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BIO Test 3 study guide

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by: Taylor Notetaker

BIO Test 3 study guide BSC 108

Taylor Notetaker
Troy University
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Chapters 9, 10,11,12
Introductory Biology for Non Majors
christine yates
Study Guide
50 ?




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1 review
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"Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Taylor!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol"
Adriana Schinner

Popular in Introductory Biology for Non Majors

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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by christine yates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Non Majors in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Clutch. So clutch. Thank you sooo much Taylor!!! Thanks so much for your help! Needed it bad lol

-Adriana Schinner


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Date Created: 03/28/16
 108­ BIO Test 3 Study Guide  DNA­ has the capacity to store genetic information that can be copied and passed from one  generation to another, it have four nucleotides ( Thymine, Guanine,Cytosine, Adenine) A always pairs up with T and C always pairs up with G. DNA stands for   RNA­ has Uracil in place of Thymine so A pairs up with U and C still always pairs up with G  RNA stands for  Mutations are results from errors in DNA, or physical/chemical agents (also known as  mutagens) Mutations can be good because they contribute to evolution by natural selection and  are a source of diversity in genes. Mutations vary on whether they are good or bad by the type  of change, where the change in DNA occurs, if the change is detected and fixed before  replication, and how it affects organisms/ its survival. Watson and Crick won the nobel peace prize for the double helix structure Replication­ is a fast and accurate process, when a cell or organism reproduce a complete set  of genetic instructions passes from one generation to the next. Starts at a specific site in the  double helix Transcription­ occurs in the nucleus, is when DNA strands get transcripted into RNA  Translation­ occurs in the cytoplasm, is when RNA is translated into proteins    Mutagen­ an agent that increases the rate of mutation within an organism. Ex) carcinogens, x­ rays,  Gene­ the molecular unit of heredity, is the region (locus) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product Homologous chromosome­ are similar but not identical, each has the same genes in the  same order as each other however the alleles for each trait might be different  Zygote­ a diploid cell resulting from two haploid cells, a fertilized ovum  Gregor Mendel­ the “grandfather of genetics” was the first person to analyze patterns of  inheritance and came up with the fundamental principles of genetics. He did his studies on  garden pea plants because 1) these plants were easily manipulated,2) easily breed/ easily self  fertilize, 3) they were readily available, 4)they were cost efficient. Allele­ the unis that determine heritable traits  Dominant­ expressed with an uppercase letter, determines the organism’s appearance  Recessive­ expressed with a lowercase letter, shows no noticeable effects to the organism’s  appearance most of the time.  Homozygous­ When an organism has identical alleles for a gene   Heterozygous­ When an organism has different alleles for a gene  Phenotype­ the organism's physical traits  Genotype­ an organism's genetic makeup, there should be two copies of each gene  True Breeding­ a self fertilized organism that only produces offspring with the same traits. Locus­ or region  P­ Generation­ parental generation, have the same alleles for a gene  F1 generation­  first  (filial) generation these offspring are normally heterozygous­ they have  two different alleles. F2 generation­  second (filial)  generation­ the mating of the heterozygous offspring­ it results in a homozygous individual.  Mendel’s four hypothese  1. There are alternative forms of genes, the units that determine heritable traits  (alleles) 2. For each heritable trait, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent 3. If two alleles from the inherited pair differ than one determines the organism’s  appearance­ this is called the dominant allele, The other that has no noticeable effect on the organism’s appearance is called the recessive allele.  4. A sperm or egg carries only one allele for each inherited trait because two  members of an allele pair separate from each other during the production of gametes  (aka  independent assortment)   Codominance­  a condition where the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are  fully  expressed resulting in offspring with a phenotype that is neither dominant nor recessive. EX) AB blood type   Incomplete dominance­ a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific  trait is not completely expressed over its paired alleles resulting in a third phenotype that  expresses both phenotypes of both alleles. EX) when red and white roses are mating and they  produce pink roses instead of either red or white.  Pleiotropy­ the impact of a single gene on more than one characteristic ex) sickle cell disease Pedigrees­ show the history of a trait in a family. A circle represents a female and square  represents a male. If either of the shapes is shaded in, the person was affected by the disease  or trait. ( shaded circle­ female affected, shaded square­ male affected) If the shape is half  shaded that means they are a carrier but are not affected by the trait or disease.  Sex linked gene­ x­linked gene conditions, ex) red­green color blindness  Virus­  are in between living and nonliving but are non living organisms, they must enter and  leave the cell, they either have DNA or RNA but can not have both, they have a protein coat,  they have spikes surrounding the outside of the cell, Plant viruses can stunt the growth of the  plant diminishing its yield, animal viruses can include AIDS.  Dominant traits­ Widows peak, unattached earlobes, freckles   Recessive traits­  straight hairline, attached earlobes, no freckles  Reverse transcriptase­ an enzyme used to create complementary DNA from an RNA template. Normally used in retroviruses  Cloning­ the reproducing of something that has the same genetic makeup.  Dolly­ was the world’s first cloned mammal from cell to adult. She was a sheep that was born in 1996 Reproductive cloning­ the process that Dolly was made from is when they remove the  nucleus from the egg cell, and add somatic cell from adult donor to the egg cell,grow in culture  to produce an early embryo, then lastly implant the cell into surrogate mother.  Therapeutic cloning­ starts with the same three steps as reproductive ( remove nuclei from  egg cell, add somatic cell to the egg cell then grow in culture to produce an early embryo) after  these steps, they remove embryonic stem cells from embryo and grow in culture , then induce  stem cells to form specialized cells for therapeutic use  Regeneration­ the regrowth of lost body parts. Occurs in animals like starfish and lizards  Differentiated cells­ contain a complete genome, have the ability to develop into a whole new  organism, and have potential to express all of an organism's genes.   Stem cell­ Nature’s template for all living cells, can become any cell or tissue in the body, they  can come from the umbilical cord blood, the placenta, adult bone marrow Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)­ are organisms that contain genetic materials that are artificially altered so the organism can produce a desired characteristic.Potential problems with  GMO are that crops with the GMO gene might harm the environment, foods could be hazardous to human health, and transgenic plants might pass genes to relatives in nearby areas through  the wind. Also GMOs can lead to the creation of new hazardous pathogens, and the transfer of  cancer genes into infectious bacterias and viruses.  PCR­ polymerase chain reaction­ which amplifies DNA sites and can copy any DNA segment  precisely.  Gel electrophoresis­  is used to separate DNA fragments from different sources, the DNA  fragments show up as bands, and are compared to different sources. This machine is negatively charged so the smaller fragments move faster than the larger fragments in the gel.       


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