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by: Indya Neville

SOCY210 SOCY 210

Indya Neville

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These notes are on the exam
Social Problems
Steven M McGlamery
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Indya Neville on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOCY 210 at Radford University taught by Steven M McGlamery in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at Radford University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
SOCY 210 Exam 2 Study Guide Ch. 5 Sexuality  Sexuality – sexual behavior, attitudes, feelings  Double standard – an attitude or belief that judges heterosexual women’s sexual behavior more harshly  and negatively than heterosexual men’s sexual behavior.  Labeling theory – the theory that behaviors become defined as deviant when people in power socially  construct deviant categories; often leads to the construction of types of deviant people. o Includes two requirements: 1. Power – Who has the power to codify expectations and the penalties for defying those  expectations?  Usually it is people whose power is based on status or money. 2. Social interaction – the behavior must be observed or learned about.  Without an  audience to react, actions and behaviors in and of themselves are not deviant.  Social problems related to sexuality: o Hooking up – something sexual happening, usually between two people, often outside the  context of a socially defined relationship. o Sex ed – sexuality education in public schools has been characterized as a battle between those  who want abstinence­only lessons to be taught and those who argue for comprehensive sex  education. o Sexual dysfunction – the inability to fully experience sexual responses, arousal, and/or  satisfaction, accompanied by distress over this inability. o Human trafficking – a commercial, criminal activity that includes force, fraud, or coercion to  exploit a person sexually for profit.  Porn: o Pornography vs. erotica – porn is sexually explicit material (videos, photos, writings) intended to arouse and that may include transgressive representations of current aesthetic and cultural norms. Erotica is literary or artistic material meant to cause sexual feelings. o Possible problems associated with porn – “risky sexual behavior” ; sex without condoms and/or  multiple partners, sexual addiction and compulsivity, “unreal expectations of women’s desires  and behaviors” o Comstock Act – 1873; intended to prevent the distribution of obscene or lewd materials  (materials referring to, explaining, or describing contraceptive devices and techniques),  particularly via the postal service. o Feminist divide on porn  Sex trafficking – has been documented in 161 countries; about 80% of those forced from one country to  another are women and girls and up to 50% are children o Globally, traffickers earn an estimated $27.8 billion per year.  Sex work – services provided by those in the commercial sex industry; the term is intended to  destigmatize the work and providers of the labor (called sex workers). o Prostitution – the provision of sex in exchange for something, especially money.  Contrast with  sex work. o Stripping and cybersex are examples of sex work o Structural functionalist view of prostitution – the process of labeling and defining sexual  deviances serves the social function of clarifying broader societal norms and values.  The sex  work industry serves important purposes in societies and provides an outlet for sexual practices  that are otherwise negatively labeled and stigmatized. Ch. 9 Families  “Our Families, Ourselves” video in class o 3 developments in 1960s­70s that led to big changes in families o What is the greatest threat to today’s families? Ch. 12 Alcohol & Other Drugs  Drug – a substance that has properties that produce psychophysiological changes in the individual who  ingests it.  Drug use – the ingestion of substances so as to produce changes in the body that alter the way the user  experiences the world.  Drug abuse – the use of psychoactive substances in a way that creates problematic outcomes for the  user.  Drug addiction – a state of dependence on a substance that produces psychophysiological changes in the  user.  Reasons people use drugs: o Induce transcendent states, enhance consciousness o Alter mood—relaxation or excitement o Escape boredom or despair o Cure or relief of symptoms of illness o Enhance social interaction, dull inhibitions o Channel artistic, creative talents o Subvert authority  All societies have normative patterns of drug use. o Standards of behavior enforced through legal sanctions and informal rules. o Many factors, such as location and times of day, influence when drug use is considered socially  acceptable.  Drugs as a social problem: o As inanimate substances, they’re neither inherently good nor inherently bad. o “War on Drugs” – DEA created in 1973; the comprehensive policy first formulated by President  Richard M. Nixon to address the drug problem in the 1970s. o 75% of U.S. drug­related funding goes toward law enforcement.  Alternative approaches to the problem: o Drug treatment o Natural recovery – a person’s cessation of a drug habit without the assistance of a drug treatment program. o Needle exchange programs – drug abuse harm reduction programs that provide new syringes to  intravenous drug users who exchange used syringes.  Societal cost of drugs – cost the U.S. billions each year o Costs include productivity losses:  abuse­related illness, incarceration, black­market activities,  and premature death; substance­using employees claim more sick days, are late to work more  often, have more job­related accidents, and file more workers’ compensation insurance claims. o Injection drug use can facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases like HIV  Injection drug users (IDU) have accounted for almost 1 of every 3 HIV infections in the  U.S.  Black and Hispanic Americans are disproportionately affected by drug­related HIV  exposures  Rates of drug use o By gender:  in the U.S., men are more likely to use illegal drugs.  Just over 50% of young U.S.  women (18­25) have ever used an illegal drug vs. 60% of young men.  Fewer than 30% of young U.S. women have used illegal drugs in the past year vs. 40% of young men. o By race:  Whites are more likely to use illegal drugs.  Latinos are more likely than Blacks to use  illegal drugs in their lifetime, but Blacks used them more this past year.  Asians are least likely to use illegal drugs. o Compared to arrest and imprisonment rates for drug crimes by race:  Minorities, especially  African Americans, are disproportionately arrested and incarcerated for drug crimes compared to their white counterparts.  Social learning theory – drug use is shaped directly by the social context. o Youth are more likely to use drugs if their peers do so. o Drug users learn about drugs from friends and have friends who are drug users. o Rehabilitation rooted in re­conditioning in an environment in which abstinence is valued and  encouraged.  Social disorganization theory – when a community is socially disorganized, it loses its inherent social  controls and deviant behaviors rise. o Disorganization stems from concentrated poverty, residential instability, racism, and  deindustrialization. o Crime, violence, and drug use become acceptable, expected, and valuable.  Video in class:  Altered States o U.S. is __% of world population, but accounts for __% of world drug use. o Most addictive substance known to humanity? o Number of deaths caused by DWI, smoking tobacco, and all illicit drugs Presentation:  Drinking on College Campuses  To be at a level of binge drinking, females must have 4 drinks within 2 hours, white it is 5 drinks for  males.  True or False:  White students tend to drink more than African American or Hispanic students.  TRUE  Ratio of college students who report academic consequences from drinking:  1 in 4 (Ch. 11 Crime) Presentation:  Police Brutality and Racial Profiling  African Americans are what percent more likely to be pulled over than whites?  31%  How many Americans in 2015 were killed by the police?  200, 500, 1300, or 5500?  1,300  What percent of the time are officers indicted in cases where they kill someone?  Less than 1% of cases  True or False:  Stop and frisk has proven to be effective in reducing crime.  FALSE Presentation:  Gun Rights/Gun Control  __% of homicides in U.S. that involve guns?  68%  Average police response time?  10 minutes  What solution(s) did the group discussing gun violence propose in order to eliminate the alleged rise in  gun violence?  Allow everyone and anyone to obtain a gun, stricter background checks, or outlaw guns  completely?  Stricter background checks  Most background checks take:  minutes (not hours or days) Presentation:  3 Strikes and Mandatory Minimums  Pros of mandatory minimum – eliminates personal bias (you do the crime you do the time), deterrence  (when mandatory minimums first started, crime rates had a significant drop), keeps serious offenders off the streets.  Cons of mandatory minimum – costly, sentences can be unjust, non­violent criminals are getting long  sentences, coercion (officers using mandatory minimums to threaten the person to get what they want).  Pros of 3 strike law – crime rates are reduced, citizens enjoy a piece of mind, repeat offenders are off the street.  Cons of 3 strike law – rise of prison cost (more felons, more money), less law enforcement, unfair  sentencing  Average annual cost of holding a person in jail – $31,000 a year, highest state is NY—$60,000  First state to enact a 3 strikes law – Washington  


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