Study Guide for EIPT 3473 Exam 2
Study Guide for EIPT 3473 Exam 2 EIPT 3473
Popular in Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development
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EDAH 2963 - 001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Neill on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EIPT 3473 at University of Oklahoma taught by Ben Heddy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Educational Psychology of Childhood and Adolescent Development in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Piaget's Stages • Sensorimotor: birth to 2 • Pre-operational: 2-7 • Concrete Operations: 7-11 • Formal Operations: 11-15 (and on) Piaget Terms and Examples ◦ Adaptation: changing to ﬁt one's environment according to physical and mental schema ◦ Two types: ‣ Accommodation: when a person receives information that doesn't ﬁt with their existing schema and it actually changes their schema • Telling a kid the earth is round forces them to change schema of its ﬂatness completely ‣ Assimilation : when a person receives new information and just adds it to an existing schema • Telling a kid about Saturn and they add it to their schema about planets ◦ Equilibrium: schemas explain the world around them and help a person to understand ◦ Disequilibrium: schemas can't explain world around them, also called cognitive dissonance ◦ Equilibration ‣ Regulating your knowledge ‣ Assimilation and accommodation moving you from disequilibrium to equilibrium ‣ Facilitates progress toward logical consistency ‣ Learning happens when a kid is in disequilibrium and wants to get back to equilibrium, so they add to and change schemas ◦ Organization: mind has complex organization ‣ Developing improves organization which lets you think more complexly ◦ Mental structures: groups of knowledge that we sort new knowledge into and coordinate it with the old ‣ Made up of schemes ◦ Scheme: system of organization our brains use: collection of perceptions, ideas, and actions that are grouped together ‣ Schemes for ideas, events, processes ‣ Dogs, July 4th, how to change a tire ‣ The more schemes you have and the more connected they are, the more complex your thinking can be (organization helps) ◦ The role of experience ‣ Experience of physical world • Build and change schemes through experiencing physical environment • Thinking about direct experience with physical world helps construct general principles • Kids are "little scientists" ‣ Experience of social world • Build and change schemes through experiencing social environment • Thinking about direct experience with social world helps construct general principles ◦ The role of maturation ‣ Maturation helps us move from one stage to the next ‣ Development improves mental structures that help us do new operations ◦ Stages and abilities ‣ 1. Sensorimotor • Birth-2 years • Thinking happens through observable actions • Seeing is believing • Sensory perception ◦ Why they touch and smell and taste everything • Motor activity to learn to move and interact with the world • Milestones ◦ Object permanence: even if something isn't in sight, it still exists ◦ Goal-directed behavior: goes from instinctual to deliberate • Mechanisms ◦ Reﬂexes: sucking thumb, grasping, focusing on things ◦ Circular reactions: repeating things that are pleasurable ‣ Sucking thumb, crying • Egocentrism: they think they are the only thing, not one object in a world of objects ‣ 2. Pre-operations • 2-7 years • Thinking becomes conceptual and representational • Not just observable actions • Deferred imitation: will imitate what you do at a later time • Can pretend • Drawing (related to pretending) • Spoken language • Advantages over sensorimotor ◦ Think faster, not tied to physical activity ◦ Can think back to past or forward to present ◦ Representation of objects and language starts working, can describe things and talk about several elements • Not completely logical ◦ Can't conserve (ability to reverse a process) ◦ Perceptions ◦ Understand states but not transformational processes ◦ Centration: can focus on one part of a process ◦ Conservation ‣ conservation of number ‣ Conservation of length ‣ Conservation of mass • Ex. 5 year old with clay balls. One turned into a snake, they become different sizes ‣ Conservation of liquid ◦ Trouble with several dimensions ‣ Organize different colors of squares and triangles ◦ Difﬁculty with hierarchies (comparing values) ‣ Are there more triangles or squares? ◦ Trouble with seriation (putting things where they go in an order) ◦ Can't distinguish intentions of others ◦ Egocentric ‣ Only aware of own viewpoint, not others' perspectives ‣ Ex. Playing together, they may have two completely separate conversations going on ‣ Concrete Operations (7-11) • Thinking becomes more organized, logical and ﬂexible • Logic over perception • Can understand transformational processes • Can reverse processes • Multiple dimensions ◦ Can sort shapes into more than one group • Hierarchies ◦ Can say there are more squares than circles • Seriation ◦ Can ﬁx an order • Understand intentions ◦ Understand the demon who drank the coffee is naughty • Overcome egocentrism by joining social interactions • Difﬁculties ◦ Need concrete representations of concepts ◦ Can't understand abstract ‣ Ex. Ethics ◦ Scientiﬁc thinking ‣ Testing a hypothesis • Ex. Pendulum. Kids have trouble ﬁguring out which factors affect speed of pendulum; they don't test one variable at a time. ◦ Propositional reasoning ‣ Generalizing from one person in a group to another • Ex. All unicorns have blue hair. I have a unicorn. What color hair does it have? ‣ Formal operational ( beginning 11- 15) • Complete, consolidated logical thinking • Thog problem • Can start thinking hypothetically and abstractly ◦ Mentally picture situations that haven't happened • Can systematically and scientiﬁcally reason ◦ Pendulum problem: break it down and only change one variable at a time • Propositional logic ◦ Begin to understand syllogisms • Combinatorial Thought ◦ Clear liquid test: make a yellow liquid- they will systematically combine things • Reﬂective abstraction ◦ Powers Logical-mathematical knowledge ◦ Abstract principles applied to accumulated experiences in a certain set ◦ Also think about ethics and society • Adolescent egocentrism ◦ Fixate on certain things ◦ Idealistic ◦ "Imaginary audience" where they think everyone is watching them ◦ "Personal fable" where we think we are so unique • Limitations of Piaget ◦ Object permanence (evidence as young as 4 months old) ◦ Pre-operational egocentrism ‣ Maybe kids aren't quite so egocentric and can play together ◦ Conservation ‣ The word "more" may be the issue, not the actual idea of conservation ◦ Formal operations ‣ Not everyone grows through all stages of formal operations (may be affected by environment) ◦ Piaget used mostly rich white kids and also used his own kids Vygotsky terms and examples • Appropriation: gradually internalizing other people's viewpoints, cognitive tools, and behaviors for their own use by modifying them ◦ Student is taught what acronyms are in math when taught a memory trick for order of operations, and then makes her own to learn a reading concept • Cognitive tools: physical, symbolic, or conceptual mechanisms that we use to help us think ◦ Shovel, maps, arithmetic • Guided participation: adults involving children in adult activities to teach responsibility and independence ◦ Taking child grocery shopping and having them help ﬁnd the best value • Social speech: talking to others ◦ Parent directing child how to put dishes away, child asking questions ◦ Transitions to self-talk • Self-talk/ private speech: kids audibly talk themselves through a task as adults have talked them through it previously ◦ "First we take the plate out of the dishwasher, then we go put it in the cabinet." ◦ Transitions to inner speech • Inner speech: talking to yourself silently in your head to help you work through a task ◦ 4x3+5 First we multiply 4 and 3, then we add 5. • Internalization: the way social activities evolve and become integrated into our brains as mental activities ◦ Self-talk to inner speech • Intersubjectivity: Shared understanding, purpose, attention, and problem-solving between the teacher and learner ◦ Happens in the ZPD ◦ Student and mentor are working together to edit the student's paper • Mediation: adults helping children to make sense of an event they were both present for by having a discussion about principles behind it and assigning labels to concepts ◦ After taking a child to a medieval fair, a parent explains more about the culture they just experienced • Scaffolding: Structures we use to support learning ◦ As you build a building, the scaffolding is removed and the building stands alone ◦ Teachers give support and slowly remove it so that children can become independent ◦ First a teacher demonstrates a math problem, then talks to students as they do it, then has them do it alone • ZPD: Zone of Proximal Development ◦ Changing area between "novice" and "expert" ◦ Set of tasks you can do with assistance from an expert ‣ Expert can be anyone who knows more about the topic than the student • Teacher, peer, parent ◦ Speciﬁc to topics and learning situations ◦ Often dictated by development ◦ Size of the zone affected by: ‣ Learner factors: • Past experience and learning extends lower bound • Motivation extends upper bound • Emotions at the time ◦ A little anxiety helps you focus • Basic capacity ‣ Teacher factors: • Expertise ◦ The more they know, the more they can teach • Verbal skills ◦ Can the communication effectively • Motivation to teach • Interpersonal skills ◦ Giving just enough help • Emotions at the time ◦ Frustration makes it smaller ‣ Situational factors • Distractions ◦ A kid screaming in the corner makes learning hard • Comfort of environment ◦ Blinking lights bad • Availability of teaching aids ◦ No individual instruction shrinks it Vygotsky's emphasis on social relationships and culture and their inﬂuence on development • Adults pass along cultural knowledge and tools to children through social interactions, mediation, guided participation, and scaffolding, and slowly transfer all responsibility and knowledge to children as they become adults • Socio-cultural theory Vygotsky for Education ◦ Have students use self-talk when faced with a difﬁculty problem, which leads to internalization ◦ Encourage students to think like adults ‣ Using critical reasoning like adults ◦ Give students some work that they can only succeed in with help ◦ Set up enough scaffolding so they can understand and take it away gradually as they understand more and their ability grows ◦ Have students work through difﬁcult tasks in small groups ‣ Peer to peer scaffolding Intelligence • Affected by development and the environment. ◦ Nature and nurture ◦ Context- and situation-speciﬁc • Theories of intelligence ◦ Accepted by researchers: ‣ Intelligence adapts ‣ Uses past experiences and ability to learn ‣ Incorporates mental processes ‣ Is speciﬁc to culture ‣ Deﬁnition: "ability to apply past knowledge and experiences ﬂexibly to accomplish challenging new tasks" ◦ Many conceptualizations of intelligence ‣ Either unidimensional • Spearman • General intelligence that can be applied to speciﬁc areas • Testing different areas of knowledge corresponded ◦ People who were high in reading were usually high in math • If you don't have general intelligence, you won't be able to build up speciﬁc areas ‣ Or multidimensional • Gardner • Multiple intelligences ◦ Linguistic, mathematics, spatial, musical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, existential?? • Maybe too many types • More preferences ‣ Integrating the two • Cattel-Horn-Carroll model of human abilities ◦ General intelligence and speciﬁc areas ‣ Strongest theory: • Sternberg's triarchic theory ◦ Analytic intelligence ‣ Logical, problem-solving ◦ Creative intelligence ‣ Divergent thinking- creating new things and solutions ◦ Practical intelligence ‣ Street smarts and common sense • Using different parts of the brain for different things • Intelligent behavior involves ◦ Cognitive processes ‣ Gaining knowledge and performing on tasks ◦ Prior experience ‣ Using what you know and what you've practiced ◦ Environmental context ‣ Adapting yourself to the environment and vice versa ‣ Distributed intelligence • Intelligence varies by context (not just person) ◦ Physical, social, cultural supports affect it ‣ Using technology, other people, and symbols ◦ Ex. Aborigine kids couldn't perform well on IQ tests but they were amazing at spatial reasoning ‣ Crystallized intelligence: jeopardy intelligence. What facts do you know? ‣ Fluid intelligence: analytical and reasoning abilities • Knowing what years a war took place in is crystallized, being able to think about causes and effects of the war is ﬂuid ◦ IQ tests ‣ Carefully constructed by scientists ‣ Tested many times for accuracy ‣ One-on-one for accuracy ‣ Used to suck ‣ Get an IQ score that compares your performance to others your age ‣ Mean for 20-year-olds is 100 and standard deviation is 15 ‣ Predicts well: how well you will do in school and on other tests, how you will do in college ‣ Good construct validity- measures what it's supposed to. examines intelligence ‣ Reliable and consistent over time ‣ Predicting • Academic, ﬁnancial, and career success • Better predictor of career success than anything else studied (SES, schooling, others) ◦ Motivation, creativity, etc also extremely important to success ◦ Achievement/standardized tests ‣ Mostly carefully constructed • Takes a long time ‣ Rigorously tested usually ‣ Predict later accomplishments ‣ Administered to several at a time • Ex: ACT, GRE ◦ Tests of speciﬁc abilities ‣ Aptitude tests • Ability to learn ‣ Speciﬁc brain processes • Diagnose disabilities in learning • Inﬂuences on accuracy ◦ Students are less motivated than teachers ◦ Personality ◦ Test bias ‣ When test gives more accurate results for one group than another • Math questions about yachts or tennis biased toward rich ‣ Sources of bias • Lack experience with subject matter ◦ Culture differences ◦ SES differences • Don't understand format or what they are supposed to do ◦ Standardized tests ◦ Practice tests help • Don't understand language completely or language use ‣ How common is bias? • Standardized tests and IQ tests are much better now • State tests often biased because they haven't been tested by diverse people • Locally-constructed tests more biased usually • Testing: good or bad? ◦ Tests may not be able to do all the things politicians want them to ◦ Test scores often misinterpreted ‣ Correlation does not equal causation. Just because a student does badly on a test doesn't mean they are dumb. Situational factors are at play ◦ One-time assessment ◦ Still reasons for testing and measuring achievement ‣ Helpful for pull-outs to know what students need extra help ‣ Hold teachers accountable • Maybe administrators and districts held accountable just as much if not more than individual teachers ◦ Can give lots of useful information with correct interpretation ◦ IQ scores taken out of cultural context and the context in which they took the test ‣ Based on western culture ◦ IQ scores cannot take personality and metacognition into account ‣ Perseverance, problem solving • Inﬂuences on intelligence ◦ Nature or nurture? ◦ Nature/genetic ‣ Polygenic: many different genes have something to do with intelligence, each has a very small impact ‣ Looking at how often heredity affects intelligence • Twin studies where one is placed in low SES and one is placed in high SES ◦ How does environment impact? ◦ Generally there are similarities but the higher SES kid has higher IQ • Just because you have good genes doesn't mean they will express regardless of environment ◦ Nurture/environmental ‣ Home life • Safety, food, clothing, relationships ‣ School life • How rigorous and supportive your school is ◦ Edmond v Okc ‣ Societal inﬂuence • Community, culture ‣ Poverty • Resources help • Lower SES correlates with lower test scores ◦ Impact of schooling ‣ Years of schooling have more to do with IQ than age ‣ IQ and standardized test scores drop in the summer ‣ Kids would achieve more intellectually if they went to school more days ◦ Impact of poverty ‣ Nutrition ‣ Overall Health ‣ Less parent involvement-> less stimulation ‣ Less emotional support ‣ The longer a kid lives in poverty, the more their IQ drops ◦ Impact of society ‣ Flynn effect: • Since industrialization, IQ scores have continued to rise in developed countries ◦ Impact of gender ‣ Rarely any signiﬁcant differences ‣ Girls are slightly better at reading and writing, boys slightly better at visual-spatial ‣ Should expect similar potential in all areas • Relating to teachers ◦ Don't put all conﬁdence in IQ scores ◦ Believe every kid has potential and try to help them reach it ◦ Intervene early ◦ Capitalize on strength but bring out weaknesses ◦ Use scaffolding and help them problem-solve ◦ Remember that intelligence shows itself in many ways Language Acquisition • Languages are symbol systems with rules constructed by society for how each symbol sounds, how they are formed into words, and how words form sentences • 4 aspects of Language Development ◦ Phonological: sounds ‣ Listening and speaking ◦ Semantic: sounds making meaningful words ◦ Syntactic: words making meaningful sentences ◦ Pragmatics of language: social conventions of language ‣ Sociolinguistic ‣ Talking space ◦ Semantic development: word meaning ‣ From 18 mo to 6 years, kids learn 9 words daily ‣ 14,000 words by age 5 ‣ Comprehend more than they use ‣ "Fast-mapping" is when they get a word from one-time use • Overextension: when you incorrectly use a word to describe too many things ◦ Ex. Use "ball" for balls and balloons • Underextension: when you incorrectly use a word to describe too few things ◦ Ex. Use "bear" for their own teddy bear, but not for everyone else's or for real bears • Or just plain mismatching ‣ Pragmatic cues help a lot • Babies pay attention to what others pay attention to, and this helps them learn words • Intentional action helps them learn words ◦ Jump and say "jump" ‣ Grammatical form gives clues • "A" versus "some" ‣ Understanding ﬁgurative speech takes a long time • Break the ice ◦ Syntactic development: phrases and sentences ‣ One word phrases at 1 year old: holophrases • No ‣ Vocabulary explosion at 18 months • Can learn more than one word at once ‣ Telegraphic speech beginning at end of 2nd year • Light off ‣ General rules learned, then exception • Overregulation around age 4 ◦ "I saw two mouses" • Continue to learn syntax through college ‣ Infant-directed speech: baby talk • Role in semantic development ◦ Helps them pick up words faster • Role in syntactic development ◦ Recasts: we rephrase what kids say into correct grammar ◦ Expansions: we restate things more complexly ◦ Factors of sociolinguistic behaviors (pragmatics) ‣ Taught to be polite by adults ‣ Imitate adult behaviors ‣ Become unconscious standards ‣ When to be silent and when to talk • Western culture is chatty and full of small talk ‣ How to interact with adults • Some cultures addressing an adult is rude ‣ Eye contact • May show rudeness in African-American, Hispanic, and Native American cultures ‣ Personal space • European Americans keep a large personal space ‣ Responding to questions • Adults in our culture ask questions they know the answer to to facilitate learning, uncommon in other cultures ‣ Waiting and interrupting • Wait time longer for some cultures • Give students longer to respond ‣ All of these factors affect the classroom • Gender differences ◦ Girls learn to speak sooner and speak more ‣ Language as a tool for relationship-building and getting info ◦ Boys speak less and more directly ‣ Language as a tool for getting information • Ideas on language acquisition ◦ Modeling and reinforcement ‣ Conditioning (stimulus to response) ‣ We simply imitate ◦ Nativist ‣ Our brains are made to learn language ‣ We don't need to be directly taught ◦ Information processing ‣ Our brain uses same mechanisms it does for other information ‣ Brain develops, improves attention span and memory, which helps language learning ‣ Language helps us test hypotheses and use deductive reasoning ◦ Sociocultural ‣ Language is learned in cultural context and situations ‣ Caregivers help kids master semantics, syntax, and pragmatics ◦ Functional ‣ We learn and use language to serve our own purposes ‣ Tied to cognitive, social, and emotional development • Bilingualism ◦ Advantages ‣ Close relationships ‣ More aware of cultural differences in the world ‣ Higher scores on reading, language, reasoning ‣ More aware of their own language use • Bilingual education not on the study guide but you might review those slides
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