Exam 3 study guide
Exam 3 study guide EES 160
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Keturah Hrebicik on Monday March 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EES 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Geoogy for elementary teachers in Geology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 03/28/16
Word Wall Review List for the 3 rdHourly Exam Except for earthquakes, this part of the course has largely dealt with weathering and erosional agents (streams, groundwater, mass wasting and wind). Inasmuch as these agents are involved in the destructive aspects of earth processes, they are integral parts of the rock cycle in which all rocks are recycled again and again via plate tectonics. Remember, every agent will erode, transport and deposit. Lecture 18: Constructive Processes – Earthquakes Know where most earthquakes occur- most earthquakes are concentrated along plate boundaries. Know why earthquakes occur- earthquakes are caused by two plates sliding against each other. Focus (hypocenter)- where the interaction of the two plates takes place deep inside the earth. Epicenter- above the focus. Where the earthquake takes place, but shown on the surface of the earth instead of deep within. P waves, S waves and L waves (know how they occur on a seismogram)- p waves are primary waves. They travel through both solids and liquid. S waves are either shake waves or secondary waves. They will not travel through liquid. L waves are surface waves, they don't travel through anything but just go along the surface of the earth. Seismogram/seismograph- a seismographis a way to study the earthquakes, the intensity and where they are located. A seismogram is the data that comes from the seismograph Be able to identify types of plate boundaries (divergent, convergent, transform)- divergent plate boundaries are those that the plates are moving away from each other. Convergent the plates are moving towards each other and transform the plates are sliding past each other. Subduction zone Tsunamis: how and where they form Know how earthquakes are used to study the earth’s inner structure (crust, mantle, inner and outer core) Lecture 19: Destructive Processes – Weathering and Erosion What is the difference between weathering and erosion- weathering is the breakdown of rocks and minerals through contact with the earth's atmosphere while erosion is caused by movement of stuff like wrong, water, ice and gravity. Mechanical weathering- disintegration of rocks or minerals through direct contact with atmospheric conditions such as great, water, ice, pressure and biological agents. Chemical weathering- decomposition of rocks or minerals resulting in chemical changes through the direct effects of atmospheric or biological chemicals. Lecture 20: Mechanical weathering Know the difference between mechanical and chemical weathering and the difference between disintegration and decay or decomposition- definitions above in lecture 19 Know the difference between joints and faults- joints are fractures in rocks where there has been no movement in the plane of the fracture. Faults are fractures between plates where movement occurs. Influence of joints on weathering- when there are joints other kinds of weathering can occur. Like your and ice wedging Root wedging- roots from a plant can get in the Exfoliation (sheeting)- Mechanical weathering process in which outer rock layers are stripped away, often resulting in dome shaped foundations. Ice wedging (heaving)- When water gets into the cracks and freezes, the joints get spread wider due to the water freezing. Talus cones- A cone-like collection of disintegrated rock material originating from and adjacent to a steeper slope Felsenmeer- a surface covered by block-sized angular rocks usually associated with alpine and subpolar climates and periglaciation Thermal stress- stress in a body or structure due to inequalities of temperature. Salt weathering (haloclasty)- a type of physical weathering caused by the growth of salt crystals. Biological activity- biological activity like plants roots can get in joints in rocks and separate them even further. Importance of physical weathering for increasing surface area- Physical weathering breaks down rocks which creates a larger surface area. Why is increased surface area important?- Surface area of rock create more of an area that chemical weathering can take place. Lecture 21: Chemical Weathering Importance of water in weathering- Polar molecule and releases H+ ions, carries active ions and is abundant. Water as a polar molecule- polar molecules move by capillarity; can get drawn into rocks forms weak bonds with unclassified ions Water as it divides into charged particles (ions) Oxidation (especially relative to Iron)- when iron reacts to oxygen, it rusts. This is called oxidation. Weathering rinds- a discolored, chemically altered, outer zone or layer of a discrete rock fragment formed by the processes of weathering. Carbonation- the mixing of water with carbon dioxide to make carbonic acid. This type of weathering is important in the formation of caves. Dissolved carbon dioxide in rainwater or in moist air forms carbonic acid, and this acid reacts with minerals in rocks. Role of carbon dioxide in weathering- shown above. Dissolution of limestones to form caves- Rainwater picks up carbon dioxide from the air and as it percolates through the soil, which turns into a weak acid. This slowly dissolves out the limestone along the joints, bedding planes and fractures, some of which become enlarged enough to form caves. Hydration (combination of a substance with water)- a form of chemical weathering that involves the rigid attachment of H+ and OH- ions to the atoms and molecules of a mineral. Hydrolysis (attack by water breakdown ions – H ) - the chemical breakdown of a substance when combined with water. The most common example of hydrolysis is feldspar in granite rocks changing to clay. Effects of organic acids Why the differences in weathering between the east (chemical) and the west (physical) Be able to recognize chemically weathered vs physically weathered landscapes- Physically weathered landscapes are more jagged and irregular then chemically weathered landscapes. Spherical weathering and joints- is a form of chemical weathering that affects jointed bedrock and results in the formation of concentric or spherical layers of highly decayed rock within weathered bedrock that is known as saprolite. Differential weathering (why do different substances weather differently)- different rocks weather at different rates because the rocks are made u of different materials that react to the chemicals or physical factors differently How does weathering effect soils- Weathering and erosion will constantly recharge minerals and nutrients that are in the rocks What is a soil?- the upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles. Lecture 22: Stream Erosion Water (hydrologic) cycle (understand how water is recycled through the earth system)the cycle of processes by which water circulates between the earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration. Runoff- the draining away of water (or substances carried in it) from the surface of an area of land, a building or structure, etc. Longitudinal profile (how streams get energy)- Streams get most of their energy from the water moving downhill due to gravity, when it reaches the bottom it still has momentum to move the water forward V-shaped stream valleys- Streams that are in v shaped valleys/ Drainage basin- an extent or an area of land where all surface water from rain, melting snow, or ice converges to a single point at a lower elevation, usually the exit of the basin, where the waters join another body of water, such as a river, lake, reservoir, estuary, wetland, sea, or ocean. How streams erode (Abrasion, hydraulic action or plucking, and solution)- abrasion is the process of scraping or wearing away. Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Types of stream erosion (downcutting, lateral cutting and headward cutting)- Downcutting, also called erosional downcutting, downward erosion or vertical erosion is a geological process that deepens the channel of a stream or valley by removing material from the stream's bed or the valley's floor. Downcutting deepens. And headward lengthens the stream. What streams transport (load)- may transport minerals, sediment and other rocks How they transport their loads (bedload, suspended load, dissolved load)- bedload is the rocks on the bottom of the stream. Suspendd load is the minerals and rocks that can float through the water while dissolved is obviously the stuff dissolved in the water. Stream deposition (flood plains, deltas)- floodplain is an area of low- lying ground adjacent to a river, formed mainly of river sediments and subject to flooding. A delta is a low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river. Alluvium (stream deposits)- a deposit of clay, silt, sand, and gravel left by flowing streams in a river valley or delta, typically producing fertile soil. Stream meanders- While streams moves, they are normally not straight. Over time with the water hitting the sides of the stream, the stream has more curves and bends in it. Hazards associated with living along streams- Water levels may rise and flood your living area. Lecture 23: Groundwater Erosion Groundwater as a part of the hydrologic (water) cycle- subsurface water that moves in the zone of saturation. Groundwater moves through slow percolation- ground water moves through the water cycle by being absorbed Porosity and permeability determine how water is able to move through the ground- Porosity is the quality of being porous, or full of tiny holes. Liquids go right through things that have porosity. Permeability is the state or quality of a material or membrane that causes it to allow liquids or gases to pass through it. Zone of aeration- Zone of Aeration (vadose zone or unsaturated zone) the zone between the land surface and the water table in which the pore spaces between soil and rock particles contain water, air, and/or other gases. Zone of saturation- zone of saturation, is the area in an aquifer, below the water table, in which relatively all pores and fractures are saturated with water. Water table- the level below which the ground is saturated with water. Aquifer vs. aquiclude- Aquifer is a body of permeable rock that can contain or transmit groundwater. Aquilude is a confining area between an aquifer and the surface. Artesian systems (springs and wells that flow on their own without pumping)- A well that flows naturally because the water is confined and under hydrostatic pressure. Confining layers (aquicludes) Groundwater erodes largely through solution Karst regions- Karst topography is a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with sinkholes and caves. Kentucky as a karst region- There are many cave systems in Kentucky. These landforms make Kentucky a karst. Caves as a product of ground-water erosion- chemicals can wear away the limestone that are undergrown. The water eats at the limestone until there is an opening under the ground creating a cave Sink holes- a cavity in the ground, especially in limestone bedrock, caused by water erosion and providing a route for surface water to disappear underground. Sink-hole hazards (collapse, flooding) Groundwater deposition (speleothems)-A secondary mineral deposit in a cave Common speleothems (flow stone, stalactites, stalacmites, columns)- flowstone rock deposited as a thin sheet by precipitation from flowing water. Stalactites a tapering structure hanging like an icicle from the roof of a cave, formed of calcium salts deposited by dripping water. Stalacmites a tapering structure hanging like an icicle from the roof of a cave, formed of calcium salts deposited by dripping water Speleothems are largely composed of calcite Gypsum and calcite (as minerals and speleothems)- gypsum speleothems are crystal-like while calcite is more earthy. Lecture 24: Erosion by Mass Wasting What is mass wasting?- also known as slope movement or mass movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a mass, largely under the force of gravity, but frequently affected by water and water content as in submarine environments and mudflows. Influence of water and gravity- Gravity is a main cause if mass wasting because gravity can pull a rock or other material down that might cause a chain reaction causing a larger volume being carried down. Water is the same principle Rockfall- simply falling rocks Rockslide- an avalanche of rocks Slump- A slump is a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short distance down a slope. Mud/debris flow- a fluid or hardened stream or avalanche of mud. Creep- slow downslope movement of particles that occurs on every slope covered with loose, weathered material. Solifluction- the gradual movement of wet soil or other material down a slope, especially where frozen subsoil acts as a barrier to the percolation of water. Permafrost (location in the world)- a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains frozen throughout the year, occurring chiefly in polar regions. Causes of mast wasting: Slope over-steepening, overloading, excess water, vibrations, change in vegetation Slump scar Drunken forests- trees that aren’t growing straight up, look like they are growing at an angle. Angle of repose=37° Slumping hazards for humans- There are many different hazards for humans. Lecture 25: Wind as an Erosive Agent Where is wind most effective as an erosional agent? (dry, arid regions = deserts) Source of wind energy Convection cells in the earth’s atmosphere Wind deflation- the deflection of a projectile resulting from the effects of wind Wind abrasion- Abrasion is the mechanical scraping of a rock surface by friction between rocks and moving particles during their transport by wind, glacier, waves, gravity, running water or erosion. Desert pavement- a surface layer of closely packed or cemented pebbles, rock fragments, etc., from which fine material has been removed by the wind in arid regions. Deflation hollows- Process where wind erosion creates blowout depressions or deflation hollows by removing and transporting sediment and soil. Deflation Hollow. A surface depression or hollow commonly found in arid and semiarid regions caused by wind erosion. Ventefacts- a stone shaped by the erosive action of windblown sand. Zeuge- a table-shaped area of rock found in arid and semi-arid areas formed when more resistant rock is reduced at a slower rate than softer rocks around it under the effects of wind erosion. Yardang- a ridge of rock in an arid area which is aligned to the prevailing wind direction. Small examples may only be a metre high but larger ones can be dozens of metres above the level of the trenches between them Dust-storm and wind transportation of its load – suspended load, bed load Wind deposits- Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass. Dunes- ridge or mound of sand formed by wind conditions in arid and coastal areas Loess - where loess regions occur, relations with glaciation- a loosely compacted yellowish-gray deposit of windblown sediment of which extensive deposits occur, e.g., in eastern China and the American Midwest. Loess in Kentucky? Reasons for steep loess cliffs Desertification- the process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture. Wind-related hazards for humans- Falls, confined spaces, fires, lockout, electrical machine In addition, to understanding the meaning of the terms and questions noted above, please go back and make sure that you can understand each essential question that begins a module, as well as the questions at the end of Powerpoint section. The questions at the end of each chapter in the book are also a useful way to study. Sample Questions: This marble sculpture of George Washington above is undergoing what type of weathering? a. Physical weathering. b. Chemical weathering. c. Root wedging. d. Freeze and thaw. e. Biological activity. The feature shown in the picture below represents… a. Glacial erosion b. Mass movement c. A cirque d. A u-shaped valley e. A collapsed dune The feature shown in the picture above is called….. a. a mudflow. b. rockfall. c. a rock slide. d. a slump. e. A solifluction lobe. The features in the image below are related to… a. Stream deposition b. Wave deposition c. Glacial deposition d. Mass movement e. Wind deposition The features in the picture above are called what? a. Dunes b. Sand bars c. Deflation hollows d. Beaches e. Moraines In the schematic image above, S waves are shown stopping at the core- mantle boundary. Why? a. L waves block their paths b. P waves will only travel through solids c. S waves will not travel through fluids d. The core is too thick e. The liquid outer core is too dense The weathering rind on this rock shows that exterior parts of the rock have experienced what type of chemical weathering? a. Mechanical weathering b. Carbonation c. Organic acids d. Oxidation e. Hydrolysis In this region from Utah, what major type of weathering has predominated? a. Chemical weathering b. Mechanical weathering c. Oxidation d. Carbonation e. Exfoliation
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