Anatomy and Physiology Test practice questions
Anatomy and Physiology Test practice questions BIO 2458
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Eunbee Choi on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 2458 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Henry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
1. What is the portion of the enzyme-substrate complex that is not used up on the reaction? Enzyme 2. What is the order bonds strongest to weakest? Covalent, ionic, hydrogen 3. What is the difference between all 3 types of bonds? Covalent bond: sharing one or more pairs of their valence electrons (common and strongest bond) Ionic bond: when an atom loess/gains a valence electron (cation and anion) Hydrogen bond: a week bond and serves as a link between molecules 4. What are the two most important properties of water? Polarity and high heal capacity 5. What is the significance of the control center? Process and converts sensory afferent to motor efferent 6. What is transcription? What is translation? Transcription: DNA copied to mRNA Translation: mRNA coded for Amino acid to make proteins 7. What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine secretion? Endocrine glands: secretions, called hormones, diffuse directly into the bloodstream; function in maintaining homeostasis (ex: thyroid gland) Exocrine glands: secrete products in to ducts that empty into the surfaces of epithelium; secretion of the exocrine gland include mucus, sweat, oil, ear wax, saliva, and digestive enzymes (ex: sudoriferous (sweat) glands) 8. True or False: men have estrogen 9. What are the 5 mature types of connective tissue and their subclasses? (Hint: 3 main categories of connective tissue and each category has 3 types, there is one main category that doesn’t necessarily have any types, and there is one main category that has 2 types). Loose connective (areolar: most widely spread out in the body and contains several types of cells and all three fiber types; adipose: contains [adipocytes- stores triglycerides/fat], good for insulation, white and brown adipose tissue; reticular: fine interlacing reticular fibers and cells, forms the stroma of liver, spleen and lymph nodes) Dense connective tissue (dense regular connective tissue: bundles of collagen fibers are regularly arranged in parallel patterns for strength, makes up tendons and most ligaments; elastic connective tissue: contains branching elastic fibers, strong and can recoil to original shape after stretching, lung tissue and arteries): contains numerous thick and dense fibers, packed closed with fewer cells than loose connective tissue. Dense irregular tissue: collagen fibers are usually irregularly arranged, found where pulling forces are exerted in many directions, dermis of skin and heart Embryonic connective tissue: (mesenchyme: gives rise to all other connective tissues; mucous or Wharton’s jelly: found in umbilical cord of the fetus Connective tissue extracellular matrix: functions to support and bind cells, store water, and allow exchange between blood and cells; complex combination of protein and polysaccharides (fibers: collagen fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers. 10. What is the main type of cell in the epidermis? Keratinocytes: 90% of the cells (most abundance in the epidermis) and produce keratin which is a tough fibrous protein that provides protection 11. What does an enzyme do? Speeds up chemical reaction and lowers activation energy 12. What is the strongest connective between cells? Desmosomes 13. What do the apocrine glands do? Secretion portion of gland that has pinched off; excretory ducts open into hair follicles with sweat secreted during emotional stress and sexual excitement. 14. What are the 4 major types of cells in the epidermis? Keratinocytes: produce keratin which provides protection, melanocytes: produce the pigment melanin that protects against damage by ultraviolet radiation, Langerhans cell: involved in immune response- fixed microphage and arise from red bone marrow, merkel cells: function in the sensation of touch along with the adjacent tactile discs. 15. What are the 4 examples of passive transport? Substances move across cell membranes without the input of any energy; use kinetic energy of individual molecules or ions 1. Channel-mediated 2. Carrier-mediated 3. Osmosis 4. Diffusion 16. What type of epithelium do the lungs and capillaries have? Simple squamous epithelium 17. What type of tissue multi-nucleated? Skeletal 18. What are the three types of muscular tissue? Compare and contrast each type Smooth, cardiac, skeletal 19. What is the only kind of tissue that contracts? muscular 20. What is the main purpose of connective tissue? Bind and connect tissue together; strengthen and support 21. Afferent: sensory:: efferent: motor 22. What are the 4 types of tissue? Epithelial, nervous, muscle, connective 23. What are the 7 characteristics of life? GRRAMOH: growth and development, reproduction, response to stimuli, adaptation, metabolism, homeostasis 24. How do we categorize and classify different type of connective tissue? Extracellular matrix 25. What are the 3 different epithelial cell shapes? Squamous, cuboidal, columnar 26. What is the significance of enzymes? (2 things) Increases collision frequency and lowers activation energy 27. Where do active transport processes receive their energy from? ATP 28. What are the 2 types of transporters in active transport? And what do they each do? Symporter (same direction) and antiporter (opposite direction) 29. What is the difference in packaging between the smooth ER and the rough ER? Rough ER packages proteins; smooth ER packages fats and sugars 30. What type of transport requires ATP? What is an example? Active, sodium potassium pump 31. Channel-mediated and carrier-mediated transport are examples of what type of transport? Passive 32. What are 2 examples of endocytosis? What does each type do? Phagocytosis and pinocytosis 33. What is the significance of the mitochondria? It is the powerhouse of the cell- creates ATP 34. What is transcytosis? Combo of endocytosis and exocytosis 35. What are 3 parts to the cell theory? 1. Cells are building blocks 2. Most basic unit 3. Preexisting cells 36. What is the formation of large molecules from small ones by removing a water molecule? Dehydration synthesis 37. What is the main difference between exergonic and endergonic reactions? Exergonic: releases and breaks down molecules Endergonic: absorbs and builds molecules 38. What type of cell collects unneeded fat for storage? Adipose 39. What is the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics? Hydrophilic: likes water (ex: phospholipid head) Hydrophobic: dislikes water (ex: phospholipid tail) 40. What polysaccharide cannot be broken down by humans? Cellulose 41. What is the most common lipid and what is it composed of? Triglycerides (3 glycerol, 1 fatty acids) 42. Of the 20 amino acids, we make 10 of them. Where does the other 10 come from? Food we eat 43. Which part of the homeostasis pathway is input being sent? Afferent (sensory) 44. What does medial mean? Midline 45. What are the 5 layers of the epidermal strata from most superficial to deepest? Stratum corneum: Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale Stratum lucidum 46. What are the 2 types of exocrine glands? How do each of them secrete their products? Merocrine: secretion by exocytosis Apocrine: secretion is portion of gland that has pinched off Hologcrine: cell dies and becomes the secretory product; cell division replaces the lost cell 47. What are the functions of the skin? Protects, regulate temperature, blood reservoir, excretion and absorption, vitamin D synthesis, cutaneous sensations, lipid storage 48. What is the purpose of synovial fluid? Lubricates joints 49. What is unique about cardiac muscle tissue? Intercalated discs 50. What type of muscle tissue doesn’t have striations? Smooth 51. What is the most abundant type of cell in the epidermis? Keratinocytes 52. What an insufficient vitamin D cause? Rickets 53. What are the 3 types of hairs? Lanugo: fine, no pigmented, downy hairs that cover the body of the fetus Vellus: short, fine, pale hairs barely visible to the eye Terminal: long, coarse, heavily pigmented hairs 54. What are long, coarse, heavily pigmented hairs called? Terminal hairs 55. What are the 5 types of cell junctions? Tight junctions: fuse cells together and seal off passageways between adjacent cells Adherens junctions: resist separation of cells during contractile activities Desmosomes: contain plaque and adherins that extends into intercellular space to attach adjacent cells together Hemidesmosomes: does not link adjacent cell but anchor cells to the basement membrane Gap junction: connects neighboring cells via tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexons; communication of cells within the tissue; ions, nutrients, wastes, chemical and electrical signal travels through the connexons from one cell to another 56. What are the 3 major functions of epithelial tissue? 1. Selective barrier that regulates the movement of materials in and out of the body 2. Secretory surfaces that release products onto the free surface 3. Protective surfaces against the environment 57. What does the perichondrium do? Covering of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the cartilage 58. What do action potentials cause? Release of neurotransmitters and muscle contractions 59. What are the differences between the Basal Lamina and the Reticular Lamina? Basal lamina is above reticular lamina and it is closer to the epithelial cells Reticular lamina is below basal lamina and it is closer to the dermis 60. What are the 3 primary germ layers? Endoderm, mesoderm: all connective and muscle tissues derive from mesoderm, ectoderm: nervous tissue derives from ectoderm 61. What 4 characteristics define the papillary region in comparison to the reticular region? Papillary region: consists of areolar connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers, dermal papillae, corpuscle of touch and free nerve endings. Reticular region: consists of dense irregular connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers, adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous (oil) glands, and sudoriferous (sweat) glands 62. What is the strongest of connections between cells? 63. What type of junction has membrane proteins called connexins? Gap junction 64. What is the difference between thick skin and thin skin? Thin (hairy) skin: covers all body regions EXEPT the palm, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles; corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale Thick (hairless) skin: covers the palms, palmar surfaces of digits, and soles; lucidum 65. What is associated with merkel cells? irritation 66. Which compounds usually lack carbon? Inorganic compounds 67. Glycogen can mainly be stored in what two parts of the human body? Liver and skeletal muscles 68. What are the 3 RNA involved in protein synthesis? mRNA, tRNA, rRNA (ribosomal) 69. What is the building up of simpler substances to complex chemical substances? Anabolism 70. What is the breaking down of complex chemical substances? Catabolism 71. What are in the lungs that sweep out fluids across the surface? Cilia 72. What is the mucous escalator and what is found there? Moves mucous out and in esophagus 73. What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis? Endocytosis: materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane Exocytosis: vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents into the extracellular fluid 74. What are 3 examples of monosaccharides? Glucose, fructose, galactose 75. In feedback systems, what is the effector responsible for? Receives output from control center, makes response 76. What does “differentiation” mean? Going from unspecialized to specialized cell 77. What are the 5 steps of homeostasis pathway? And what does each step entail? Receptor, afferent pathway, control center, efferent pathway, effecter 78. What is the differences between negative and positive feedback? EX Negative feedback reduces or shuts off original stimulus and variable changes in opposite direction of initial change Positive feedback strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body’s controlled conditions; causes variable to continue in same direction as initial change 79. Define anatomical position Body is upright, standing erect facing the observer, head and eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor and forward, upper limbs to the side, and palms turned forward. 80. What is another word for head? Cephalic 81. What’s the difference between supine and prone? Supine: body is lying face up Prone: body is lying face down 82. What are the 3 cavities in the human body and what fluid is in each cavity? Cranial- cerebrospinal Thoracic- cirosial Abdominopelvic- cirosial 83. In the positions: anterior, dorsal, ventral, and posterior; what are the synonyms? Anterior = ventral Posterior = dorsal 84. What is the space between the two pleura and outside of the pericardium called? Mediastinum 85. What is pH a measure of? Acidity 86. What is the difference between cilia, villi, and flagella? What are they composed of? What is the significance of what they are composed of? Give an example of each Cilia: hair, microtubules, Villi: increase cell surface area, micro fibers Flagella: tail, microtubules 87. What is denaturation? What causes denaturation? Break protein structure with high or low pH 88. How many layers are in thick skin? Thin skin? Name the layers Thin skin: stratum corneum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale Thick skin: stratum lucidum 89. What makes up the basement membrane? Reticular and basal lamina 90. What part of your skin is vascular? Dermis 91. What are the 3 types of exocrine glands and what defines each one? Sebaceous: secretes an oily substance called sebum; inhibits growth of certain bacteria; parents dehydration of hair and skin Sudoriferous: (eccrine sweat glands: help to cool the body temperature by evaporation of sweat and eliminate small amounts of waste; and apocrine sweat glands) Cemminous: 92. Which two types of connective tissue are not vascularized? What are the two layers of the dermis? Cartilage and tendons 93. What are the two layers of the dermis? Capillary and reticular region 94. What are the 3 main types of cartilage and where do we find each one? Hyaline (parts of rib that are close to the sternum, joints between fingers, and etc.), fibrocartilage (pubic, knee joint, between vertebrae), elastic (ear) 95. What are the different types and severities of burns? 1 degree: damage only the epidermis nd 2 degree: most painful and damage the epidermis and dermis; creates blisters (papillary: clear/ reticular: bloody) 3 degree: damage/ destruction to the hypodermis (full thickness)- white to black 96. What are the major parts of a neuron and their function? Dendrites: short branches extending from the cell body, receive incoming signals Nucleus: Cell body: contains nucleus and nucleolus Axon: long and thin extensions of the cell body, carries outgoing electrical signals to their destination 97. What are the characteristics of connective tissue proper? Provides nutrients and it is vascular
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