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psych Test 2 study guide

by: Shanna Beyer

psych Test 2 study guide PSYC 1030

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Psychlogy > PSYC 1030 > psych Test 2 study guide
Shanna Beyer
University of Memphis
GPA 3.9

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test 2 study guide with notes on psych disorders from 3/28 too
General Psychology
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1030 at University of Memphis taught by Freels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Memphis.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE Psychology: Child Development Heredity: characteristics passed down from parents to children Genes: the information passed down - recessive: requires 2 copies - dominant: always passed down
 Heterochromia: melanin dysfunction that results in two different colored eyes Blood Typing:
 A, B, and O blood comes from genetics but displays incomplete dominance Innate Reflexes:
 - grasping reflex
 - sucking reflex
 - rooting reflex
 - moro reflex Motor and Sensory: - head to toe, middle to outside
 - occurring rapidly
 - newborn’s vision is tuned to about 1 foot in front of their face - by year 1, eyesight has fully matured Parental Influences: - genetic disorders are inherited due to no actions on the mother’s part - congenital issues
 - teratogens (drugs, alcohol) - babies are born addicted Infant Social Development: Separation Anxiety:
 - emotional attachment to parents is the first step
 - 2-3 months: baby begins to favor mother
 - normal for children to have some of this but may be severe Attachments: - quality revealed by how the child acts when the mother returns
 - Securely Attach: happy to see the mother
 - Insecure-avoidant: turns away from the mother
 - Insecure-ambivalent: wants to be close but not touching the mother Promoting Good Attachment: - attentiveness to the child
 - appropriate interactions at appropriate times - warm family atmosphere
 - affectional needs
 - day care Parenting Styles: - Authoritarian: overly strict
 - Overly Permissive: overly nice - Authoritative: most effective Authoritarian:
 - demand strict obedience and enforce rigid rules
 - few rights but many responsibilities
 - “seen but nit heard”
 - parents’ view on things should be the child’s
 - power-assertion: physical punishment or taking a privilege away - causes fear, lack of spontaneity, negative feelings
 - withdraw of affection
 - tend to be obedient and self-controlled
 - tend to be unemotional, withdrawn, apprehensive, dependent
 - self esteem issues Overly Permissive:
 - give little guidance
 - many rights, few responsibilities - wish to empower their children - rarely enforce rules
 - overly high self esteem
 - sense of entitlement
 - little self control
 - little ambition Authoritative:
 - good style
 - firm and consistent guidance with affection
 - praise, recognitions, approval, rules, reasons to encourage good behavior
 - encourage children to act responsibly, to think, and to make good decisions
 - resiliency
 - competent, self-controlled, independent, assertive
 - manage emotions and good parenting skills Theory of Cognitive Development: - Assimilation: use mental thoughts and concepts in new situations - Accommodation: modifying of existing concepts to fit new ideas - horses vs. zebras - cars vs. trucks Psychology Week 7 Language Development
 - Biological Disposition: hereditary readiness to learn certain skills
 - Genetic vs. Social
 - Genetic: identification, nonexistence, possession, negation, question - Social: imitation and conditioning
 - universal qualities
 - Praise: raising and falling
 - Warning: short and sharp Moral Development - Pre-conventional: moral thinking guided by the consequences from the actions taken 
 - Conventional: reasoning based on the desire to please others or to follow accepted 
 - authority, rules and values 
 Post-conventional: moral behavior is directed by self-chosen ethical principles, tend to reflect justice, dignity, and equality 
 Erikson’s 8 Stages 
 - 1: Trust vs. Mistrust: secure or insecure attachment 
 - 2: Authority vs. Shame and Doubt: Autonomy comes when encouraging the attempt of 
 - new skills. Overprotection can induce the opposite 
 3: Initiative vs. Guilt: Initiative is encouraged by fostering curiosity. Guilt is encouraged if 
 - parents are impatient or don’t as questions 
 4: Industry vs. Inferiority: Industry is encouraged by rewarding hard work. Inferiority is 
 - caused by treating early efforts is childish or poor 
 5: Identity vs. Role Confusion: The individual must build their experience in school and life 
 - into a sense of self. Role Confusion is the opposite 
 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation: Forming rewarding relationships with others lead to an inability to 
 - care fully about others, leads to isolation. 
 7: Generativity vs. Stagnation: Generativity is the expression of care for future generations 
 - and the world. Stagnation is caring snout one’s self and needs. 
 8: Integrity vs. Despair: last stage is how people feel about their lives. Those who lived richly passed with integrity. Those who are filled with regret experience despair 
 How to be a successful adult
 - These are considered by several researchers to be the qualities needed for well-being 
 through adulthood
 - self-accepting, positive relations with others, personal freedom, environmental mastery, a 
 life purpose, and continued personal growth 
 Brain and Nervous System:
 Central Nervous System: brain and spinal chord Peripheral Nervous System: sensory neurons
 - Somatic: handles input from the sensory organs and sends messages to the muscles
 - Sympathetic: prepares the body for strenuous activity - - Parasympathetic: does the opposite of sympathetic, (flight response)
 Sympathetic increases heart rate, dilates breathing airways, slows down digestion, releases - adrenaline.
 - Parasympathetic decreases heart rate, narrows airways, up regulates digestion it’s a continuum Neuron: basic cell of the nervous system Soma: cell body, contains the nucleus Axon: receiver of signals
 Dendrites: sending a message Nerve Impulse: the signal for the neurons - the inside/outside of the cells are different electrically 
 - different charges, inside sits at -70 
 - -50 is the charge that fires the impulse 
 - when dendrites receive a message, positive ions rush in 
 - makes the charge more positive that fires the new impulse or action potential - all-or- nothing
 - after impulse, the ions leave. However, it overshoots the target
 - Hyperpolarization: causes seizures (epilepsy) 
 Synapse: space between neurons. the signal must cross that if it is to move to the next neuron
 Neurotransmitter: chemical released that alters activity in other neurons 
 - inhibitory 
 - excitatory
 -ex. dopamine, seratonin, GABA, Glutamine 
 Steps of Signaling
 1: Action potential increase calcium in the cell 
 - activates versicles (storage organelles) 2: Vesicles move to the membrane of the cell 
 - fuse with the membrane
 3: After membrane fusion, vesicles release its neurotransmitter into synapse. 4: Neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the next neuron
 5: triggers the nerve impulse in the next cell and the cycle begins again 
 Frontal Lobe: associated with “higher thinking” and mental abilities and sense of self Primary Motor Cortex: rear portion of the frontal lobe, controls muscle movements Mirror Neurons: specialized component of the primary motor cortex
 Association Areas: combine and process specific type of information -Borca’s area: area in the left frontal lobe for language - damage to this area leads to aphasia
 Prefrontal Cortex: the very front portion of the brain that generates character and self awareness soma=body Parietal Lobe: sensation register includes touch, temperature and pressure Somatosensory Cortex: brain tissue that organizes all of the information
 Temporal Lobe: located on each side of the brain that is the primary auditory area - Wernicke’s Area: lose association with words Occipital Lobe: area of the cortex associated with vision - damage to this area can cause agnosia which is the inability to say what things are Lobes: all apart of the main cerebral cortex
 Subcortex: the structures under the cerebral cortex
 HindBrain/Brainstem: lowest portion of the brain - brainstem, medulla, pons
 Medulla: controls and maintains vital life functions. ex pulse
 Pons: acts like a bridge between the medulla and the rest of the brain Psychology Week 8 Reticular Formation: Crucial aspect of the brainstem as it acts as a filter and plays a large role in attention
 Reticular Activating System: controls arousal
 Cerebellum: primarily handles posture, muscle tonem and coordination - evidence that it is also involved in emotions and cognition - stores procedural memories
 Limbic System: group that includes amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and ganglia
 Amygdala: associated with emotional responses - quick startle response, mainly fear
 - helps consolidate memories with emotional attachment - amygdala hijack: overreacting Hippocampus: located on the interior of the frontal lobe that deals with memory storage and spatial navigation - damage causes amnesia Thalamus: relay system of the brain - takes in sensory information, organizes it, and distributes it - sleep and wakefulness information
 - damage can induce a coma Hypothalamus: control center for the brain, link between the brain and the endocrine system - sexual orientation - control of food intake
 Basal Ganglia: fine motor control and motivation - Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease Sleep:
 Restoration Hypothesis
 - sleep is important to restore damage - NREM physical
 - REM mental Adaptive Theory of Sleep: energy conservation method - sleep saves energy
 - sleep only when it’s safe
 - animals higher up on the food chain sleep more - inefficient
 - dangerous
 - caloric density Consolidation Theory of Sleep: sleep is necessary to process information gained throughout the day
 - sleep deprivation affects memory
 - assists in LTM formation - sleep would vary with complexity
 - learning more in a day would require more sleep Fatal familial Insomnia: prion disease in humans - can’t get past stage one of sleep
 - fatal with characteristics of thalamus damage Psychological Disorders:
 DSM-V: handbook used by psychologists to classify and diagnose disorders Paraphilia: sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, or individuals - dimorphic, 20x more likely to affect males than females
 - 100 defined types, 3 most common in DSM
 - Pedophilia: child aged 13 or younger
 - Exhibitionism: exposing oneself to strangers mostly in public - Voyeurism: watching someone without their consent - Necrophilia: dead bodies
 - Vampirism: blood
 - Dendrophilia: trees
 - Formicophilia: being crawled on by bugs Sleep Disorders: any sleep disturbance that has a negative impact on the daily life on an affected individual
 Insomnia: difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep - 30% have symptoms
 - 10% have severe insomnia to cause issues - main cause is substance abuse,
 - poor circadian health and elevated cortisol Microsleep: involuntary loss of consciousness that lasts between 1-30 seconds
 Sleep Apnea: breathing interruptions during sleep (i.e. snoring)
 Narcolepsy: caused by the brain no longer being able to regulate the sleep wake cycle - excessive daytime sleepiness, abnormal REM sleep, cataplexia
 Kleine-Levine Syndrome- (sleeping beauty disorder) a virus triggers sleep lasting between 15-21 hour per day lasting between one week to a month and display extreme apathy and appetite Psychological Disorders: PTSD: triggered by a traumatic experience - hypervigilance, flashbacks, avoidant behavior, anxiety and anger - 3.5% will experience PTSD, 9% during a lifetime GAD: anxiety disorder characterized by a nagging level of anxiety that is not focused on a certain event or thing - 2% suffer from GAD, women twice as likely to have it, 30% genetic Panic Disorders: characterized by reoccurring panic attacks, often worsen over time. Often seen with agorophobia. - different from GAD as attacks are much stronger anxiety levels Phobias: persistent fear of objects or situations that people will go through extreme lengths to avoid - 5-12% of people have a phobia, they don’t have any genetic connections Mood Disorders: overreaching theme involves mood disturbances characterized by a persistent low mood accompanied by a low self-esteem and a loss of interest in once pleasurable activities Bipolar Disorder: depressive-like episodes intermingling with an elevated mood. Mania: elevated moods including overly energetic, poor decision-making, and insomnia. Dysthymia: less severe but more long term depression Cyclothymia: less severe but more long term bipolar disorder Personality Disorder: characterized by enduring inappropriate patterns of behavior and cognition Schizoid: lack of interest in social relationships - tend to be very creative Schizotypical Personality Disorder: severe social anxiety. paranoia, and unconventional beliefs Antisocial Personality Disorder: pervasive pattern of disregard or violation of the rights of others Borderline Personality Disorder: pattern of behavior including impulsivity, instability, inconsistent relationships, and poor self-image. Histronic Personality Disorder: attention-seeking behavior and an excessive need of approval. Narcissistic Personality Disorder: excessive concern with personal adequacy, prestige, power and vanity Avoidant Personality Disorder: social inhibition and an avoidance of social situations despite wanting relationships Dependent Personality Disorder: problematic dependency on others


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