Social Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Social Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide PSYCH 221
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmberNicole on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 221 at East Carolina University taught by Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Social Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide Latane and Darley’s decision-making model of pro-social behavior Model of helping Attempted to explain the critical processes bystanders go through before helping occurs 5 steps to helping o 1. Notice of the event o 2. Interpret the need for help o 3. Take personal responsibility o 4. Decide what kind of help to give o 5. Provide help People’s lying behavior We all lie and we all lie for all sorts of reason- usually self-serving to strangers or we don’t want to hurt a loved one Self-serving to loved ones but we say we don’t want to hurt them that is the rationalization Dispositional factors refers to one’s personality Dispositional attribution o Internal o Attributing a behavior to some internal cause, such as personal trait, motive, or attitude; and internal attribution Situational factors refers to the environment Situational attribution o Attributing a behavior to some external cause or factor operating within the situation o External attribution Negative state relief model of helping Helping behaviors are motivated by one’s egoistic desires Diffusion of responsibility The tendency for each group member to dilute personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group members Pluralistic ignorance The mistaken impression on the part of group members that, because no one else is acting concerned, there is no cause for alarm Group Presence Effect (or Group Inhibition Effect) Bystander effect o The more people in an emergency situation, the less likely any of them are to help Kitty Genovese Murdered outside of her apartment. 38 witnesses- not one called to get help Benevolence vs. Pure Altruism vs. Prosocial Behavior Prosocial behavior is intentional helping of other o Good feeling inside and external reward o Egoism Benevolence is helping others without any external reward o Internal reward but no external reward Pure altruism o No internal or external reward o Empathy is a component so we are always doing it for ourselves to an extent o Some people say this does not exist o Could deal with timing: mother immediately protecting child or somebody helping in bombing Empathy-altruism hypothesis The presumption that when one empathizes with the plight of another, one will want to help that other for purely altruistic reasons Empathy The ability to understand and share the feelings of another Mood management hypothesis of helping The idea that people use helping tactically to manage their moods The effects of physical attractiveness on how people are perceived The theory of repeated exposure and liking The tendency to feel positively toward people, places, or things we have seen frequently Reciprocal aid and helping Social rule that says we should repay, in kind, what another person has provided to us Equity vs Equality Equity o Difference between the value of the assets/interest and the cost of the liabilities of something owned Ex: man pays the bills, but the woman cleans and feeds the husband to make up for the money difference Equality o The state of being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities Polygyny Marital arrangement involving one man and more than one wife Polygamy Marital custom in which either one man marries more than one woman (polygyny) or one woman marries more than one man (polyandry) Polyandry Marital arrangement involving one woman and more than one husband Polyamory The philosophy or state of being in love or romantically involved with more than one person at the same time Attachment styles 1. Security o Attachments marked by trust that the other person will continue to provide love and support 2. Avoidant o Attatchments marked by defensive detachment from the other 3. Anxious/ambivalent o Attachments marked by fear of abandonment and the feeling that one’s needs are not being met how childhood attachments correlate with our adult styles intimate relationships: strong correlation Sequence of negative emotions experienced by infants when separated from parent 1. Protest o 5 Stages of grief 2. Despair 3. Detach Effects of having children on relationship partners Sex tanks after kids Increasing commitment Decrease likelihood of divorce Having children decreases amount of enjoyable time together but increases other factors Two-factor theory of love: more cognitive, make attribution, causal link then use label to lead to determine you to label who you are attracted too 1. General physical arousal o General arousal allows you to typically enjoy yourself o General Affect Model: if you enjoy the experience you like the people around you o Adrenaline- scary movie, sky diving – you like these people more Goes on Arousal is first factor and label you place upon it (the environment) is what determines if you are feeling love, fear, whatever emotion it is. 2. Arousal facilitation theory of love Suggests that you’ll generally like anyone more after some general physiological arousal – adrenaline – sky diving Equally attracted to male and female Passionate love Heart rate increase Sweaty palms Dilated pupils Real emotional sexual love Companionate love Stable type of love Compassionate type of love after being married 20 years Comfort love o Ex: Having sex with husband even though you aren’t in the mood Proximity-attraction principle The tendency to become friends with those who live or work nearby Social exchange theory Presumes that affiliation and friendship are motivated by a simple and general goal-to maximize the ratio of benefits to costs The trading of benefits within relationships Communal sharing A form of exchange in which members of a group share a pool of resources, taking when they are in need and giving when others are in need The effect of Self-disclosure on liking The sharing of intimate information about oneself Similarity and liking We tend to like people who are more similar to us or are going through similar experiences Two basic motives of social interaction Intimacy and Power McAdams research found that you seek intimacy and power within relationships Power: Self-serving bias; we are a little bit smarter in the relationship Does not define everybody, but a good amount of the population Lonely vs Non-lonely Having a dog as a companion is shown to actually be better than another partner Need for intimacy We do stupid things for love Intimacy and power is driving forces of our lives Robert Sternberg’s Three Factor theory of Love 1. Intimacy o Feelings promoting close bonds, including mutual sharing and emotional support 2. Commitment (Decision) o A decision to say you love the other person; a commitment to maintain that love 3. Passion o Physiological arousal and longing to be together (e.g. sexual passion, increased heart rate, dilated pupils) Reinforcement-affect model of attraction The theory that we like people with whom we associate positive feelings and dislike those with whom we associate negative feelings
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