politiques thought this way)- Bishop Jacques  Somebody has to have not just power but also be recognized as the legitimate source of authority. o Resides in one person o Thought to help France deal with the religious divisions Edict of Nantes- SEE UNDER HENRI IV. Revocation of Edict of Nantes- Louis XIV. Gave choice, you can either be catholic in France or you can leave.  Cost France human capital, in the name of uniformity.  Lost merchants and other workers  People went to England or America, taking the skills they had developed. Versailles- English Reformation- Puritanism- Popery and Arbitrary Government- these two coexist- James VI & I.  Popery = following Pope; A.K.A. king acting like a papist (follower of the Pope)  Arbitrary Government- acting as a tyrant; no checks on power o I.E. Charles I using taxes that hadn’t been used for 100 years. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) - Leviathan: frontispiece  Bottom of it shows war, top shows order. o Literal embodiment of people o People had only one right, not to be killed  Obligated to do what Leviathan (ultimate ruler) tells you to.  You can think anything you want but have to follow civil order.  Thought on politics emerged from his wondering of how to know things. His idea was to know by feeling/sensing. o Non-sensicle things; the only way to assure civil order was to have sovereignty reside in one place.  Like Machiavelli, fear over love. o The constant state of war during his lifetime made Hobbes cynical. o Saw people as animals, humanity’s natural state of war/anarchy because people act on competition (religion and politics), political views of how things should run, and self-interest. o His solution was absolute monarchy Oliver Cromwell (1599-1655) –One of the chief leaders of Regicide, saw himself as “England’s Moses.” In charge at the time that Hobbes wrote the Leviathan. He ran a Godly republicanism (50 + 1, people elect individuals to make decisions; Church officials, people wouldn’t go against religion)  Cromwell threw out anyone in Parliament who disagreed (not a king but acted like one)  10 years of Civil War over politics and religion  After his death, Religious Radicalism erupted, everyone accepted but English and Roman Church. Glorious Revolution (1688) - bloodless (almost no deaths), not a real war. England (Parliament) didn’t want Cromwell in charge anymore.  William of Orange (protestant): Parliament gives him the right to take the throne  Led to the emergence of Constitutionalism English Bill of Rights (1689) – William of Orange. Locke was a huge influence on this. (tabula rasa- blank slate, social contract theory: agreement between people and the government, right to rebel if gov. doesn’t protect rights)  Natural, inalienable rights: life, liberty, and property  Right to trial, freedom of speech in Parliament, king can’t make or suspend laws without Parliament’s approval, basically more power for parliament and there are rules to point out if government oversteps their boundaries o It is important as society changes to modify the rules and things that were not previously listed that could be confusing. John Locke: Essay Concerning Human Understanding, the Two Treatise of Government- thinking of Hobbes when wrote the two treatise.  Tabula Rasa- we are born a blank slate, do not want to do one thing or another, rather we are product of our environment  We have 3 natural, inalienable rights that we are born with: life, liberty, property o Right to resistance, if British government does not protect these rights. o Cicero influenced (certain laws reflected in universe by God)  Social Contract Theory- between people and rulers o Symbiotic relationship between state and the people: rulers get legitimacy, power and authority. People get protection from external enemies, establish natural laws and manmade laws (can’t make laws violating natural laws) o People have right to revolt if government not living up to contract  i.e. French Revolution o Consent  willingly entering into the contract Nicholaus Copernicus (1473-1543) - Problems of Ptolemaic model (modified it); said it included  Inaccurate predictions which were important in astrology  Cosmological order- proper ordering of planets o On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres (1543): earth is not the center of the universe, the sun is (heleocentrism) Johannes Kepler (1571- 1630) - planets move in elliptical path.  Convinced on heleocentrism and elliptical movement before saying so publically. o Because he was a Neoplatonist- Neoplatonism = mathematical reality in everything  Elliptical movement = no math  But then he found the mathematical expression of it. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642): A Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina (1615) – went to a dinner party for her talks of what he has seen and the Bible. Does not challenge anything but talked about when he leaves. His friend tells him about it so he writes a letter to the Duchess-  Said people don’t know how to read the bible; you have to do so both literally and allegorically o Earth is the center of God’s universe, not the universe o Claimed to be more catholic than the clergy, said they were reading the Bible like protestants (if you read the Bible literally you can realize the REAL TRUTH)  Accused of heresy but not convicted, told he could say anything he wanted but couldn’t say it is literally true and he agreed to that.  His friend became Pope Urban VIII and he made fateful decision to write Dialogue of the Two Chief World Systems (1632) where he mocked his friend publically through dialogue- so his friend in anger gets him retried for heresy and eventually convicted. Isaac Newton (1642- 1727) - studied Galileo. Dad dies early in his life, he was a clergyman. Newton kept a book of his sins, where he had written he wanted to burn his house with his mother and step dad in it.  Attended Trinity College in Cambridge, his math professor resigned so that Newton could take his position  Annus mirablis- “Miracle Year” forced holiday (1666): Newton invented Calculus and formulated the idea of gravity and the equation for it, as well as studying why colors are what they are. o Vast majority of what he wrote had nothing to do with physics (it did to us but to him it was all working toward something else.  I.e. Alchemy and Theology were his two main focuses.  He believed gravity was the evidence of the presence/action of God  Thought of his experiments as proof of God’s existence  Principia Mathematica (1684-86): wanted his works printed in Latin and wanted only people who worked at understanding it to be able to. Physico-theology- the idea that God’s presence could be shown through experimentation Francis Bacon- Some think he wrote Shakespeare’s plays but he didn’t. He was a lawyer and instrumental for the Scientific Method.  Viewed the universe as a machine, understood by INDUCTION.  New Organon: front of it is ships on a sea o Argued knowledge is human power- if you know science, you can use it to strengthen person/nation o Natural philosophy does not equal theology o Induction = specific to general o Experimentation is key René Descartes (1596-1650) – accomplished mathematician. Obsessed with the problems of induction and experimentation. Discourse on Method (1637): Asked the question: What if all we perceive isn’t real? (Matrix)  Cogito ergo sum: “I think therefore I am.”  Deduction = general to specific  Cartesian rules: finding out truth is by thinking geometrically Blaise Pascal (1623-62) – one of the great mathematicians of the 17 century. Invented the first calculator.  Stated we can’t be 100% on anything because humans are imperfect creatures: driven by original sin (no one can think straight all the time), we can’t grasp the reality of the universe.  The concept of “learned ignorance”: we have to accept what we don’t know.  Pascal’s wager: concept of a “leap of faith,” there is no proof of God’s existence, but it is best to bet on God. Enlightenment vs. The Enlightenment- enlightenment is not modernity, secularism, or an attempt to resolve religion-political problems spawned by the reformation. That was what THE Enlightenment was. Enlightenment was individual exploration, according to Immanuel Kant who asked the question: Was ist Aufklarung? In the 1783 German periodical (What is Enlightenment?) Montesquieu (1687-1775) – The Spirit of the Laws: (1748) examination of history and politics, trying to discover which politics work best in societies  Societies need certain spirit for certain politics to work  Checks and balances- check power of the executive  Republics, monarchy, despotism: Rome was good because all of these included. Voltaire (1694-1778) – anglophile, studied law, fled to England in exile for a while  Philosophical letters on the English (1733): advocated religious toleration  Jean Calas affair: had been accused of murdering son who was on the verge of converting to Catholicism o He didn’t do it, the French were making a point: he was tortured and killed in prison.  Enlightenment about making argument to sway people: Traits sur la tolerance (1763) Rousseau (1712-78): non-French figure of the French enlightenment  General will- common interest, not individual interest: what you’d want if educated properly, 99.9% might not reflect the general will.  The Social Contract (1762) – rejection of Locke: begins at the same place with the man as the “noble savage” to the world/society o “You have to be compelled to be free” – if you don’t follow the general will. o Included the general will. Deism- John Toland, Christianity not Mysterious (1696), did not put his name on it. Stated that nothing about the Gospel is above reason.  Deism = religion that is completely rational. Estates-General: general meeting of three estates. st  1 Estate: Clergy (1% of population) o Exempt from paying Taille (land tax, OU is too!)  2nd Estate: The nobility (2-5% of population) o Noblesse d’eppe (“of the sword”) rdo Noblesse da Robe (“of the Robe”)  3 Estate: everyone else- Peasants and Bourgeoisie (95-97% of population) o “If only the King knew”  Cahiers de doleances (statements of local grievances)  Important with Louis XVI, he was trying to buy time during the beginning of the French Revolution. Robespierre- Wanted to speed up the French Revolution with terror  Reign of Terror (September 1793- July 1794) Used Locke ideals to push the revolution.  Committee of Public Safety and welfare for all as well as employment.  “Terror is the order of the day”  250,000 arrested; 17,000 tried and executed; 12,000 guillotined without trial.  Execution of Robespierre: July 28, 1794 Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen: At the time there was the Estates General (3 estates), this was trying to impose new taxes. NATIONAL ASSEMBLY PROPOSED.  Like a French Bill of Rights- listing inalienable rights  Thinking of Locke influence  Equal opportunity and fiscal equality, equality before law. Habeas corpus.  Tennis Court Oath (20 June 1789) pledge to remain in session until a new constitution (National Assembly) Napoleon Bonaparte: The Man on Horseback. Military general, not French. Refused to be a man of any party, looked to provide order but had not appreciation for human life.  Grand Strategy: on how to overtake enemies. 1. Move to position where obliged enemy to fight, 2. Destroyed enemies forces, 3. Occupy the capital and dictate peace terms  Issues with him: no seapower  Louisiana Purchase (1803) Napoleon sold to America  First Consul (1804): Coronation, saw himself as emporer like Charlemagne. o Reestablished church on his side. o Gave himself the crown, no divine right.  Issues with the Duke of Wellington who exiled him after the Battle of Waterloo in 1821 to St. Helena where he died Adam Smith- economic liberalist, father of our capitalism. The wealth of Nations (1776) stated leise faire: that people should be able to do whatever they wanted, aka hands off- limited government involvement. Proposed there is an invisible hand that guides economy (if supply and demand, there is a moral economy: charge whatever people are willing to pay competition would maximize profits)  Duties and tariffs: tariffs = taxing trade goods  Division of labor: all working for common good.


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