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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Colleen Murphy

Exam 2 Study Guide HIST 102 - 11

Colleen Murphy

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This covers all the material from week 7 and 8 and part of 6
World History Since 1500
Garth N. Montgomery
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Colleen Murphy on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 102 - 11 at Radford University taught by Garth N. Montgomery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see World History Since 1500 in History at Radford University.


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Date Created: 03/28/16
Exam #2 Study Guide  Chapter 21: o The Scientific Revolution:  Astronomy: first science to kick off Enlightenment o Nicolaus Copernicus:  Polish  Says there is no way everything revolves around the earth  Questions the bible o Galileo Galilei:  First telescope  Supports Copernicus  Observes suns phases  Heliocentric Theory  Excommunicated when he showed the pope how things revolved  around the sun not the earth. o Francis Bacon:  “Scientific truth must conform to empirical observation”  He encouraged the motivation for change  Believed that sciences main purpose was for human improvement o Issac Newton:  Laws of gravity  Physical universe is a realm of natural laws o Montesquieu:  Spirit of the Laws (1748)  What is the best form of government? Compares and  contrast  Separation of powers; What he believes is the most stable  (constitutional monarchy) o Rousseau:  Believed in popular sovereignty as the best form of government. Should be ruled by the people.  Social Contract (1762)  What ties people together?  What makes people good?  General Will  Where morality comes from  Majority and Minority.  How they relate.  Majority rules o Deism:  Rational nature  rational god  rational morality (right and  wrong).  Reform Christianity. o Enlightened Absolutism:  Frederick the Great II (Russia r. 1740 ­ 1786)  Wrote about history and politics,  Joseph II (Austria r. 1765 ­ 1790)  Imposed series of religious, legal, and social reforms  Catherine the Great (Russia r. 1762 ­ 1796)  Master of public relations, wanted to create the image of  being enlightened, admired Diderot and Voltaire  Chapter 22: o Laissez-Faire:  The belief that the government should interfere as little as possible with the citizen’s daily life especially when it came to economics. o The ‘Intolerable Acts’:  British say that they’re going to take things is people don’t pay  taxes.  This is peoples way of getting away from it o Estates-General:  Represented the Third Estate, which was made up of everyone in the kingdom that wasn’t a noble or a priest. They rebelled against the king because he was being unfair with taxation. o “Tennis Crdrt Oath”:  3  estate says that Estates General doesn’t exist and that they will  become a constitutional monarchy.  Won’t leave until they have a  constitution.  This causes a revolt in Paris which creates the  Bastille (new army) to fight the king o The Bastille:  The new army that was created made up of rebels that fought against the king of France. o Sans-Culottes:  Lower class people who rebelled for the sake of their living conditions. o ‘Mountain’:  Part of the Jacobins, which were French Republicans. They were the poor Republicans. o Levée en Masse:  Draft to build up army (age 15­50) o Robespierre:  Appointed by Convention to save the French revolution  In order to protect Republic, Robespierre killed all nobles and  priests but still doesn’t feel safe so he goes on to kill a bunch of  Jacobins. o “Continental System”:  Wants to boycott Britain because Napoleon couldn’t conqueror it  Backfires.  Britain is more advanced technologically advanced  than France so France falls behind  Al the countries that France are “allies” with try to get British  technology o Congress of Vienna:  Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Britain get to redraw country lines.  When they are redrawing the country lines there is a debate on how it should be done  Nationalism: draw the lines based on culture  Constitutional Monarchy: should the draw the lines based on the people that want a constitutional monarchy? o Creole:  Person of Spanish or African decent o Father Hidalgo:  Mexico, Talks about democracy and land reform  Chapter 23: th o 19 Century Liberalism:  Favored Classical Liberalism, which wanted the government to be as small as possible so that individual could have more influence. o Charles X:  Considered himself an absolute monarch so the people kick him  out. o The Great Reform Bill (1832):  Abolish rotten boroughs, which is when you have to move off the  land if you don’t live off of it.  People move to cities to work in  factories  Double # of voters because it lowered the property qualification  needed to vote o William Gladstone:  Education Act (1870); Universal public education  Liberal o Benjamin Disraeli:  Conservative  Reform Act (1867); To change the way people looked at nobles  Public Health Act (1875); Government is responsible for clean  water going in and out of public buildings  Artisans Act (1875); Public housing o Education Act of 1870:  Universal public education o National Workshop:  Jobs that were provided for the unemployed by the Second Republic after the Revolution of 1848.  Napoleon III o Frankfurt Parliament:  Supports nationalism. First freely elected parliament in Germany o Kansas Nebraska Bill of 1854:  Congress said that when settlers move into a new territory they get to vote of weather or not they want slavery.  Because of this there could have been slavery in the north and no slavery in parts of the south. o The Dread Scott Decision 1857:  His owner moves to the north Scott becomes a free man. He gets married and makes a life for himself. When the owner moves back down to the south he takes Scott back with him so he goes back to being a slave. Scott takes it to court and the Supreme Court and the court decides that Scott had no right to bring the case to court because he was still a slave and slaves have no rights. Therefore blacks were unable to come to the court for their freedom. o 13 thAmendment:  Abolished slavery o Plessy v. Ferguson:  Says that if you provide equal service to both races you are allowed to segregate. o Crimean War:  England and France join Ottoman Empire to fight Russia.  Prevented the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. o Camillo Cavour:  Prime Minister of Sardinia, Liberal Constitutional Monarchy, He sends troops to fight in Crimean war so he could go back to France (Napoleon III) and get them to help him unify Italy. This would hurt Austria o Giuseppe Garilbaldi:  Follower of Mazzini, Want a Republic, Helps Cavour o Otto Von Bismarck:  Prime Minister of Prussia, Fight Germany o The Compromise of 1867:  Changes the name of the country from Austria to Austria Hungary. o Theodor Herzl:  Wanted recognition for the Jews so he created Zionism which was Jewish Nationalism.  Chapter 24: nd o 2 Industrial Revolution:  Steel, electricity, oil, chemicals; First power stations that would light street lamps. o European Middle Class:  20% of the population of Europe and North America that would fit this classification, (Upper (bank presidents)/Middle (lawyers, doctors, professors)/Lower) Middle Class, Traits: big income difference between upper and lower middle class. They are just like us because we can all afford the same thing. Educational expectation. o European Cities:  o Joseph Lister:  Invents a way to kill germs (Chemical Disinfectant) o European Middle Class Women:  Teacher, nurse, secretary  Stereotype: They would marry their boss to move themselves from Middle Class “Home-Makers” to Upper Middle Class o “Women’s Work”:  When factories became more popular jobs, such as spinning cotton and weaving, were taken away from women and they were put in lower skilled jobs that paid way less. o Proletarianization:  Farmers  Factory workers o The Factory Act of 1833:  Says you cannot hire kids under 8 to work in a factory. No child labor o Bismarck’s Anti-Socialist Laws:  Was meant to deter the growing strength of the Social Democratic Party. It did not get rid of the party entirely but made it difficult for them to meet and outlawing certain trade unions and closing countless newspapers that even supported any belief of the Social Democratic Party. o Eduard Bernstien:  German social democratic political theorist and politician, a member of the Social Democratic Party, founder of Evolutionary Socialism, Social Democracy, and Revisionism o Fabianism:  British socialists who sought to achieve socialism through gradual and democratic means. o Pullman Strike 1894:  This was a strike that all the workers that worked for Pullman Factories enacted because people started getting laid off and wages were significantly decreased. Living near the factory was not exactly cheap and it was hard to move out of the county so when wages were decreased the rent and cost to live did not which is what caused the rebellion. The U.S. was in full support of this rebellion. o Progressives:  Began as a social movement but then turned into a political movement. Was meant to reject Social Darwinism  Map Locations: o St. Petersburg o Moscow o Poland o Trafalgar o Austerlitz o Jena o Waterloo o Prussia o Austria o Piedmont o Schleswig-Holstein o Sedan


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