New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Study Packet, Chapters 6-8

by: Elizabeth Weathers

Study Packet, Chapters 6-8 NTR 213-05

Elizabeth Weathers

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the essential parts of chapter 6, all of chapter 7, and all of chapter 8. There is additional information added to chapters 7 & 8 from notes provided by a friend in an alternate N...
Introductory Nutrition
Laurie H. Allen
Study Guide
Nutrition 213
50 ?




Popular in Introductory Nutrition

Popular in Environmental Science

This 47 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Weathers on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 213-05 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Laurie H. Allen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introductory Nutrition in Environmental Science at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.


Reviews for Study Packet, Chapters 6-8


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/28/16
Chapter 6 Protein Functions Structural proteins  Cells  Cell Membrane  Organelles  Cell Fluid (cytoplasm)  Body Parts  Skin  Hair  Ligaments  Tendons  Enzymes  Enzymes  Assist biochemical reactions  Most chemical reactions in the body require enzymes  Transport other proteins in blood and across membranes  Immunity/safety  Skin—barrier from bacteria  Blood clotting in case of injury  Antibodies protect the body from foreign invaders  i.e. vaccines stimulate these to improve immunity against disease  Movement  Skeletal muscles  Smooth muscles  Hormones  Regulate fluid balance  Maintain proper acidity of blood  Energy The Structure of Protein: Amino Acids  Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins  Amino acids contain Carbon, hydrogen, acid group, amino group (nitrogen containing), and a side chain  There are hundreds of proteins known, but only 20 amino acids commonly occur naturally  Nine are essential  The body cannot make and must come from the diet  Eleven are nonessential  The body can make them by using nitrogen from essential AA and pieces of CHO and fats Protein Denaturation Denaturation—alteration of a protein’s three-dimensional structure due to agitation. Proteins uncoil; after this occurs, the protein no longer functions as it naturally did before   The stiffening of egg whites when they are whipped  Heat  Processing, cooking (hardening of an egg when it is cooked), fever  Acidic and basic conditions  Stomach; the curdling of milk when acid is added  Acidosis and alkalosis (low/high blood pH)  Heavy metals (mercury, gold, lead)  Alcohol  Detergents Protein Digestion & Absorption  Mechanical digestion begins in the mouth when chewing breaks down the food  Chemical digestion begins in the stomach  Hydrochloric acid (HCl) denatures (uncoils) proteins  HCl activates pepsinogen to pepsin (enzyme)  Pepsin breaks peptide bonds leaving shorter polypeptides  Chemical digestion continues in the small intestine  Pancreatic enzymes and enzymes in the microvilli of the intestine further break down polypeptides for absorption  The majority of protein digestion occurs here  Single amino acids, dipeptides and tripeptides can be absorbed into the mucosal cells of the small intestine  This uses different transport systems and amino acids can compete for absorption  Dipeptides and tripeptides are further broken down into single amino acids  Single amino acids then pass into the blood and are brought to the liver Protein Synthesis  The process of protein synthesis involves two steps  Transcription  Translation  Transcription—a stretch of DNA (in the nucleus) is used as a template to make a strand of RNA (ribonucleic acid) known as messenger RNA (mRNA)  After this, the mRNA strand crosses the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm of the cell, taking the coding instructions with it  Translation—the mRNA attaches itself to one of the ribosomes (protein-making machine)  mRNA specifies the sequence in which the amino acids line up for synthesis of a protein  Transfer RNA (tRNA) collects amino acids from the cell fluid and brings them to the mRNA  Each of the 20 amino acids has a specific tRNA  Once the protein is made, tRNA is released to be recycled and used again Protein Quality  High-quality, or complete dietary, proteins  Contain all amino acids to meet body’s needs  More easily digested  Animal proteins and soy  Incomplete proteins  Lower in one or more essential amino acids  Most plant proteins  Use complementary proteins Types of Vegetarian Diets  Semivegetarian: Excludes red meat but may include fish and poultry, as well as dairy products and eggs  Pescetarian: Excludes all animal flesh except fish  Lacto-ovo vegetarian: Excludes all animal flesh but includes eggs and dairy products  Lacto vegetarian: Excludes animal flesh and eggs but includes dairy products  Vegan: Excludes all food of animal origin Protein Requirements  0.8 g/kilogram of body weight for adults  With more weight, more protein is needed for maintenance and repair  70 kg (154 lb) adult = 56 g of protein/day  Average consumption = 70 g of protein/day  Higher needs in infants, during pregnancy and lactation (breast feeding), after injury, and in for athletes  Pregnant/lactating women: add 25 g of protein/day Protein in Health & Disease  Kwashiorkor—pure protein deficiency  Marasmus—overall energy deficiency Nitrogen Balance  Nitrogen intake equals nitrogen loss  Maintaining body protein and weight  Negative nitrogen balance: more nitrogen lost than consumed  From illness, injury, or decreased consumption  Positive nitrogen balance: more nitrogen consumed than lost  From growth, pregnancy, or weight training Chapter 7 Vitamins  Organic: contain carbon  Micronutrients: essential in small amounts  Functions: promote and regulate body processes necessary for growth, reproduction, and the maintenance of health  Ex: making hemoglobin, helping harvest energy, assisting with immunity, promoting bone health, helping remove pollutants (oxidants) from the body NOTE: fat soluble vitamins are more likely to be toxic vs. water soluble vitamins because the body stores them while excess water soluble vitamins are excreted Vitamins Water soluble Fat soluble B Vitamins Vitamin C Vitamin A Thiamin Pantothenic acid Vitamin D Riboflavin Vitamin B 6 Vitamin E Niacin Folate Biotin Vitamin B 12 Vitamin K NOTE: if you are looking for fresh, nutrient-dense foods, frozen vegetables may be the best. The high temps used in canning reduce nutrient content, and ‘fresh’ produce often spends about a week being transported from farm to grocery store, while frozen foods are typically frozen in the field to reduce nutrient loss Vitamin Fortification  Adds nutrients to foods  Government mandated and voluntary  Prevents deficiencies leading to diseases but may also cause toxicity Tips for Preserving Vitamins Vitamin Bioavailability Affected by:  Absorption  Fat-soluble vitamins: need dietary fat  Transport in blood  Water-soluble vitamins: blood proteins  Fat-soluble vitamins: chylomicrons  Conversion of inactive provitamins or vitamin precursors into active vitamins Vitamin Absorption Coenzymes  Bind enzymes to promote their activity  Carriers of electrons, atoms, or chemical groups that participate in the reactions  Organic non-protein molecules  Ex: B vitamins NOTE: all B Vitamins are coenzymes, but not all coenzymes are B Vitamins Free Radicals & Antioxidants  Reactive oxygen molecules: cause oxidative damage by stealing electrons from other compounds, causing changes in their structure and function  Examples: Free radicals – generated by the body or from exposure to the environment  Antioxidants: destroy reactive oxygen molecules  Ex: Vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium Meeting Vitamin Needs  DRIs include RDA, AI, and UL  Vitamin A and C (Iron,Calcium) amounts are required on food labels as %DV  This would change with proposed new food label: Vitamin A&C could be removed, while Vitamin D could be added Water-Soluble Vitamins  B vitamins: involved in converting the energy in carbohydrate, fat, and protein into ATP  Vitamin C: needed to make connective tissue and as an antioxidant  Choline: vitamin? (will not be on our exam)  Not stored - need to be consumed regularly  Excreted in urine Thiamin (Vitamin B)  Coenzyme needed for glucose breakdown of glucose to provide energy  Needed for metabolism of other sugars, certain amino acids and synthesis of ribose (in RNA)  Important for nerve function because:  Glucose is nerve cell energy source  Needed for synthesis of neurotransmitters (chemical signals from neurons)  RDA: men = 1.2 mg/day; women = 1.1 mg/day  Sources: bran layer of whole grain, enriched grains, pork, legumes, and seeds  Deficiency:  Beriberi: weakness, nerve degeneration, heart changes  Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in alcoholics: mental confusion, psychosis, memory disturbances, coma  Excess: no reported effects Riboflavin Functions  Forms two active coenzymes that act as electron carriers functioning in reactions needed to produce ATP from carbohydrate, fat, and protein  Involved in converting folate, niacin, vitamin B and vitamin K into their active forms. 6  RDA: men = 1.3 mg/day; women = 1.1 mg/day  Sources:  Animal: dairy products, liver, red meat, poultry, fish  Plant: whole grains, enriched grains, asparagus, broccoli, mushrooms, leafy greens  Deficiency:  injuries heal poorly  cracking of lips and corners of mouth  sensitivity to light  eye burning, tearing, itching  skin flaking around nose, eyebrows, earlobes  Excess: no reported effects but turns urine bright fluorescent yellow Niacin  Role: Coenzyme in glucose metabolism and synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol  RDA: men = 16 mg NE/day ; women = 14 mg NE/day  Sources:  Animal: meats, fish  Plant: peanuts, whole and enriched grains, legumes, wheat bran, synthesized from the essential amino acid tryptophan  Deficiency:  Pellagra: fatigue, decreased appetite, indigestion, 4Ds = dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death  Excess: no reported effects from food but supplements can be toxic causing skin flushing and rash, tingling in hands and feet, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, high blood sugar levels, liver function abnormalities, blurred vision Vitamin B6  Important for:  amino acid and protein metabolism  synthesis of nonessential amino acids, neurotransmitters (myelin sheath), hemoglobin  conversion of tryptophan into niacin  glycogen breakdown  3 forms: pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine  converted into active coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate needed for the activity of >100 enzymes in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism  RDA: men and women ages 19 to 50 = 1.3 mg/day  Sources: chicken, fish, pork, organ meats, whole grains, legumes, sunflower seeds, bananas, broccoli, spinach, some fortified cereals (refined grains are not good sources)  Deficiency: poor growth, skin lesions, decreased immunity, anemia, neurological symptoms  Excess: no reported effects from food but supplements can be toxic causing severe nerve impairment Folate (folic acid) functions  Folate coenzymes needed for DNA synthesis (especially needed in rapidly-dividing tissues) and some amino acid metabolism  Important in early pregnancy for neural tube formation, which develops into the brain and spinal cord  Prevent homocysteine levels from rising to prevent heart disease NOTE: synthetic folate (folic acid) is absorbed better than natural folate; excess folate can mask a Vitamin B12 deficiency  RDA: men and women = 400 µg/day  Sources: enriched grains, leafy greens, asparagus, legumes, nuts, oranges, liver, yeast  Deficiency: neural tube defects including spina bifida and anencephaly, macrocytic or megaloblastic anemia, poor growth, nerve development and function problems, diarrhea, tongue inflammation, increased risk of heart disease and some cancers  Excess: concerns that excess will prevent folate deficiency symptoms and mask B 12 deficiencies Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) functions Important for:  ATP production from certain fatty acids  Conversion of homocysteine to methionine  Maintenance of myelin coating on nerves  Amino acid and protein metabolism  RDA: men and women = 2.4 µg/day  Sources: found naturally only in animal products, also in fortified products  Deficiency: pernicious anemia, increased homocysteine, decreased folate activation, numbness and tingling, gait abnormalities, memory loss, disorientation, paralysis, death  Excess: no reported effects from intakes of up to 100 µg/day from food or supplements Folate & Vitamin B12  Needed for synthesis of neurotransmitters, hormones, bile acids, and carnitine (needed for fatty acid breakdown)  Antioxidant in blood and body fluids  Helps maintain the immune system  Regenerates active antioxidant form of vitamin E  Enhances iron absorption Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)  Synthesis and maintenance of collagen, the base of all connective tissue  Needed for synthesis of neurotransmitters, hormones, bile acids, and carnitine (needed for fatty acid breakdown)  Antioxidant in blood and body fluids  Helps maintain the immune system  Regenerates active antioxidant form of vitamin E  Enhances iron absorption  RDA: men = 90 mg/day, women = 75 mg/day  Sources: citrus fruits, strawberries, kiwis, cantaloupe, cabbage-family and dark-green vegetables, green and red peppers, okra, tomatoes, potatoes  Deficiency: scurvy (gum and tooth problems, joint pain, bleeding, poor wound healing, bone fractures, fatigue, depression, hysteria)  Excess: excessive vitamin C supplementation can cause diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps, possible increased kidney stone formation Water-soluble Vitamins  B vitamins: involved in converting the energy in carbohydrate, fat, and protein into ATP  Vitamin C: needed to make connective tissue and as an antioxidant  Choline: vitamin?  Not stored - need to be consumed regularly  Excreted in urine Fat-soluble Vitamins  Vitamins A, D, E, & K  Found with fats in foods  Require special handling for absorption, transport and excretion  Excretion limitations increases the risk of toxicity  Stored in the liver and fatty tissues  Intakes can vary without a risk of deficiency if average intake over weeks/months meets needs Vitamin A  Retinoidschemical forms of preformed vitamin A  Retinol, retinal, retinoic acid  Carotenoids: yellow-orange pigments synthesized by plants and many microorganisms  Some are vitamin A precursors converted to retinoids  Example: beta-carotene, provitamin converted into vitamin A  Cell differentiation  Immature cells change in structure and function to become specialized by changing gene expression (turning genes on and off)  Necessary for maintenance of epithelial tissue  Part of rhodopsin, a visual pigment in the eye  When light strikes rhodopsin, it initiates a series of events that result in a nerve signal being sent to the brain, which allows us to see  Carotenoids may function as antioxidants  RDA: men = 900 µg/day, women = 700 µg/day  Sources: vitamin A in animal products (eggs, dairy), provitamin A in fruits and vegetables, beta-carotene in orange, yellow, and dark green vegetables  Deficiency: xerophthalmia (night blindness progressing to permanent blindness), abnormal jaw bone growth in children, increased infections  Excess: nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, lack of muscle coordination, birth defects, liver damage, bone fractures; excess carotene can cause hypercarotenemia Vitamin D  Made in skin with exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light  Inactive until modified in liver and kidneys  Essential in the diet only when exposure to sunlight is limited or the body’s ability to synthesize it is reduced Vitamin D Activation Vitamin D Functions  Maintains normal levels of the minerals calcium and phosphorus in the blood  Calcium is needed for bone health and functioning of nerves, muscles, glands, and other tissues  Low blood calcium stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) release which stimulates vitamin D activation  Changes gene expression  Intestines: turns on genes for calcium absorption  Bone: turns on genes bone breakdown  RDA: adults 70 and under = 600 IU (15g)/ day  Sources: not widespread in diet, liver, egg yolks, oily fish (for example, salmon), fortified foods  Deficiency: low calcium absorption leading to rickets in children (pigeon breast and bowed legs) and osteomalacia, which can lead to osteoporosis in adults Excess: causes high calcium concentrations in blood and urine, deposition of calcium in soft tissues such as the blood vessels and kidneys, and cardiovascular damage Barriers to Meeting Vitamin D Needs  Age  Geographical Location  Use of sunscreen/ cultural body coverings: block skin’s exposure to the sun  Skin color: the amount of melanin in your skin can bock some UV rays Vitamin E  Antioxidant  Protects lipids including those in membranes of red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, lung cells  Defends cells against damage caused by heavy metals (lead and mercury)  Reduced risk of heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, macular degeneration, other chronic diseases  Possible anti-inflammatory functions, modulation of immunity, regulation of cell growth and death genes, detoxification of harmful substances  RDA: adults = 15 mg alpha-tocopherol/day  Sources: seeds, nuts, plant oils, leafy-green vegetables, wheat germ, fortified cereals  Deficiency: hemolytic anemia in infants; rare in adults causing poor muscle coordination, weakness, impaired vision  Excess: no reported effects from food but large doses can interfere with blood clotting Vitamin K Functions  Needed for:  production of clotting factors  synthesis of proteins involved in bone formation and breakdown Supplements  Contain vitamins and minerals, herbs and other plant-derived substances, and/or body compounds not essential in the diet  Help obtain adequate amounts of specific nutrients but do not provide all the benefits of foods Herbal Supplements  Herb: nonwoody, seed-producing plant that dies at the end of the growing season  Also refers to any botanical or plant-derived substance  Ex: garlic, ginko, saw palmetto, St. John’s wort Regulation of Supplements  Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 defined the term dietary supplement and created labeling standards  FDA established “current Good Manufacturing Practice” (cGMP) regulations Requires manufacturers to test their products to ensure identity, purity, strength, and composition  FDA pre-market review required if ingredient not sold in the US before October 15, 1994 Choosing Supplements  Do not exceed 100% of Daily Values  Consider why you want it  Compare product costs  Read the label  Check the expiration date  Consider your medical history  Approach herbal supplements with caution  Report harmful effects What Should you do?  Focus on foliage for folate, vitamin A, and vitamin K  B (vitamin) sure  Get your antioxidants  Try for 5 colors of fruits and veggies each day  Soak up some D  Get outside to stay fit and make some vitamin  Have three servings of dairy per day boost intake Chapter 8 Water  60% of body weight  2/3 intracellular (within cells), 1/3 extracellular  Cell membranes are permeable to water  Water crosses the membrane by osmosis to dilute dissolved solutes  Blood pressure – the amount of force exerted by blood against the walls of arteries  is generated by the heart to move water through blood vessels and into tissues Water Functions  Acts as a solvent: solutes (for example: glucose, proteins, minerals) dissolve in water  Participates in chemical reactions Water in the Body Water Balance  Water is not stored  Water in must equal water out  In: consumption of water, fluids, foods and production during cellular respiration  Out: excretion in urine and feces, evaporation from the skin and lungs, and sweating Increased Water Loss Stimulates Thirst Kidneys Regulate Body Water • Kidneys act as a filter • Water moves from the blood into kidney tubules • Blood cells and proteins are too large and remain in the blood • Needed substances are reabsorbed back into the blood • Un-needed substances are excreted in urine Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Increased ADH Water Decreased Blood Sodium Secretion Reabsorption Blood Sodium  If more water is lost than taken in, then the concentration of solutes in the blood increases  This stimulates thirst and secretion of ADH from the brain  ADH stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb water (to keep the blood from becoming more concentrated The Functions of Water  Medium for & participant in metabolic reactions  Helps regulate acid-base balance (PH)  Transports nutrients & waste  Provides protection  Regulates body temp Water Helps Cool the Body Dehydration  Water loss is greater than water intake  Reduces blood volume which reduces blood pressure  Reduces the ability of the circulatory system to deliver oxygen and nutrients to muscles  Reduces blood flow to the skin and sweat production limiting the body’s ability to cool itself  Causes a reduction in blood volume, impairs ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to cells, and ability to remove waste products  Symptoms: Dry mouth, decreased urination, thirst, fatigue, headache, muscle cramps  Severe dehydration: increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, increased respiration, confusion Alcohol and Dehydration  Alcohol blocks the secretion of ADH  Kidneys do not reabsorb water they excrete it Oral Rehydration Solutions Water Intoxication (Overhydration)  Water intake is greater than water loss  Sodium in blood is diluted causing hyponatremia  Hypo means low, Na is the chemical symbol for sodium, emia means in thesolutes causing tissue swelling, or edema blood  Water moves by osmosis from the blood into the tissues to try to dilute the higher concentration of water Hyponatremia Meeting Water Needs • AI: men = 3.7 liters/day, women = 2.7 liters/day • Need increased intake with:  Increased activity  Increased temperature  Decreased humidity  Low-calorie diet  High-salt diet  High-fiber diet  Alcohol intake Fluid Recommendations for Exercise  Generous amounts of fluid in the 24 hours before an exercise session  About 2 cups of fluid 4 hours before exercise  6–12 ounces of fluid every 15–20 minutes for the duration of the exercise  After exercise, each pound of weight lost should be replaced with 16–24 oz (2 to 3 cups)  For exercise lasting an hour or less, water is the only fluid needed  For exercise lasting more than an hour, beverages containing carbohydrate (about 10 to 20 g of carbohydrate/cup) and electrolytes (around 150 milligrams of sodium in a cup) are recommended  Fruit juices and soft drinks are not recommended unless diluted with an equal volume of water Minerals  20 needed by the body in small amounts  Maintain structure and regulate chemical reactions and body processes  Major mineral: need >100 milligrams/day  sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur  Trace mineral: need <100 milligrams/day  iron, copper, zinc, selenium, iodine, chromium, fluoride, manganese, molybdenum, and others Mineral Majo Trac Electrolyte Bone Sodiu Calciu Iro Chromiu Potassiu Phosphoru Coppe Fluorid Chlorid Magnesiu Zin Manganes Sulfu Seleniu Molybdemu Minerals from Food  From plant and animal sources  Affected by:  Amount in soil  Processing:  Added (for example, during fortification) or  Removed (for example, by cooking or removing skins, bran, or germ)  Absorption & Bioavailability • Inhibited by substances in plants, other minerals, or amount in body Mineral Functions  Contribute to body structures  Regulate body processes  Regulate blood pressure  Regulate water balance  Regulate energy metabolism  Affect growth and development through their role in the expression of certain genes  Act as cofactors needed for enzyme activity Electrolytes  Positively or negatively charged ion that conducts a current in solution  Ions = charged atoms - charge: gained a negative electron + charge: lost a negative electron  Fluid balance maintenance, nerve impulse conduction, cellular signaling  Sodium  + charge: lost a negative electron  extracellular: outside of cells  Potassium  + charge: lost a negative electron  intracellular: inside of cells  Chloride  – charge: gained a negative electron  extracellular: outside of cells Electrolyte Imbalance  Deficiency:  Results in: acid–base imbalance, poor appetite, muscle cramps, confusion, apathy, constipation, irregular heartbeat, death  Caused by: heavy/persistent sweating, chronic diarrhea or vomiting, kidney disorders, or medications  Excess:  Excess potassium from supplements can cause the heart to stop  Excess sodium from dehydration/water loss: confusion, headache, and seizures Regulation of Blood Pressure Hypertension  Blood pressure consistently at or above 140/90 mm mercury  Caused by: increased contractions of the heart, increased blood volume, or decreased radius of blood vessels  Results in: atherosclerosis, heart attacks, strokes, death  Treated with: diet, exercise, and medication  Risks: genetics, race, age, obesity, diet, activity Dietary Approaches for Stopping Hypertension Hypertension and Diet Electrolyte Recommendations  Sodium:  UL: 2300 mg/day = 1 tsp of salt  Over 51 years old, African American or with medical conditions = 1500 mg/day  Typical consumption = 3400 mg/day  Potassium:  DRI = 4700 mg/day  DV = 3500 mg/day  Typical consumption = 2000-3000 mg/day Sodium in Foods Bones  Protein matrix: mostly collagen  Hardened by minerals: mostly calcium, phosphorus, also magnesium, sodium, fluoride, other minerals  Require:  Protein and vitamin C to maintain collagen  Calcium and other minerals to ensure solidity  Vitamin D to maintain calcium and phosphorus levels  Living tissue  Support weight and participate in movement  Constantly broken down and re-formed during bone remodeling  Peak bone mass: maximum bone density attained life, usually in young adulthood  Age related bone loss: bone loss that occurs in men and women as they advance in age (Amount of bone broken down starts to exceed amount that is formed) Osteoporosis  Osteoporosis- bone disorder characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone fragility  Prevention  Achieve a high peak bone mass  Diet  Weight bearing exercise  No smoking  Limit alcohol  Treatment  Supplements Ca and Vitamin D  Weight bearing exercises  Estrogen  Biphosphonates NOTE: those with osteoporosis may be bent over because over time, the front edge of the spinal vertebrae collapses more than the back edge, so the spine bends forward; women also have a higher chance of getting Osteoporosis Calcium  99% in bones and teeth  In body cells and fluids, needed for:  Muscle contraction  Neurotransmitter release  Blood pressure regulation  Cell communication  Blood clotting  Levels regulated by hormones: Homeostasis vital  Too high: calcitonin “tones” it down  Too low: PTH and calcitriol “try” to bring it up  RDA: 19-50 years = 1000 mg/day; UL= 2500 mg/day  Sources: dairy products, dark green vegetables, fish with bones, foods processed and fortified with calcium  Deficiency: Osteoporosis  Excess: caused by cancers, increased PTH, excessive calcium and/or vitamin D intake causing altered availability of iron, zinc, magnesium, phosphorus; constipation; loss of appetite, abnormal heartbeat, weight loss, fatigue, frequent urination, soft tissue calcification, kidney stones and damage Calcium Hormones Decreased blood PHT & Calcitriol Stimulates intestinal Increased Blood calcium secretion absorption, kidney Calcium reabsorption, & bone resorption Increased Blood Calcitonin secretion Inhibit bone Decreased Blood Calcium resorption Calcium Calcium Supplements Phosphorus  Most found with calcium in bones and teeth  In soft tissues, needed for:  Phospholipid, DNA, RNA, and ATP structures  Enzyme activity regulation  Cellular acidity maintenance  RDA: adults = 700 mg/day; UL= 4000 mg/day  Sources: dairy products; meat; cereal; bran; eggs; nuts; fish; and food additives used in baked goods, cheese, processed meats, and soft drinks  Deficiency: rare; due to chronic diarrhea or poor absorption due to overuse of aluminum- containing antacids; causes bone loss, weakness, loss of appetite  Excess: high dietary phosphorus does not appear to be harmful for healthy adults, concern with sodas Magnesium  50-60% in bones  In cells and fluids, needed for:  Calcium regulation  Blood pressure regulation  ATP structure stabilization which is important for:  Energy release from carbohydrate, fat, and protein  Nerve and muscle functioning  DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis  RDA: men = 420 mg/day; women = 320 mg/day  Sources: leafy greens, nuts, seeds, legumes, bananas, germ and bran of whole grains  Deficiency: rare; causes osteoporosis, nausea, muscle weakness and cramping, irritability, mental derangement, blood pressure, heartbeat changes  Excess: no effects from foods; drugs or supplements can cause nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and other cardiovascular changes Sulfur  Part of:  amino acids and proteins  glutathione – needed for detoxification  B vitamins thiamin and biotin  Regulates acidity  RDA: none  Sources: part of dietary proteins and sulfur-containing vitamins, found in some food preservatives  Deficiency: none known Iron  Part of hemoglobin which transports oxygen to body cells and carries carbon dioxide away from them for elimination by the lungs  Needed for other iron-containing proteins such as myoglobin, a muscle protein which increases oxygen available for contraction  Essential for ATP production  Heme iron in proteins is absorbed more than twice as efficiently as the nonheme iron in plant sources Iron Availability  RDA: adults = 8 mg/day; UL = 45 mg/day  Sources: red and organ meats, legumes, leafy greens, whole and enriched grains  Deficiency: iron-deficiency anemia causing fatigue, weakness, headache, decreased work capacity, body temperature problems, behavior changes, increased infection, impaired development, lead poisoning  Excess: intestinal lining damage, abnormal body acidity, shock, liver failure; iron overload from inherited hemochromatosis Iron Deficiency  Women of childbearing age lose iron due to menstruation  Pregnant women, infants, children, & teens have increased iron needs due to growth and development  Diets low in meat, which contains the most readily absorbed form of iron (heme iron), & high in phytates and fiber, which reduce iron absorption, increase the risk of deficiency  Intestinal parasites cause blood loss, which increases iron loss  Those in poverty are less likely to consume adequate iron Iron Excess  Iron can be harmful or fatal to children if taken in large doses  Excess iron in vital organs, even in mild cases of iron overload, increases the risk for liver disease (cirrhosis, cancer), heart attack or heart failure, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, numerous symptoms and in some cases premature death Copper  A copper-containing protein is needed for iron transport from intestinal cells  Component of proteins and enzymes involved in:  Connective tissue synthesis  Lipid metabolism  Heart muscle maintenance  Immune and central nervous system functions  RDA: adults = 900 micrograms/day; UL = 10 mg/day  Sources: organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole-grain breads and cereals, chocolate  Deficiency: iron-deficiency anemia, decreased collagen, high blood cholesterol, impaired growth, heart and nervous system degeneration, hair color and structure changes, increased infections, decreased antioxidants  Excess: from supplements, copper containers, contaminated water, causing abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea Zinc  Involved in the functioning enzymes involved in:  Scavenging free radicals  DNA and RNA synthesis  Carbohydrate metabolism  Acid–base balance  Absorption of folate from food  Storage and release of insulin  Mobilization of vitamin A from liver  Stabilization of cell membranes  Influences hormonal regulation of cell division  RDA: men = 11 mg/day; women = 8 mg/day  Sources: meat, liver, eggs, dairy products, vegetables, legumes, seeds  Deficiency: decreased growth, development and immunity; skin rashes; diarrhea, taste changes  Excess: from supplements causing gastrointestinal irritation; vomiting; appetite loss; diarrhea, abdominal cramps; headaches; decreased immunity, HDL, copper and iron absorption Zinc & Gene Expression Selenium  Incorporated into the structure of certain proteins:  Glutathione peroxidase which decreases oxidative damage  A protein needed to make thyroid hormones  RDA: adults = 55 mg/day; UL = 400 mg/day  Sources: seafood, kidney, liver, eggs, grains, nuts, seeds  Deficiency: Keshan disease = heart disease in China; increased risk of cancer Iodine  ¾ in the thyroid gland  Component of thyroid hormones which regulate metabolic rate, growth, and development and promote protein synthesis  RDA: adults = 150 mg/day; UL = 1100 mg/day  Sources: seafood, iodinized salt, food contaminants and additives  Deficiency: decreased thyroid hormones causing decreased metabolic rate, fatigue, weight gain; goiter (enlarged thyroid); during pregnancy causes spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, cretinism (brain damage)  Excess: goiter Chromium  Component of “glucose tolerance factor,” a small peptide required to maintain normal blood glucose levels  RDA: ages 19–50: men = 35 micrograms/day; women = 25 micrograms/day  Sources: liver, brewer’s yeast, nuts, whole grains  Deficiency: rare in US  Excess: little evidence Fluoride  Incorporated into crystals in tooth enamel which protects against cavity-causing acids produced by bacteria  In saliva, decreases bacterial acid production, inhibits dissolution of tooth enamel by acid, and increase enamel re-mineralization after acid exposure  Incorporated into crystals in bone  RDA: 0.05 mg/kg/day; UL = 0.1 mg/kg/day for infants and children less than 9 years old and 10 mg/day between 9 and 70 years  Sources: in small amounts in almost all soil, water, plants, and animals; toothpaste; tea; marine fish with bones; fluoridated water  Deficiency: tooth decay Excess: fluorosis causing black and brown stains and cracking and pitting of the teeth


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.